Roman Catholic Diocese of Green Bay
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Green Bay was established on March 3, 1868, by Pope Pius IX. It covers the city of Green Bay, as well as Brown, Door, Forest, Langlade, Marinette, Oconto, Shawano, Waupaca and Winnebago counties in Wisconsin, it is a suffragan diocese of the Archdiocese of Milwaukee. The earliest trace of the Catholic faith in the Green Bay area was in 1634. Jesuits followed Jean Nicolet to the area and started to spread the Gospel around the important rivers of the Green Bay area; this set a foundation for the creation of the Diocese of Green Bay, not formed until 1868. People of the area helped keep the faith. Father Claude-Jean Allouez, a Jesuit missionary, celebrated Mass with the Native Americans near the present site of Oconto on December 3, 1669, the feast of St. Francis Xavier. There he established St. Francis Xavier Mission; the mission was moved to Red Banks for a short time in 1671, to De Pere, where it remained until 1687, when it was burned. The missionaries continued working with the Fox and Winnebago tribes under the protection of the French in newly constructed Fort Francis until Fort Francis was destroyed in 1728.
Catholicism lay dormant in the area for a century. In 1825, a church school was constructed of the lumber taken from St. Francis Xavier Chapel, but was soon after burned; this church was inspired by the borough of Fort Howard, which continued to expand with the settlement of the Catholic French Canadians. This group had lived in the area since the eighteenth century; the next church to go up in the area was called St. John the Evangelist; this church is the longest surviving place of worship in Wisconsin today. In the early 19th century, St. John's church members spoke French, it became the mother church for all the churches in the Diocese of Green Bay. These churches included St. John Nepomucene in Little Chute, 1836. In the spring of 1868, Pope Pius IX created the Diocese of Green Bay. Although the area had many French-Canadian Catholics, their numbers shrank as new settlements were set up in other places and immigrants of other nationalities came to the area. Throughout the mid - to late-19th century immigrants poured in.
In Green Bay, the Germans established St. Mary in 1854. Peter and Paul in 1875. Intermarriage with non-French speakers and the growth of the English language in the area weakened the bonds of the ethnic churches; the Cathedral of Saint Francis Xavier in Green Bay is the mother church of the Diocese of Green Bay. The National Shrine of Our Lady of Good Help, in Champion, the National Shrine of Saint Joseph, in De Pere, at Saint Norbert Abbey, Saint Joseph Oratory, in Green Bay, are located in the diocese. Joseph Melcher Francis Xavier Krautbauer Frederick F. X. Katzer, appointed Archbishop of Milwaukee Sebastian G. Messmer, appointed Archbishop of Milwaukee Joseph John Fox Paul Peter Rhode Stanislaus Vincent Bona Aloysius John Wycislo Adam Maida, appointed Archbishop of Detroit Robert Joseph Banks David Zubik, appointed Bishop of Pittsburgh David Laurin Ricken John Benjamin Grellinger Mark Francis Schmitt, appointed Bishop of Marquette Robert F. Morneau Frank Joseph Dewane, appointed Coadjutor Bishop and Bishop of Venice John Francis Doerfler, appointed Bishop of Marquette For a full list of Catholic Educational Institutions in the Green Bay Diocese, see the list of Schools.
Silver Lake College and St. Norbert College are both located within the Diocese; the Diocese oversees 6 high school and 56 primary schools located throughout the sixteen county region. List of the Catholic dioceses of the United States List of Roman Catholic dioceses List of Roman Catholic dioceses Roman Catholic Diocese of Green Bay Official Site
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Chicago
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Chicago was established as a diocese in 1843 and elevated to an archdiocese in 1880. It serves the more than 2.3 million Catholics in Cook and Lake counties in Northeastern Illinois, in the United States, an area of 1,411 square miles. The archdiocese is divided into 31 deaneries. Blase Joseph Cupich was appointed Cardinal, Archbishop of Chicago by Pope Francis in 2014, is assisted by six episcopal vicars, who are each responsible for a vicariate; the cathedral parish for the archdiocese, Holy Name Cathedral, is in the Near North Side area of the see city for the diocese, Chicago. The Archdiocese of Chicago is the metropolitan, its suffragan dioceses are the other Catholic dioceses in Illinois: Belleville, Peoria and Springfield. Joseph Cardinal Bernardin, Archbishop of Chicago from 1982 to 1996, was arguably one of the most prominent figures in the Church in the United States in the post-Vatican II era, rallying progressives with his "seamless garment ethic" and his ecumenical initiatives.
