Government of Austria
The Government of Austria is the executive cabinet of the Republic of Austria. It is composed of the Chancellor, head of government, the Vice-Chancellor, the ministers. Since the 1929 reform of the Austrian Constitution, all members of the Federal Government are appointed by the Austrian Federal President; as the Federal Government must maintain the confidence of parliament, the President must abide by the will of that body in his or her appointments. In practice, the leader of the strongest political party, who ran as a "chancellor candidate" in a parliamentary election, is asked to become Federal Chancellor, though there have been some exceptions. Ministers are proposed for nomination by the Chancellor, though the President is permitted to withhold his or her approval; the President may dismiss the Chancellor and/or the whole government at any time. If this occurs, a new government must be formed by the parties that control parliament; the government is convened for scheduled meetings. When formally convened as such, the government is termed the Council of Ministers, equivalent to the word "cabinet".
The Chancellor presides over cabinet meetings as first among equals without decisional authority, regardless of his right of proposal concerning the appointment of the government's members by the President. The cabinet adopts resolutions in the presence of at least half of its members and, according to the ruling of the Austrian Constitutional Court, unanimously – in particular the introduction of bills to the National Council; each federal minister is responsible for his or her own ministry, may be supported by one or more state secretaries, who participate in the cabinet's meetings. State secretaries are not considered members of the government, have no right to vote during cabinet meetings; the current government of Austria is a coalition government formed by the center-right Austrian People's Party and the far-right Freedom Party of Austria. It was appointed on 18 December 2017 by President Alexander Van der Bellen. After the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, on 30 October 1918 the provisional national assembly of German Austria elected a State Council executive, which itself appointed a state government with the Social Democratic politician Karl Renner as head of the State Chancellery.
The Renner ministry was composed of representatives of the three main political parties—Social Democrats, the Christian Social Party and German Nationalists —according to the Proporz doctrine. As acting executive body it remained in office until the Constitutional Assembly of the Austrian First Republic on 15 March 1919 elected Renner's second cabinet, a coalition government of Social Democratic and Christian Social ministers. State Chancellor Renner had signed the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, whereafter his cabinet retired en bloc. Re-elected by the Constitutional Assembly on 17 October 1919, his third cabinet was overturned with the break-up of the SPÖ-CS coalition on 7 July 1920. Renner was succeeded by the Christian Social politician Michael Mayr, who at the commencement of the Austria Constitution on 10 November 1920 became first Federal Chancellor of Austria. Mayr and his successors proceeded with the support of the Christian Social Party and the Greater German nationalists, while the Social Democrats remained in opposition.
From 5 March 1933 onwards, the Christian Social chancellor Engelbert Dollfuß continued to rule by suppressing the National Council parliament. In the course of the Austrian Civil War he brought down the opposition, on 1 May 1934 implemented the authoritarian Federal State of Austria. All political parties were banned, except for the Fatherland's Front supporting Dollfuß' Austrofascist government; the Federal Government ceased at the Anschluss on 13 March 1938. On 27 April 1945 a provisional Austrian national unity government, again under State Chancellor Karl Renner, declared the Anschluss null and void, it prepared the elections to the Austrian National Council held on 25 November. On 20 December 1945, the Austrian Constitution was re-enacted, with ÖVP founder Leopold Figl forming the first post-war Federal Government. List of cabinets since 1945: Austrian Federal Government
Claudia Schmied is an Austrian politician, a member of the Social Democratic Party of Austria. She attended elementary school and secondary school there. Schmied went on to study business administration at the Vienna University of Business, she worked at the Investkredit Bank AG from 1983 to 1997. From 1997 to 1999, she was a policy advisor to the German Minister of Finance Rudolf Edlinger. From 2000 to 2004, she was head of the finance department at Investkredit Bank AG, she served on the board of Kommunalkredit Austria from 2004 to 2007 and on the board of Dexia Kommunalkredit Bank AG from 2005 to 2007. She was a lecturer at the Vienna University of Economics and Business. Schmied was Minister of Education, the Arts and Cultural Affairs from 2007 to 2013, serving in the Gusenbauer government and the first Faymann government. At the end of September 2013, she announced her decision to leave politics
Perg is a city in the Austrian state of Upper Austria, capital of the district of the same name. In the eastern part of the Duchy of Bavaria, Perg belonged to Austria from the 12th century on. In 1269 it received commercial privileges from King Ottokar II of Bohemia, from 1490 it was part of the Principality of Austria on the Ems. Autonomous from 1542, it was occupied several times during the Napoleonic Wars. Einhorn, a large unicorn sculpture inspired to the city's coat of arms. Seifensiederhaus, built in 1563; the Late Baroque Kalvarienbergkirche Pranger, a column in the main square of the city, built in 1587. Steinbrecherhaus, a little house in old quarries of Perg with original furnishing, built in 1802
