Food and Agriculture Organization
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger. Serving both developed and developing countries, FAO acts as a neutral forum where all nations meet as equals to negotiate arguments and debate policy. FAO is a source of knowledge and information, helps developing countries in transition modernize and improve agriculture and fisheries practices, ensuring good nutrition and food security for all, its Latin motto, fiat panis, translates as "let there be bread". As of August 2018, The FAO has 197 member states, including the European Union and The Cook Islands, the Faroe Islands and Tokelau, which are associate members; the idea of an international organization for food and agriculture emerged in the late 19th and early 20th century advanced by the US agriculturalist and activist David Lubin. In May–June 1905, an international conference was held in Rome, which led to the creation of the International Institute of Agriculture by the King of Italy Victor Emmanuel III.
In 1943, the United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt called a United Nations Conference on Food and Agriculture. Representatives from forty-four governments gathered at The Homestead Resort in Hot Springs, Virginia, US, from 18 May to 3 June, they committed themselves to founding a permanent organization for food and agriculture, which happened in Quebec City, Canada, on 16 October 1945 with the conclusion of the Constitution of the Food and Agriculture Organization. The First Session of the FAO Conference was held in the Château Frontenac in Quebec City from 16 October to 1 November 1945. World War II ended the International Agricultural Institute, though it was only dissolved by resolution of its Permanent Committee on 27 February 1948, its functions were transferred to the established FAO. From the late 1940s on, FAO attempted to make its mark within the emerging UN system, focusing on supporting agricultural and nutrition research and providing technical assistance to member countries to boost production in agriculture and forestry.
During the 1950s and 1960s, FAO partnered with many different international organizations in development projects. In 1951, FAO's headquarters were moved from DC, United States, to Rome, Italy; the agency is directed by the Conference of Member Nations, which meets every two years to review the work carried out by the organization and to Work and Budget for the next two-year period. The Conference elects a council of 49 member states that acts as an interim governing body, the Director-General, that heads the agency. FAO is composed of eight departments: Agriculture and Consumer Protection, Biodiversity and Water Department and Social Development and Aquaculture, Corporate Services and Technical Cooperation and Programme Management. Beginning in 1994, FAO underwent the most significant restructuring since its founding, to decentralize operations, streamline procedures and reduce costs; as a result, savings of about US$50 million, €35 million a year were realized. FAO's Regular Programme budget is funded by its members, through contributions set at the FAO Conference.
This budget covers core technical work and partnerships including the Technical Cooperation Programme, knowledge exchange and advocacy, direction and administration and security. The total FAO Budget planned for 2016–2017 is USD 2.6 billion. The voluntary contributions provided by members and other partners support mechanical and emergency assistance to governments for defined purposes linked to the results framework, as well as direct support to FAO's core work; the voluntary contributions are expected to reach US$1.6 billion in 2016–2017. This overall budget covers core technical work and partnerships, leading to Food and Agriculture Outcomes at 71 per cent; the world headquarters are located in Rome, in the former seat of the Department of Italian East Africa. One of the most notable features of the building was the Axum Obelisk which stood in front of the agency seat, although just outside the territory allocated to FAO by the Italian Government, it was taken from Ethiopia by Benito Mussolini's troops in 1937 as a war chest, returned on 18 April 2005.
Regional Office for Africa, in Accra, Ghana Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, in Bangkok, Thailand Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia, in Budapest, Hungary Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean, in Santiago, Chile Regional Office for the Near East, in Cairo, Egypt Sub-regional Office for Central Africa, in Libreville, Gabon Sub-regional Office for Central Asia, in Ankara, Turkey Sub-regional Office for Eastern Africa, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Sub-regional Office for Mesoamerica, in Panama City, Panama Sub-regional Office for North Africa, in Tunis, Tunisia Sub-regional Office for Southern Africa and East Africa, in Harare, Zimbabwe Sub-regional Office for the Caribbean, in Bridgetown, Barbados Sub-regional Office for the Gulf Cooperation Council States and Yemen, Abu Dhabi Sub-regional Office for the Pacific Islands, in Apia, Samoa Liaison Office for North America, in Washington, DC Liaison Office with J
Gudusia is a clupeid fish genus involving two species of shad in the rivers of South and Southeast Asia: Gudusia chapra Gudusia variegata Froese and Daniel Pauly, eds.. Species of Gudusia in FishBase. June 2011 version
Herring are forage fish belonging to the family Clupeidae. Herring move in large schools around fishing banks and near the coast; the most abundant and commercially important species belong to the genus Clupea, found in shallow, temperate waters of the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans, including the Baltic Sea, as well as off the west coast of South America. Three species of Clupea are recognised, provide about 90% of all herrings captured in fisheries. Most abundant of all is the Atlantic herring. Fishes called herring are found in the Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal. Herring played a pivotal role in the history of marine fisheries in Europe, early in the 20th century, their study was fundamental to the evolution of fisheries science; these oily fish have a long history as an important food fish, are salted, smoked, or pickled. A number of different species, most belonging to the family Clupeidae, are referred to as herrings; the origins of the term "herring" is somewhat unclear, though it may derive from the Old High German heri meaning a "host, multitude", in reference to the large schools they form.