A French Jesuit missionary, the Rev. Jacques Marquette, SJ, first explored the area, now Chicago in the mid-17th century. On December 4, 1674, Father Marquette arrived at the mouth of the Chicago River where he built a cabin to recuperate from his travels, his cabin became the first European settlement in the area now known as Chicago. Marquette published his survey of the new territories and soon more French missionaries and settlers arrived. In 1795, the Potawatomi tribe signed the Treaty of Greenville that ceded to the United States a tract of land at the mouth of the Chicago River. There in 1804, Fort Dearborn was protected newly arrived Catholic pioneers. In 1822, Alexander Beaubien became the first person to be baptized in Chicago. In 1833, Jesuit missionaries wrote a letter to the Most Rev. Joseph Rosati, Bishop of Saint Louis and Vicar General of Bardstown, pleading for the appointment of a resident pastor to serve over one hundred professing Roman Catholics living in Chicago. Rosati appointed the Rev. John Mary Irenaeus Saint Cyr.
Fr. Saint Cyr celebrated his first Mass in a log cabin owned by the Beaubien family on Lake Street, near Market Street, in 1833. At the cost of four hundred dollars, Father Saint Cyr purchased a plot of land at what is now the intersection of Lake and State Streets and constructed a church building of 25 by 35 feet, it was dedicated in October 1833. The following year, the Bishop of Vincennes visited Chicago, where he found over 400 Catholics with only one priest to serve them; the bishop asked permission from Bishop Rosati to send Fathers Fischer, Saint Palais and Joliet from Vincennes to tend to the needs of the Chicago region. In 1837, Fr. Saint Cyr was allowed to retire and was replaced by Chicago's first English-speaking priest, the Rev. James Timothy O'Meara. Father O'Meara moved the church built by Fr. Saint Cyr to what is now the intersection of Madison Street; when Fr. O'Meara left Chicago, Saint Palais replaced it with a new brick structure; the First Plenary Council of Baltimore concluded that the Roman Catholic population of Chicago was growing exponentially and was in dire need of an episcopal see of its own.
With the consent of Pope Gregory XVI, the Diocese of Chicago was canonically erected on November 28, 1843. In 1844, William Quarter of Ireland was appointed as the first Bishop of Chicago. Upon his arrival, Quarter summoned a synod of 32 Chicago priests to begin the organization of the diocese. One of Quarter's most important achievements was his successful petitioning for the passage of an Illinois law in 1845 that declared the Bishop of Chicago an incorporated entity, a corporation sole, with power to hold real and other property in trust for religious purposes; this allowed the bishop to pursue large-scale construction of new churches and universities to serve the needs of Chicago's Roman Catholic faithful. After four years of service as Bishop of Chicago, Bishop Quarter died on April 10, 1848; the church lost nearly a million dollars in church property in the Chicago fire of 1871, leading to administrative instability for decades. The southern section of the state of Illinois split from Chicago diocese in 1853, becoming the Diocese of Quincy.
The Quincy diocese was renamed the Diocese of Alton in 1857, became Diocese of Springfield. The Diocese of Peoria was established in 1877 from another territorial split from the Chicago diocese. From 1844 to 1879, the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Chicago held the title Bishop of Chicago. With the elevation of the diocese to an archdiocese in 1880, the diocesan bishop held the title Archbishop of Chicago. Since 1915, all Archbishops of Chicago have been honored in consistory with the title of Cardinal Priest and membership in the College of Cardinals; the archbishops have responsibilities in the dicasteries of the Roman Curia. All but two diocesan bishops were diocesan priests before assuming the episcopacy in Chicago. Two came from religious institutes: the Society of Jesus and the Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate. A fire occurred at Our Lady of Angels School on December 1, 1958, in the Humboldt Park area of western Chicago; the school, operated by the Archdiocese, lost 92 students and three nuns in five classrooms on the second floor.
