Elis or Eleia is an ancient district that corresponds to the modern regional unit of Elis. Elis is in southern Greece on the Peloponnese, bounded on the north by Achaea, east by Arcadia, south by Messenia, west by the Ionian Sea. Over the course of the archaic and classical periods, the polis "city-state" of Elis controlled much of the region of Elis, most through unequal treaties with other cities. Perioeci, unlike other Spartans, could travel between cities, thus the polis of Elis was formed. Homer mentions; the first Olympic festival was organized in Elian land - Olympia - by the authorities of Elis in the eighth century BC, with tradition dating the first games to 776 BC. The Hellanodikai, the judges of the Games, were of Elian origin; the local form of the name was Valis, or Valeia, its meaning, in all probability was, "the lowland". In its physical constitution Elis is similar to Arcadia. According to Strabo, the first settlement was created by Oxylus the Aetolian who invaded there and subjugated the residents.
The city of Elis underwent synoecism—as Strabo notes—in 471 BC. Elis held authority over the site of the Olympic games; the spirit of the games had influenced the formation of the market: apart from the bouleuterion, the place the boule "citizen's council" met, in one of the gymnasia, most of the other buildings were related to the games, including two gymnasia, a palaestra, the House of the Hellanodikai. As described by Strabo, Elis was divided into three districts: Koilē, or Lowland Elis Pīsâtis Triphylia. Koilē Elis, the largest and most northern of the three, was watered by the river Peneus and its tributary, the Ladon; the district was famous during antiquity for its horses. Pisatis extended south from Koilē Elis to the right bank of the river Alpheios, was divided into eight departments named after as many towns. Triphylia stretched south from the Alpheios to the river Neda. Nowadays Elis is a small village of 150 citizens located 14 kilometres NE of Amaliada, built over the ruins of the ancient town.
It has a museum. It has one of the most well-preserved ancient theaters in Greece. Built in the fourth century BC, the theater had a capacity of 8,000 people. Elis was a traditional ally of Sparta, but the city state joined Argos and Athens in an alliance against Sparta around 420 BC during the Peloponnesian War; this was due to Spartan support for the independence of Lepreum. As punishment following the surrender of Athens, Elis was forced to surrender Triphylia in 399 BC, the territory was permanently ceded to Arcadia in 369 BC. Eric W. Robinson has argued that Elis was a democracy by around 500 BC, on the basis of early inscriptions which suggest that the people could make and change laws. Robinson further believes that literary sources imply that Elis continued to be democratic until 365, when an oligarchic faction seems to have taken control. At some point in the mid-fourth century, democracy may have been restored; the classical democracy at Elis seems to have functioned through a popular Assembly and a Council, the two main institutions of most poleis.
The Council had 500 members, but grew to 600 members by the end of the fifth century. There was a range of public officials such as the demiourgoi who submitted to public audits. Athletes Coroebus of Elis, the first ancient Olympic gold-medalist Troilus of Elis, 4th century BC equestrianIn mythology Salmoneus, Pelops mythological kings of Elis Endymion Sons of Endymion: Epeius Aetolus Paeon Augeas, king of Elis related to the Fifth Labour of Heracles Amphimachus, king of Elis and leader of Eleans in the Trojan War Thalpius, leader of Eleans in the Trojan War Oxylus, king of ElisIntellectuals Alexinus, philosopher Hippias of Elis, Greek sophist Phaedo of Elis, founder of the Elean School Pyrrho, founder of the Pyrrhonist school of philosophy Eleans were labelled as the greatest barbarians barbarotatoi by musician Stratonicus of Athens And when he was once asked by some one who were the wickedest people, he said, "That in Pamphylia, the people of Phaselis were the worst, and when he was asked again, according to the account given by Hegesander, which were the greatest barbarians, the Boeotians or the Thessalians he said, "The Eleans."