The type genus of the herring family Clupeidae is Clupea. Clupea contains three species: the Atlantic herring found in the north Atlantic, the Pacific herring found in the north Pacific, the Araucanian herring found off the coast of Chile. Subspecific divisions have been suggested for both the Atlantic and Pacific herrings, but their biological basis remains unclear. In addition, a number of related species, all in the Clupeidae, are referred to as herrings; the table below includes those members of the family Clupeidae referred to by FishBase as herrings which have been assessed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. A number of other species are called herrings, which may be related to clupeids or just share some characteristics of herrings. Just which of these species are called herrings can vary with locality, so what might be called a herring in one locality might be called something else in another locality; some examples: The species of Clupea belong to the larger family Clupeidae, which comprises some 200 species that share similar features.
These silvery-coloured fish have a single dorsal fin, soft, without spines. They have a protruding lower jaw, their size varies between subspecies: the Baltic herring is small, 14 to 18 cm. At least one stock of Atlantic herring spawns in every month of the year; each spawns at place. Greenland populations spawn in 0–5 m of water, while North Sea herrings spawn at down to 200 m in autumn. Eggs are laid on the sea bed, on rock, gravel, sand or beds of algae. Females may deposit from 20,000 to 40,000 eggs, according to age and size, averaging about 30,000. In sexually mature herring, the genital organs grow before spawning, reaching about one-fifth of its total weight; the eggs sink to the bottom, where they stick in layers or clumps to gravel, seaweed, or stones, by means of their mucous coating, or to any other objects on which they chance to settle. If the egg layers are too thick they suffer from oxygen depletion and die, entangled in a maze of mucus, they need substantial water microturbulence provided by wave action or coastal currents.
Survival is highest in crevices and behind solid structures, because predators feast on exposed eggs. The individual eggs are 1 to 1.4 mm in diameter, depending on the size of the parent fish and on the local race. Incubation time is about 40 days at 3 °C, 15 days at 7 °C, or 11 days at 10 °C. Eggs die at temperatures above 19 °C; the larvae are 5 to 6 mm long at hatching, with a small yolk sac, absorbed by the time the larvae reach 10 mm. Only the eyes are well pigmented; the rest of the body is nearly transparent invisible under water and in natural lighting conditions. The dorsal fin forms at 15 to 17 mm, the anal fin at about 30 mm —the ventral fins are visible and the tail becomes well forked at 30 to 35 mm — at about 40 mm, the larva begins to look like a herring; the larvae are slender and can be distinguished from all other young fish of their range by the location of the vent, which lies close to the base of the tail, but distinguishing clupeoids one from another in their early stages requires critical examination telling herring from sprats.
At one year, they are about 10 cm long, they first spawn at three years. Herrings consume copepods, arrow worms, pelagic amphipods and krill in the pelagic zone. Conversely, they are a central prey forage fish for higher trophic levels; the reasons for this success is still enigmatic. Herring feed on phytoplankton, as they mature, they start to consume larger organisms, they feed on zooplankton, tiny animals found in oceanic surface waters, small fish and fish larvae. Copepods and other tiny crustaceans are the most common zooplankton eaten by herring. During daylight, herring stay in the safety of deep water, feeding at the surface only at night when the chance of being seen by predators is less, they swim along with their mouths open, fi
A chordate is an animal constituting the phylum Chordata. During some period of their life cycle, chordates possess a notochord, a dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, a post-anal tail: these five anatomical features define this phylum. Chordates are bilaterally symmetric; the Chordata and Ambulacraria together form the superphylum Deuterostomia. Chordates are divided into three subphyla: Vertebrata. There are extinct taxa such as the Vetulicolia. Hemichordata has been presented as a fourth chordate subphylum, but now is treated as a separate phylum: hemichordates and Echinodermata form the Ambulacraria, the sister phylum of the Chordates. Of the more than 65,000 living species of chordates, about half are bony fish that are members of the superclass Osteichthyes. Chordate fossils have been found from as early as the Cambrian explosion, 541 million years ago. Cladistically, vertebrates - chordates with the notochord replaced by a vertebral column during development - are considered to be a subgroup of the clade Craniata, which consists of chordates with a skull.