In 1959 the National Fire Protection Association’s report on the blaze blamed civic authorities and the Archdiocese of Chicago for "housing their children in fire traps" – their words – such as Our Lady of the Angels School. The report noted that both the Chicago School Board and the Archdiocese continued to allow
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
St. Ambrose Church (St. Nazianz, Wisconsin)
St. Ambrose Church is a Roman Catholic church in St. Nazianz, Wisconsin built in 1898. In 1854 an entire Catholic parish in a small German village uprooted under the leadership of its priest, Father Ambrose Oschwald, departed for America. Arriving in Wisconsin, a scouting party headed out through the forest with ox carts to locate the land and begin the settlement. Property was held in common and the community, along intensely Catholic lines, was governed by an Ephorate or senate; the colony lasted until 1873 when Oschwald died, leaving "The Association" in a legal battle to preserve its land. In 1896, the Salvatorian order assumed responsibility for the Catholic institutions in St. Nazianz, building a new church and monastery on the grounds of the old Loretto Monastery just south of the village. In 1939, the Salvatorian Seminary was opened on the same grounds; the building became John F. Kennedy Preparatory High School in the 1960s but closed in 1982. From the point onward, the religious architectural complex lay abandoned and dormant, suffering a great deal of vandalism from gang activity on the premises.
It served intermittently as a haunted house in the fall for a few years. After a series of owners and failed schemes, not much has changed in the present day, although Dale Ristow has refurbished the gymnasium enough to be used as an indoor soccer practice space; the old football field outside is utilized. Additionally, portions of the more modern priest dormitories have been remodeled. Oschwald's sarcophagus is kept in the hillside crypt at the rear of the property below the little Loretto Chapel on the hilltop above the cemetery. Oschwald's body was entombed beneath the altar of St. Ambrose Chapel in the space that now comprises the back of the main St. Ambrose Church. Meyer, Amy. "St. Nazianz Seminary left its mark". Herald Times Reporter. Retrieved April 6, 2017
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
University of Saint Mary of the Lake
The University of Saint Mary of the Lake called Mundelein Seminary, is the principal seminary and school of theology for the formation of priests in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Chicago, governed from Chicago, Illinois, in the United States. It is recognized as the first institution of higher education in the City of Chicago. Chartered by the Illinois General Assembly in 1844, it has the longest continuous academic charter in the state of Illinois; the largest major Catholic seminary in the United States, Mundelein Seminary serves 45 dioceses in eight different countries and was the first ecclesiastical faculty in the U. S. In addition to the seminary, the University of St. Mary of the Lake offers the Lay Formation Program, Instituto de Liderazgo Pastoral, Diaconate Formation Program, the Liturgical Institute. Chicago Studies is an academic journal for others in parish ministry, it is edited by the university and seminary faculty along with priests of the Archdiocese of Chicago. Bishop William Quarter, the first Bishop of Chicago, oversaw the creation and early development of the University of Saint Mary of the Lake with the primary objective of ordaining priests to serve the growing diocese.
After years in flourishing operation but growing financial burden, the university was forced to close in 1866. Expressing a need for more priests, Archbishop George Mundelein was compelled to re-open the institution as Saint Mary of the Lake Seminary around 1921. In 1926, the seminary opened a new campus church, designed by Chicago architect Joseph W. McCarthy; the institution became known throughout the world in 1926 as a site for the International Eucharistic Congress. In September 1929, the seminary received this time from the Holy See. Cardinal Mundelein obtained from the Sacred Congregation for Seminaries and Universities the authority to grant the international academic degrees of the Holy See. In 1934 the Ecclesiastical Faculty of Theology at Mundelein was honored with a permanent grant of this authority; the seminary became the first American institution to be honored as a pontifical theological faculty under the Apostolic Constitution. The seminal liturgical leader and Catholic Action chaplain Msgr.