In Hesychius and other ancient lexica, Eleans are listed as barbarophones. Indeed, the North-West Doric dialect of Elis is, after the Aeolic dialects, one of the most difficult for the modern reader of epigraphic texts. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Elis". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Elis". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Elis, Philosophical School of". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Map from the Hellenic Ministry of Culture Elis - the c
Durante di Alighiero degli Alighieri known by his name of art Dante Alighieri or as Dante, was an Italian poet during the Late Middle Ages. His Divine Comedy called Comedìa and christened Divina by Giovanni Boccaccio, is considered the most important poem of the Middle Ages and the greatest literary work in the Italian language. In the late Middle Ages, most poetry was written in Latin, making it accessible only to the most educated readers. In De vulgari eloquentia, Dante defended the use of the vernacular in literature, he would write in the Tuscan dialect for works such as The New Life and the Divine Comedy. Dante was instrumental in establishing the literature of Italy, his depictions of Hell and Heaven provided inspiration for the larger body of Western art, he is cited as an influence among many others. In addition, the first use of the interlocking three-line rhyme scheme, or the terza rima, is attributed to him. In Italy, he is referred to as il Sommo Poeta and il Poeta. Dante was born in Republic of Florence, present-day Italy.
The exact date of his birth is unknown, although it is believed to be around 1265. This can be deduced from autobiographic allusions in the Divine Comedy, its first section, the Inferno, begins, "Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita", implying that Dante was around 35 years old, since the average lifespan according to the Bible is 70 years. Some verses of the Paradiso section of the Divine Comedy provide a possible clue that he was born under the sign of Gemini: "As I revolved with the eternal twins, I saw revealed, from hills to river outlets, the threshing-floor that makes us so ferocious". In 1265, the sun was in Gemini between May 11 and June 11. Giovanni Boccaccio described Dante's appearance and demeanor as follows: "the poet was of middle height, in his years he walked somewhat bent over, with a grave and gentle gait, he was clad always in most seemly attire, such as befitted his ripe years. His face was long, his nose aquiline, his eyes big rather than small, his jaws were large, his lower lip protruded.
He had a brown complexion, his hair and beard were thick and curly, his countenance was always melancholy and thoughtful." Dante claimed that his family descended from the ancient Romans, but the earliest relative he could mention by name was Cacciaguida degli Elisei, born no earlier than about 1100. Dante's father, Alighiero or Alighiero di Bellincione, was a White Guelph who suffered no reprisals after the Ghibellines won the Battle of Montaperti in the middle of the 13th century; this suggests that Alighiero or his family may have enjoyed some protective prestige and status, although some suggest that the politically inactive Alighiero was of such low standing that he was not considered worth exiling. Dante's family was loyal to the Guelphs, a political alliance that supported the Papacy and, involved in complex opposition to the Ghibellines, who were backed by the Holy Roman Emperor; the poet's mother was Bella a member of the Abati family. She died when Dante was not yet ten years old, Alighiero soon married again, to Lapa di Chiarissimo Cialuffi.
It is uncertain whether he married her, since widowers were limited in such matters, but this woman bore him two children, Dante's half-brother Francesco and half-sister Tana. When Dante was 12, he was promised in marriage to Gemma di Manetto Donati, daughter of Manetto Donati, member of the powerful Donati family. Contracting marriages at this early age was quite common and involved a formal ceremony, including contracts signed before a notary, but by this time Dante had fallen in love with another, Beatrice Portinari, whom he first met when he was only nine. Years after his marriage to Gemma he claims to have met Beatrice again; the exact date of his marriage is not known: the only certain information is that, before his exile in 1301, he had three children. Dante fought with the Guelph cavalry at the Battle of Campaldino; this victory brought about a reformation of the Florentine constitution. To take any part in public life, one had to enroll in one of the city's many commercial or artisan guilds, so Dante entered the Physicians' and Apothecaries' Guild.