The Craniata and Tunicata compose the clade Olfactores. Chordates form a phylum of animals that are defined by having at some stage in their lives all of the following anatomical features: A notochord, a stiff rod of cartilage that extends along the inside of the body. Among the vertebrate sub-group of chordates the notochord develops into the spine, in wholly aquatic species this helps the animal to swim by flexing its tail. A dorsal neural tube. In fish and other vertebrates, this develops into the spinal cord, the main communications trunk of the nervous system. Pharyngeal slits; the pharynx is the part of the throat behind the mouth. In fish, the slits are modified to form gills, but in some other chordates they are part of a filter-feeding system that extracts particles of food from the water in which the animals live. Post-anal tail. A muscular tail that extends backwards behind the anus. An endostyle; this is a groove in the ventral wall of the pharynx. In filter-feeding species it produces mucus to gather food particles, which helps in transporting food to the esophagus.
It stores iodine, may be a precursor of the vertebrate thyroid gland. There are soft constraints that separate chordates from certain other biological lineages, but are not part of the formal definition: All chordates are deuterostomes; this means. All chordates are based on a bilateral body plan. All chordates are coelomates, have a fluid filled body cavity called a coelom with a complete lining called peritoneum derived from mesoderm; the following schema is from the third edition of Vertebrate Palaeontology. The invertebrate chordate classes are from Fishes of the World. While it is structured so as to reflect evolutionary relationships, it retains the traditional ranks used in Linnaean taxonomy. Phylum Chordata †Vetulicolia? Subphylum Cephalochordata – Class Leptocardii Clade Olfactores Subphylum Tunicata – Class Ascidiacea Class Thaliacea Class Appendicularia Class Sorberacea Subphylum Vertebrata Infraphylum incertae sedis Cyclostomata Superclass'Agnatha' paraphyletic Class Myxini Class Petromyzontida or Hyperoartia Class †Conodonta Class †Myllokunmingiida Class †Pteraspidomorphi Class †Thelodonti Class †Anaspida Class †Cephalaspidomorphi Infraphylum Gnathostomata Class †Placodermi Class Chondrichthyes Class †Acanthodii Superclass Osteichthyes Class Actinopterygii Class Sarcopterygii Superclass Tetrapoda Class Amphibia Class Sauropsida Class Synapsida Craniates, one of the three subdivisions of chordates, all have distinct skulls.
They include the hagfish. Michael J. Benton commented that "craniates are characterized by their heads, just as chordates, or all deuterostomes, are by their tails". Most craniates are vertebrates; these consist of a series of bony or cartilaginous cylindrical vertebrae with neural arches that protect the spinal cord, with projections that link the vertebrae. However hagfish have incomplete braincases and no vertebrae, are therefore not regarded as vertebrates, but as members of the craniates, the group from which vertebrates are thought to have evolved; however the cladistic exclusion of hagfish from the vertebrates is controversial, as they ma
Tenualosa ilisha is a species of fish related to the herring, in the Clupeidae family. It is a popular and sought-after food fish in the Indian Subcontinent, it is Bangladesh's national fish. The fish contributes about 1.15 % of GDP in Bangladesh. On 6 August 2017, Department of Patents and Trademarks under the Ministry of Industries of Bangladesh has declared the recognition of ilish as the product of Bangladesh. Sixty-five percent of total produced ilish in the world is produced in Bangladesh which applied for Geographical Indication in 2004. About 450,000 people are directly involved in the catching of the fish as a large part of their livelihood. Other names include: ilish, palla fish, ilih etc.. The name ilish is used in India's Assamese, Bengali-and Odia community. In Iraq it is Called Sboor. In Malaysia and Indonesia, it is known as terubuk. Due to its unique features of being oily and tender, some Malays call it'terubuk unno'; the fish is marine. - 200 m. Within a tropical range, it can grow up to 60 cm in length with weights of up to 3 kg.