Maria Theresia Fekter is an Austrian politician and was the Austrian Minister of Finance between 2011 and 2013. Before that, she was Minister of the Interior. On 27 June 2008, it was announced by her party that she was to be appointed as the new Interior Minister in the Gusenbauer cabinet, following Günther Platter, who became the new Governor of Tyrol. During her career as Interior Minister, she became known as a hardliner when it came to immigration and asylum policies, earning her the unofficial title of an Austrian "Iron Lady"; because her family made a fortune producing gravel Fekter is referred to as "Schottermitzi". Doctor of Law, Johannes Kepler University Linz Magistra rerum socialium oeconomicarumque, Johannes Kepler University Linz Engagement in her parents' gravel pit and carrying business, managing partner Municipal councillor in Attnang-Puchheim Member of the executive committee of the Österreichischer Wirtschaftsbund State Secretary in the Ministry of Economic Affairs Member of the National Council Ombudsman Federal Minister of the Interior Minister of Finance Salzburg Festival, Member of the Board of Trustees African Development Bank, Member of the Board of Governors
National Council (Austria)
The National Council is one of the two houses of the Austrian Parliament and is referred to as the lower house. The constitution endows the National Council far more power than the Federal Council; the National Council is. Bills passed by the National Council are sent to the Federal Council for corroboration. If the Federal Council approves of the bill or does nothing for eight weeks, the bill has succeeded. If the Federal Council vetoes the bill, the National Council may still force it into law by just passing it again. In other words, the Federal Council does not have any real power to prevent adoption of legislation, the National Council being trivially able to override it. There are three exceptions to this rule: Constitutional laws or regulations limiting the competencies of the federal states Laws relating to the rights of the Federal Council itself Treaties concerning the jurisdiction of the federal states; the approval of the National Council is required for most of the prerogatives of the Federal Assembly to be exercised.
For example, motions to call for a referendum aimed at having the President removed from office by the electorate, motions to declare war all need a two-thirds majority in the National Council. Only motions to impeach the President can be from the Federal Council; the 183 members of the National Council are elected by nationwide popular vote for a term of five years. National Council elections are general elections; the voting system aims at party-list proportional representation and uses open lists: For the purpose of National Council elections, the nine states of Austria constitute regional electoral districts. The nine regional electoral districts are subdivided into a total of 43 local electoral districts. Political parties submit separate ranked lists of candidates for each district, regional or local, in which they have chosen to run, they submit a federal-level list. Votes cast are first counted within their local electoral districts. Since there are 43 local districts but 183 seats to fill, most local districts are multi-member districts.
The number of seats assigned to each local district is based on electoral district population, as established by the most recent census. The number of votes required to win one seat is the number of votes divided by the number of seats assigned to the district in question. For example, if 150,000 votes are cast in a five-seat local district, it takes 30,000 votes to win one seat. If a party has scored 61,000 votes out of the 150,000 votes cast, it is entitled to two seats, to be taken by the first two candidates on the party's local district list. Since 60,000 votes would have been sufficient to win two seats, 1000 votes are left unaccounted for by this first round of tallying. Any vote not accounted for on the local level is dealt with on the regional level, provided that the party it has been cast for has obtained at least four percent of the regional total vote; the system is analogous to that used on the district level. Any vote not accounted for on the regional level either is dealt with on the federal level, provided that the party it has been cast for has obtained at least four percent of the federal total vote.
The D'Hondt method is used to allocate any National Council seats remaining to be filled. In addition to voting for a party list, voters may express preference for one individual candidate. A candidate receiving sufficiently many personal votes can rise in rank on his or her district party list, it is not possible, however, to vote for party X but exert influence on the candidate rankings on the party list of party Y. Austria's federal constitution defines Austria to be a semi-presidential democracy: the executive branch of government is supposed to be headed by the President, but is answerable to the National Council. In practice, nearly all of the day-to-day work of governing is left to the Chancellor and Cabinet, which are dependent on the confidence of the National Council; the President has the theoretical right to name anyone eligible to serve in the National Council as a minister or Chancellor. However, the National Council's right to sack a minister or the entire cabinet makes it all but impossible for Presidents to appoint a government of their own choosing or keep it in office against the will of the National Council.