In the following years, his name is recorded as speaking or voting in the various councils of the republic. A substantial portion of minutes from such meetings in the years 1298–1300 was lost, however, so the true extent of Dante's participation in the city's councils is uncertain. Gemma bore Dante several children. Although several others subsequently claimed to be his offspring, it is that only Jacopo, Pietro and Antonia were his actual children. Antonia became a nun, taking the name Sister Beatrice. Not much is known about Dante's education, it is known that he stud
William Smith (lexicographer)
Sir William Smith was an English lexicographer. He made advances in the teaching of Greek and Latin in schools. Smith was born in Enfield in 1813 of Nonconformist parents, he attended the Madras House school of John Allen in Hackney. Destined for a theological career, he instead was articled to a solicitor. In his spare time he taught himself classics, when he entered University College London he carried off both the Greek and Latin prizes, he was entered at Gray's Inn in 1830, but gave up his legal studies for a post at University College School and began to write on classical subjects. Smith next turned his attention to lexicography, his first attempt was A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, which appeared in 1842, the greater part being written by him. Followed the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology in 1849. A parallel Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography appeared in 1857, with some leading scholars of the day associated with the task. In 1867, he became editor of a post he held until his death.
Meanwhile, he published the first of several school dictionaries in 1850, in 1853 he began the Principia series, which marked an advance in the school teaching of Greek and Latin. Came the Student's Manuals of History and Literature, of which the English literature volume went into 13 editions, he himself wrote the Greek history volume. He was joined in the venture by the publisher John Murray when the original publishing partner met difficulties. Murray was the publisher of the 1214-page Latin–English Dictionary based upon the works of Forcellini and Freund that Smith completed in 1855; this was periodically reissued over the next thirty-five years. It goes beyond "classical" Latin to include many entries not found in other dictionaries of the period, including Lewis and Short; the most important of the books Smith edited were those that dealt with ecclesiastical subjects. These were the Dictionary of the Bible; the Atlas, on which Sir George Grove collaborated, appeared in 1875. From 1853 to 1869 Smith was classical examiner to the University of London, on his retirement he became a member of the Senate.
He sat on the Committee to inquire into questions of copyright, was for several years registrar of the Royal Literary Fund. He edited Gibbon, with Guizot's and Milman's notes, in 1854–1855. Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology Smith was created a DCL by Oxford and Dublin, the honour of a knighthood was conferred on him in 1892, he died on 7 October 1893 in London. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Smith, Sir William". Encyclopædia Britannica. 25. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 270–271. Works by William Smith at Project Gutenberg Works by or about William Smith at Internet Archive "Smith, Sir William". A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature. 1910 – via Wikisource. A Short History of Ancient Greece with notes, study links and illustration by Elpenor Online facsimile version of Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology Online facsimile version of Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities
In Greek mythology, the Aloadae or Aloads were Otus or Otos and Ephialtes, sons of Iphimedia, wife of Aloeus, by Poseidon, whom she induced to make her pregnant by going to the seashore and disporting herself in the surf or scooping seawater into her bosom. From Aloeus they received the Aloadae, they were strong and aggressive giants, growing by nine fingers every month nine fathoms tall at age nine, only outshone in beauty by Orion. The brothers wanted to gain Artemis for Otus and Hera for Ephialtes, their plan, or construction, of a pile of mountains atop which they would confront the gods is described differently according to the author, changed by translators. Mount Olympus is said to be on the bottom mountain, with Mounts Ossa and Pelion upon Ossa as second and third, either or vice versa. Homer says they were killed by Apollo before they had any beards, consistent with their being bound to columns in the Underworld by snakes, with the nymph of the Styx in the form of an owl over them. According to another version of their struggle against the Olympians, alluded to so that it must have been familiar to the epic's hearers, they managed to kidnap Ares and hold him in a bronze jar, a storage pithos, for thirteen months, a lunar year.
"And that would have been the end of Ares and his appetite for war, if the beautiful Eriboea, the young giants' stepmother, had not told Hermes what they had done," Dione related. He was only released; this made the pair fought. Artemis jumped between them; the Aloadae, not wanting her to get away, threw their spears and killed each other. The Aloadae were bringers of founding cities and teaching culture to humanity, they were venerated in Naxos and Boeotian Ascra, two cities they founded. Ephialtes is the Greek word for "nightmare", Ephialtes was sometimes considered the daimon of nightmares. In the Inferno of Dante's Divine Comedy Ephialtes is one of four giants placed in the great pit that separates Dis, or the seventh and eighth circles of Hell, from Cocytus, the Ninth Circle, he is chained. Ephialtes and Otis appear in The Mark of Athena as two of the main antagonists. In the book, they are one of the children of Gaea and Tartarus, they are defeated in the Roman Coliseum by their Olympian enemy Bacchus, the demigods Percy Jackson and Jason Grace, sons of Poseidon and Jupiter respectively.