Reynold Henry Hillenbrand served as rector of St. Mary of the Lake Seminary from 1936-1944. Under the leadership of Cardinal Albert Meyer, in 1961 the seminary opened a second campus in Niles, Illinois; the Niles campus became the site for the two-year liberal arts program. The Mundelein campus included the upper class college studies in philosophy followed by a four-year theology curriculum. Under Cardinal Meyer’s successor, Cardinal John Cody, the undergraduate program was affiliated with Loyola University of Chicago and became Niles College of Loyola University. Saint Mary of the Lake Seminary was now a graduate school of theology; the program which resulted from that revision continued to be implemented for more than a decade, its academic, formation/spiritual and pastoral aspects guided by the Program of Priestly Formation of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops and the directives of the Sacred Congregation for Catholic Institutions. In 1971, Saint Mary of the Lake Seminary became affiliated with the Association of Theological Schools of the United States and Canada, the accrediting body for theological seminaries and divinity schools.
1976 saw two milestones in the seminary history. In cooperation with the Center for Pastoral Ministry, the Archdiocese of Chicago’s continuing education school, the seminary began a program of studies leading to the new doctor of ministry degree. In 1976, the seminary celebrated the 50th anniversary of the first ordinations held in the Chapel of the Immaculate Conception. In 1982, under the direction of Archbishop Joseph Bernardin, the seminary faculty initiated a thorough revision of the program, in place for ten years; the changes had as their goal the better implementation of the objectives set forth in the third edition of the Program of Priestly Formation. In 1986, Cardinal Bernardin announced that the University of Saint Mary of the Lake would be revived with the addition of a continuing education school, the Center for Development in Ministry, to the campus; the new center would continue the work of continuing education for priests, the mission of the Center for Pastoral Ministry, but would now expand to offer continuing education to all those in ministry, clergy and laity.
Saint Mary of the Lake Seminary again adopted the name on its original 1844 charter, the University of Saint Mary of the Lake, honored its second founder by renaming the graduate school as Mundelein Seminary. During 1996, Mundelein Seminary was visited by members of the Bishops' Committee on Seminaries. After an extensive series of meetings with faculty and students, the members of the committee gave a strong recommendation to the seminary program. Cardinal Francis George continued this development of the university in February 2000 by transferring the Archdiocese of Chicago’s programs of ministry formation to the seminary. Three former agencies of the Pastoral Center were transferred there to become programs of Mundelein Seminary. Joining USML that year were the Lay Ministry Formation Program, the Diaconate Formation Program and the Instituto de Liderazgo Pastoral. While remaining separate and distinct from the priestly formation program, all are to cooperate under the seminary aegis in advancing the efforts of ministry preparation and formation for all those involved in pastoral ministry.
Plans were begun to separate the continuing education programs of the Center for Development in Ministry from the university and to relocate them as an agency of the Pastoral Center. These same plans included the continued operat
Saint Francis Xavier Cathedral (Green Bay, Wisconsin)
St. Francis Xavier Cathedral is the cathedral church of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Green Bay in Green Bay, United States; the cathedral was named in honor of St. Francis Xavier; the cathedral was planned and erected between 1876 and 1881 under the episcopate of Francis Xavier Krautbauer. It was designed on the pattern of a landmark church in the center of Munich, Germany. Krautbauer ordered a monumental crucifixion painted by Johann Schmitt, a local German-descent painter of the Nazarene movement. Krautbauer was buried under the cathedral's floor; the cathedral began receiving a series of 18 restorations starting in 2014. It closed in September 2017 and was reopened at a 9:00 mass on Sunday December 3, 2017. 2017 Repairs include the floors, pews and pipe organ. List of Catholic cathedrals in the United States List of cathedrals in the United States Official Cathedral Site Roman Catholic Diocese of Green Bay Official Site