While the President has the theoretical authority to dissolve a hostile National Council, constitutional convention prevents this power from being exercised. Austria accordingly functions as a parliamentary democracy: for all intents and purposes, the cabinet is subject to approval by the National Council and is responsible to it, with the president being little more than a figurehead. A related discrepancy between Austrian constitutional theory and Austrian political practice is that the constitution defines the President of the National Council to be Austria's second highest public official, junior only to the president proper; as a practical matter, the President of the National Council is
Werner Faymann is a former Austrian politician, Chancellor of Austria and chairman of the Social Democratic Party of Austria from 2008 to 2016. On 9 May 2016, Faymann resigned from both positions amid widening criticism within his party. Werner Faymann was born in Vienna and attended grammar school there. After graduating from grammar school he enrolled at the University of Vienna. In 1981, Faymann became provincial chairman of the Socialist Youth Vienna. From 1985 to 1988 Faymann was a consultant to the bank Zentralsparkasse der Gemeinde Wien; the bank at the time was linked to the municipal government dominated by the Social Democrats. He left the bank to become director and provincial chairman of the Viennese Tenants' counselling. Subsequently, Faymann became a member of the Viennese state parliament and municipal council, where he held various positions concerning housing construction and urban renewal. Faymann was Minister for Transport and Technology in the Cabinet of Chancellor Alfred Gusenbauer.
Moreover, Gusenbauer appointed him as coalition co-ordinator. Soon Faymann was seen as the successor of Gusenbauer, he never challenged Gusenbauer but the chancellor faced an internal party rebellion in June 2008 and voluntarily relinquished the party leadership. On 16 June 2008 Faymann succeeded Gusenbauer as chairman of the Social Democratic Party of Austria and led the party in the snap legislative elections, held on 28 September 2008; the election was famously preceded by Faymann and Gusenbauer announcing a shift in the party's position towards the signing of new EU treaties, which they did by writing an open letter to Hans Dichand, the editor of the yellow press medium Kronen Zeitung. At the time, the Kronen Zeitung was the largest newspaper in the country; the letter caused a scandal within the party, as no party committee had been involved in deciding the shift. The pro-EU Austrian People's Party cancelled the existing coalition. Faymann was known for his good relationship to Dichand, who would support him in the following election campaign.
Although the SPÖ lost 11 seats, had a 6% swing against it, they came out ahead of their main rivals Austrian People's Party in regard to seats as well as to share of the vote. Afterwards, Faymann renewed the coalition with the Austrian People's Party, as he had announced before the election; as head of the largest party in the National Council of Austria, Faymann was asked by Federal President Heinz Fischer on 8 October 2008 to form a new government. A coalition between the SPÖ and the ÖVP was agreed upon on 23 November 2008 and was sworn in on 2 December 2008. In 2012, Austria's government curbed the remit of a parliamentary investigation into high-level corruption and ensured Faymann was not called to testify. In 2013, public prosecutors were looking into whether Faymann and a top aide, Josef Ostermayer, had swayed the ÖBB state railways and ASFiNAG motorway agency to place advertisements promoting him in newspapers during his tenure as infrastructure minister. Both had denied any wrongdoing in the breach of trust case, which the opposition Freedom Party had asked prosecutors to investigate.
By November 2013, Austrian authorities dropped their investigation. On 9 May 2016, Faymann resigned as Chancellor and party leader, after losing confidence from a considerable number of party members, despite retaining confidence from a majority of them, his party's candidate and the candidate from its coalition partner, the People's Party, were both eliminated in the first round of the presidential elections held on 24 April 2016, resulting in a run-off between Norbert Hofer of the right-wing populist Freedom Party of Austria and Alexander Van der Bellen, an independent endorsed by The Greens. Hofer announced that as President he could dissolve the National Council in order to hold elections, which would at the time have led to a win of the populists and thereby forced Faymann to resign. During his tenure, Faymann is said to have moved his once solidly pro-European party toward a more EU-sceptic course, he has kept his distance from the far-right parties. In domestic affairs, Faymann's administration was notable in enacting a wide range of reforms in areas such as education and social security.
Faymann sided with German Chancellor Angela Merkel in supporting the thousands of refugees fleeing wars in countries such as Syria and seeking asylum in Europe. Austria took in around 90,000 asylum seekers in 2015, at the time more than 1 percent of its population, but with support for his policies falling and the country’s institutions straining to cope with hundreds of thousands of arrivals in Austria, he criticized what he called Merkel's "wait-and-see" approach to tackling Europe's economic problems and demanded a more aggressive push to combat unemployment in Europe. Measures to halt immigration inflows along the so-called “Balkan route” subsequently strained relations between the two countries; the reversal angered parts of the Social Democrats but failed stop Norbert Hofer, a right-wing politician, taking more than 35 per cent of vote in the first round of the 2016 presidential election—the highest vote the party had secured in a national poll at the time. In August 2016, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appointed Faymann as the United Nations' Special Envoy on Youth Unemployment.
In this capacity, he works with Ahmad Alhendawi, the Secretary-General’s Envoy on Youth. In September 2016, Faymann and his former spokesperson Matthias Euler-Rolle founded their own c
Allerheiligen im Mühlkreis
Allerheiligen im Mühlkreis is a municipality in the district of Perg in the Austrian state of Upper Austria