In the novel, the Aloadae kidnap the demigod son of Hades, Nico di Angelo and imprison him in a jar, in the same way they captured Ares centuries earlier, plan to destroy Rome. Next to Orion, they are the smallest Giants to appear in the books, described as only being 12 feet tall. Kerenyi, Karl; the Gods of the Greeks. Pp. 153ff
Flaying known colloquially as skinning, is a method of slow and painful execution in which skin is removed from the body. An attempt is made to keep the removed portion of skin intact. A dead animal may be flayed when preparing it to be used for its hide or fur; this is more called skinning. Flaying of humans is used as a method of torture or execution, depending on how much of the skin is removed; this is referred to as "flaying alive". There are records of people flayed after death as a means of debasing the corpse of a prominent enemy or criminal, sometimes related to religious beliefs. Dermatologist Ernst G. Jung notes that the typical causes of death due to flaying are shock, critical loss of blood or other body fluids, hypothermia, or infections, that the actual death is estimated to occur from a few hours up to a few days after the flaying. Hypothermia is possible, as skin is essential for maintaining a person's body temperature, as it provides a person's natural insulation. Ernst G. Jung, in his "Kleine Kulturgeschichte der Haut", provides an essay in which he outlines the Neo-Assyrian tradition of flaying human beings.
From the times of Ashurnasirpal II, the practice is displayed and commemorated in both carvings and official royal edicts. The carvings show that the actual flaying process might begin at various places on the body, such as at the crus, the thighs, or the buttocks. In their royal edicts, the Neo-Assyrian kings seem to gloat over the terrible fate they imposed upon their captives, that flaying seems, in particular, to be the fate meted out to rebel leaders. Jung provides some examples of this triumphant rhetoric. Here are some from Ashurnasirpal II:I have made a pillar facing the city gate, have flayed all the rebel leaders. I let the leaders of the conquered cities be flayed, clad the city walls with their skins; the captives I have killed by the sword and flung on the dung heap, the little boys and girls were burnt. The Rassam Cylinder, in the British Museum demonstrates this, their corpses they hung on stakes, they stripped off their skins and covered the city wall with them. Searing or cutting the flesh from the body was sometimes used as part of the public execution of traitors in medieval Europe.
A similar mode of execution was used as late as the early 18th century in France. In 1303, the Treasury of Westminster Abbey was robbed while holding a large sum of money belonging to King Edward I. After arrest and interrogation of 48 monks, three of them, including the subprior and sacrist, were found guilty of the robbery and flayed, their skin was attached to three doors as a warning against robbers of State. The Copford church in Essex, may have been found to have human skin attached to a door. In Chinese history, Sun Hao, Fu Sheng and Gao Heng were known for removing skin from people's faces; the Hongwu Emperor flayed many servants and rebels. In 1396 he ordered the flaying of 5000 women. Hai Rui suggested; the Zhengde Emperor flayed six rebels, Zhang Xianzhong flayed many people. Lu Xun said the Ming Dynasty was ended by flaying. One of the plastinated exhibits in Body Worlds includes an entire posthumously flayed skin, many of the other exhibits have had their skin removed. In Greek mythology, Marsyas, a satyr, was flayed alive for daring to challenge Apollo to a musical contest, which he lost.