It is found in rivers and estuaries in Bangladesh, Pakistan and the Persian Gulf area where it can be found in the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in and around Iran and southern Iraq. It has no dorsal spines but 18 -- anal soft rays; the belly has 30 to 33 scutes. There is a distinct median notch in upper jaw. Gill rakers fine and numerous, about 100 to 250 on lower part of arch and the fins are hyaline; the fish shows a dark blotch behind gill opening, followed by a series of small spots along the flank in juveniles. Color in life, silver shot with purple; the species filter feeds by grubbing muddy bottoms. The fish schools in coastal waters and ascends up the rivers for around 50 – 100 km to spawn during the South West monsoons and in January to April. April is the most fertile month for breeding of ilish; the young fish returning to the sea are known in Bangladesh as jatka, which includes any ilish fish up to 9 inches long. The fish is popular food amongst the people of South Asia and in the Middle East, but with Bengalis and Odias.
Bengali fish curry is a popular dish made with mustard seed. The Bengalis popularly call this dish shorshe ilish, it is popular in India in West Bengal, Tripura, Assam and Andhra Pradesh. It is exported globally. In North America other shad fish are sometimes used as an ilish substitute in Bengali cuisine; this occurs near the East coast of North America, where fresh shad fish having similar taste can be found. In Bangladesh, fish are caught in the Meghna-Jamuna delta, which flows into the Bay of Bengal and Meghna, Jamuna rivers. In India, the Ganges Delta, Hooghly, Mahanadi,Narmada and Godavari rivers and the Chilika Lake are famous for his fish yields. In Pakistan, most hilsa fish are caught in the Indus River Delta in Sindh, they are caught in the sea, but some consider the marine stage of the fish as not so tasty. The fish has sharp and tough bones, making it problematic to eat for some. Ilish is an oily fish rich in omega 3 fatty acids. Recent experiments have shown its beneficial effects in decreasing cholesterol level in rats and insulin level.
In Bengal and Odisha, ilish can be smoked, steamed or baked in young plantain leaves, prepared with mustard seed paste, eggplant, different condiments like jira and so on. It is said. Ilish roe is popular as a side dish. Ilish can be cooked in little oil since the fish itself is oily. In Andhra Pradesh, the saying goes "Pustelu ammi ayina Pulasa tinocchu", meaning It's worth eating Pulasa/Ilish by selling the nuptials. Ilish is the National Fish of Bangladesh. In many Bengali Hindu families a pair of ilish fishes are bought on auspicious days, for example for special prayers or puja days like for the Hindu Goddess of music and knowledge Saraswati Puja, which takes place in the beginning of Spring or on the day of Lakshmi Puja which takes place in autumn; some people offer the fish to the goddess Lakshmi, without which the Puja is sometimes thought to be incomplete. In Bengal Ilish is used during wedding as tattwa gift. During Gaye Holud tattwa the family of the groom presents a pair of Ilish to the family of the bride.
However, due to the scarcity of Ilish, nowadays it is replaced by Rohu in West Bengal, while the tradition continues in Bangladesh. In West Bengal, a famous dish which tastes good with fried ilish fish is'khichudi', it is popular among all Bengalis during monsoon, known as the month of ilish. In West Bengal and Bangladesh, ilish is termed as the'queen' of fishes; this fish is called as PULASA in Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh State in India. The name Pulasa stays with the fish for a limited period between July-Sept of a year, when floodswater flow in Godavari River; this time the fish is in sometimes $100 per kilo. Hilsha fish
The Shad Planking is an annual political event in Virginia which takes place every April near Wakefield in Sussex County. It is sponsored by a chapter of the Ruritans, a community service organization, founded in the small town of Holland about 30 miles to the southeast. Ostensibly an event to celebrate the James River running of shad, at a shad planking, the oily, bony fish are smoked for the occasion on wood planks over an open flame; the events held near Wakefield began after World War II, were long a function of the state's Conservative Democrats, whose political machine dominated Virginia politics for about 80 years from the late 19th century until the 1960s. However, both Virginia and the Shad Planking had evolved into a more bipartisan environment by the 1980s. In modern times, would-be candidates, campaign workers, locals gather to eat shad, drink beer, smoke tobacco, kick off the state's electoral season with lighthearted speeches by politicians in attendance. Sponsored by the Wakefield Ruritan Club, Shad Planking serves as the organizations primary fundraising event for the year.