According to Greek mythology, Aloeus is said to have had his wife flayed. In Aztec mythology, Xipe Totec is the flayed god of rebirth. Captured enemy warriors were flayed annually as sacrifices to him. Yahu-Bihdi, ruler of Hamath, was flayed alive by the Assyrians under Sargon II. According to Herodotus, Sisamnes, a corrupt judge under Cambyses II of Persia, was flayed for accepting a bribe; the Talmud discusses. Catholic and Orthodox tradition holds. Mani, founding prophet of Manichaeism, was said to have been beheaded. In March 415, Hypatia of Alexandria, a Neoplatonist philosopher, was murdered by a Christian mob of Nitrian monks who accused her of paganism, they stripped her naked, skinned her with ostraca, burned her remains. Totila is said to have ordered the bishop of Perugia, Herculanus, to be flayed when he captured that city in 549. In 991 AD, during a Viking raid in England, a Danish Viking is said to have been flayed by London locals for ransacking a church. Alleged human skin found on a local church door has, for many years, been considered as proof for this legend, but a deeper analysis made during the production of the 2001 BBC documentary, Blood of the Vikings, came to the conclusion that the preserved skin came from a cow hide and was part of a 19th-century hoax.
Pierre Basile was flayed alive and all defenders of the chateau hanged on 6 April 1199, by order of the mercenary leader Mercadier, for shooting and killing King Richard I of England with a crossbow at the siege of Châlus, in March 1199. In 1314, the brothers Aunay, who were lovers of the daughters-in-law of king Philip IV of France, were flayed alive castrated and beheaded, their bodies were exposed on a gibbet; the extreme severity of their punishment was due to the lèse majesté nature of the crime. In 1404 or 1417, the Hurufi Imad ud-Din Nes
In Greek mythology, Canace was a daughter of Aeolus and Enarete, lover of Poseidon. Her brothers were Athamas, Deioneus, Perieres and Sisyphus, her sisters were Alcyone, Calyce, Peisidice and Tanagra. With Poseidon, she was the mother of Aloeus, Hopleus and Triopas. In another, more famous version Canace was a lover not of Poseidon, but of her own brother Macareus; this tradition made them children of a different Aeolus, the lord of the winds, his wife Amphithea. Canace fell in love with Macareus and committed incest with him, which resulted in her getting pregnant. Macareus promised to marry Canace but never did; when their child was born, Canace's nurse tried to take the baby out of the palace in a basket, pretending to be carrying a sacrificial offering, but the baby cried out and revealed itself. Aeolus was outraged and compelled Canace to commit suicide as punishment, sending her a sword with which she was to stab herself, he exposed the newborn child to its death. This story was told by Latin poet Ovid in the Heroides, a selection of eighteen story-poems that pretend to be letters from mythological women to their lovers and ex-lovers.
The story is briefly referred to by Hyginus and retold by Pseudo-Plutarch, in whose account Macareus kills himself over the matter as well. It was the subject of Euripides' lost play Aeolus, on which the extant versions appear to be based. In the myth of Arachne, told in Ovid's Metamorphoses, Arachne depicts Poseidon seducing Canace as a bull in her tapestry of the male gods and their various love affairs, her story was put to the stage in the verse tragedy Canace, by Italian playwright Sperone Speroni, as well as being the subject of a tale in Gower's Confessio Amantis. She gave her name to the heroine of Geoffrey Chaucer's Squire's Tale. Callimachus, Hymns translated by Alexander William Mair. London: William Heinemann. P. Putnam's Sons. 1921. Online version at the Topos Text Project. Callimachus, Works. A. W. Mair. London: William Heinemann. P. Putnam's Sons. 1921. Greek text available at the Perseus Digital Library. Hesiod, Catalogue of Women from Homeric Hymns, Epic Cycle, Homerica translated by Evelyn-White, H G. Loeb Classical Library Volume 57.