All of the funds raised from the event are invested within the Wakefield Community and support such community organizations as baseball teams, the fire department, other groups. The name "The Shad Plank" was adopted by the political blog of the Daily Press newspaper based in Newport News; the traditional event was a tribute to the start of the fishing season. The planking dates to the 1930s near Smithfield, beginning as a small gathering of friends to celebrate the James River running of shad—the oily, bony fish smoked for the occasion on wood planks over an open flame; the unique shad cooking technique, enjoyed today traces its roots to Mr. Paul Cox, of Surry County, Virginia. Mr. Cox, along with several Ruritans including Dr. E. C. Nettles and Mr. Richard Savedge, invited twenty-five of their friends to historic Wrenn's Mill in Isle of Wight County, Virginia for their first Shad Planking. Having attended similar functions in the deep South, Mr. Cox introduced the group to the intriguing process of cooking 15 shad they had caught earlier in the day from the James River on hardwood planks over an open fire.
With Dr. Nettles' suggestion and help, the Wakefield Ruritan Club adopted this time honored tradition as an annual community and fund raising function in 1949; the event has been held on the third Wednesday in April each year since to herald the arrival of spring, with attendance increasing in size from the original 300 guests to over 2000 today. The site is the wooded property of a sportsmen's club near U. S. Route 460 near the incorporated town of Wakefield in Sussex County, about an hour southeast of the Virginia State Capitol at Richmond. A purely social affair, it soon gained a political function, a development credited to State Senator Garland Gray, a local lumberman. In its early years, Democratic party bosses used the Shad Planking as an opportunity to select the next governor. Harry F. Byrd, Sr. and the Byrd Organization dominated Virginia politics into the 1960s. In his 1977 novel, "The Shad Treatment," legal scholar and journalist Garrett Epps called the event "a yearly gathering of the white men in Southside -- no blacks, no women allowed -- where the shirt-sleeve politicians... gathered to look over the political leadership."
That has changed and all are welcome now. Many think that in 1977, then-state State Senator L. Douglas Wilder became the first black to attend; that year, Washington Post reporter Megan Rosenfeld was the first woman to attend. Over the years, the gathering has evolved into a political gossip festival—a place for candidates to see and be seen and for the curious to speculate about the winners and losers of the year's coming campaign season; as Virginia became more Republican after the decline of the Byrd Organization, by the late 20th century, the event became dominated by Republicans. In recent years as the Republicans lost power again after the gubernatorial administration of Jim Gilmore, the Shad Planking has seen substantial representation by all parties, including the Libertarian Party. Republican gubernatorial candidate Jerry Kilgore and his Democratic opponent Tim Kaine spoke at the 2005 Shad Planking. Virginia State Senator Russ Potts was not allowed to speak, so his supporters passed out stickers, "Let Russ Speak".
Potts had a bluegrass band "Lagerhead" from Winchester play at his tent. "Go Russ Go" Pott's campaign song was played live at the Shad Planking. The featured speaker was Attorney General Bob McDonnell. Lieutenant Governor Bill Bolling, wearing a Virginia Tech tie, was the main speaker; the colors of Virginia Tech were on display, with many attendees wearing Virginia Tech hats and t-shirts, since the event occurred two days after the Virginia Tech massacre. Rather than giving a political speech, Bolling focused on the events at Virginia Tech. Bolling's son graduated from Virginia Tech in 2006; the 60th annual shad planking was held on April 16, the first anniversary of the Virginia Tech massacre and coincided with the reconvened session of the Virginia General Assembly. The featured speakers were the candidates for Virginia's open U. S. Senate seat, Mark Warner, the Democratic candidate, Republican contenders Del. Robert G. Marshall and former governor Jim Gilmore; each candidate opened with comments on the first anniversary of the Virginia Tech Massacre.
Warner pledged to become a "radical centrist" if elected. Marshall, facing Gilmore for the Republican Party nomination, emphasized his conservative voting record and strong stance against abortion and gay marriage, he highlighted his role leading the legal challenge to the regional transportation auth