London: William Heinemann, 1914. Online version at theio.com Hyginus, Fabulae from The Myths of Hyginus translated and edited by Mary Grant. University of Kansas Publications in Humanistic Studies. Online version at the Topos Text Project. Plutarch, Moralia with an English Translation by Frank Cole Babbitt. Cambridge, MA. Harvard University Press. London. William Heinemann Ltd. 1936. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Greek text available from the same website. Pseudo-Apollodorus, The Library with an English Translation by Sir James George Frazer, F. B. A. F. R. S. in 2 Volumes, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Greek text available from the same website. Publius Ovidius Naso, The Epistles of Ovid. London. J. Nunn, Great-Queen-Street. 1813. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library
Pausanias was a Greek traveler and geographer of the second-century AD, who lived in the time of Roman emperors Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius. He is famous for his Description of Greece, a lengthy work that describes ancient Greece from his first-hand observations; this work provides crucial information for making links between classical literature and modern archaeology. Andrew Stewart assesses him as: A careful, pedestrian writer...interested not only in the grandiose or the exquisite but in unusual sights and obscure ritual. He is careless or makes unwarranted inferences, his guides or his own notes sometimes mislead him, yet his honesty is unquestionable, his value without par. Pausanias was born in 110 AD into a Greek family and was a native of Lydia. Before visiting Greece, he had been to Antioch and Jerusalem, to the banks of the River Jordan. In Egypt, he had seen the pyramids. While at the temple of Ammon, he had been shown the hymn once sent to that shrine by Pindar. In Macedonia, he appears to have seen.
Crossing over to Italy, he had seen something of the wonders of Rome. He was one of the first known to write of seeing the ruins of Troy, Alexandria Troas, Mycenae. Pausanias' Description of Greece is in each dedicated to some portion of Greece, he begins his tour in Attica, where the city of its demes dominate the discussion. Subsequent books describe Corinthia, Messenia, Achaea, Boetia and Ozolian Locris; the project is more than topographical. Pausanias digresses from the description of architectural and artistic objects to review the mythological and historical underpinnings of the society that produced them; as a Greek writing under the auspices of the Roman empire, he was in an awkward cultural space, between the glories of the Greek past he was so keen to describe and the realities of a Greece beholden to Rome as a dominating imperial force. His work bears the marks of his attempt to navigate that space and establish an identity for Roman Greece, he is not a naturalist by any means, although from time to time, he does comment on the physical realities of the Greek landscape.
He notices the pine trees on the sandy coast of Elis, the deer and the wild boars in the oak woods of Phelloe, the crows amid the giant oak trees of Alalcomenae. It is in the last section that Pausanias touches on the products of nature, such as the wild strawberries of Helicon, the date palms of Aulis, the olive oil of Tithorea, as well as the tortoises of Arcadia and the "white blackbirds" of Cyllene. Pausanias is most of Delphi, yet in the most secluded regions of Greece, he is fascinated by all kinds of depictions of deities, holy relics, many other sacred and mysterious objects. At Thebes he views the shields of those who died at the Battle of Leuctra, the ruins of the house of Pindar, the statues of Hesiod, Arion and Orpheus in the grove of the Muses on Helicon, as well as the portraits of Corinna at Tanagra and of Polybius in the cities of Arcadia. Pausanias has the instincts of an antiquary; as his modern editor, Christian Habicht, has said, In general, he prefers the old to the new, the sacred to the profane.
Some magnificent and dominating structures, such as the Stoa of King Attalus in the Athenian Agora or the Exedra of Herodes Atticus at Olympia are not mentioned. Unlike a Baedeker guide, in Periegesis Pausanias stops for a brief excursus on a point of ancient ritual or to tell an apposite myth, in a genre that would not become popular again until the early nineteenth century. In the topographical part of his work, Pausanias is fond of digressions on the wonders of nature, the signs that herald the approach of an earthquake, the phenomena of the tides, the ice-bound seas of the north, the noonday sun that at the summer solstice, casts no shadow at Syene. While he never doubts the existence of the deities and heroes, he sometimes criticizes the myths and legends relating to them, his descriptions of monuments of art are unadorned. They bear the impression of reality, their accuracy is confirmed by the extant remains, he is frank in his confessions of ignorance. When he quotes a book at second hand he takes pains to say so.
The work left faint traces in the known Greek corpus. "It was not read", Habicht relates. The only manuscripts of Pausanias are three fifteenth-century copies, full of errors and lacunae, which all appear to depend on a single manuscript that survived to be copied. Niccolò Niccoli had this archetype in Florence in 1418. At his death in 1437, it went to the library of San Marco, Florence it disappeared after 1500; until twentieth-century archaeologists concluded that Pausanias was a reliable guide to the sites they were excavating, Pausanias was la