Rangoli is an art form, originating in the Indian subcontinent, in which patterns are created on the floor or the ground using materials such as colored rice, dry flour, colored sand or flower petals. It is made during Diwali or Tihar, Onam and other Hindu festivals in the Indian subcontinent. Designs are passed from one generation to the next, keeping both the art form and the tradition alive; the purpose of rangoli is decoration, it is thought to bring good luck. Design depictions may vary as they reflect traditions and practices that are unique to each area, it is traditionally done by women. This practice is showcased during occasions such as festivals, auspicious observances, marriage celebrations and other similar milestones and gatherings. Rangoli designs can be simple geometric shapes, deity impressions, or flower and petal shapes, but they can be elaborate designs crafted by numerous people; the base material is dry or wet powdered rice or dry flour, to which sindoor and other natural colours can be added.
Chemical colors are a modern variation. Other materials include colored sand, red brick powder and flowers and petals, as in the case of flower rangolis. From Sanskrit word "रङ्ग" which means color. Rangoli is derived from the Sanskrit word ‘rangavalli’; the various names for this art form and similar practices include muggu in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, rangoli/rangole in Karnataka, kolam in Tamil Nadu, mandana/mandas in Rajasthan, chowkpurana in Chhattisgarh, alpana/alpona in West Bengal, muruja/marje or jhoti or chita in Odisha, haripan/aripan in Bihar, chowkpujan in Uttar Pradesh, kalam/golam/puvidal/puv in Kerala,Rangoli/ sanskarbharti/bharti in Maharashtra, saathiya/gahuli in Gujarat, aipan/eipan in Uttarakhand. In middle India in Chhattisgarh Rangoli is called Chaook and is drawn at the entrance of a house or any other building. Dried rice flour or other forms of white dust powder is used for drawing Chaooks. Although there are numerous traditional Chaook patterns, many more can be created depending on the creativity of the person who draws it.
It is considered auspicious as it signifies showering of good luck and prosperity on the house and in the family. It is not drawn like a picture. Patterns are created based on certain systems. Women get up early in the morning and clean the area just outside the entrance of their houses with cow dung, sprinkle the area with water and draw the Chaook. In Maharashtra and Karnataka, rangolis are drawn on the doors of homes so that evil forces attempting to enter are repelled. During the festival of Onam in Kerala, flowers are laid down for each of the ten days of the celebration, the design growing larger and more complex every day. In Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka,and many parts of Maharashtra, the Rangoli or Kolam is drawn upon the ground or floor daily; the designs are geometric and symmetrical मूल्यतः shapes but the materials used are similar rangoli: rice flour or slurry is used. In Rajasthan the Mandana are painted on walls. Mmandne, various festivals, major festivals and can be categorized based on seasons.
Different shapes depending on the size of it can be shared. Kumaon's "writing beat'or in a variety of plotting symbols Thapa, artistic designs, Bellbutoan is used. Alikhthap of society apart – separated by different groups – different icons and art media is used. In Odisha, the Murja is put at the aangan of every home in front of the Tulsi plant called "Tulasi chahura"; the Rangoli patterns are dedicated to Lord Krishna and Lord Jagannath. The Murja festival is observed during the auspicious month of Kartika ending on Kartika Purnima. Rangoli's most important element is Utswdhermita; these are auspicious symbols. The design for generations are passed on. Traditionally, each new generation learns the art and thus a family keeps the tradition intact; some major symbols used in Rangoli are the lotus flower, its leaves, Tue vase, different kind of birds like parrots, swans and human figures and foliage. Oftentimes Rangoli is made on special occasions like Diwali; some special patterns for Diwali Rangoli are the Diya called Deep, Lakshmi, flowers or birds of India.
The second key element is using the materials used to make the rangoli. The materials used are found everywhere. Therefore, this art is prevalent in all homes, poor; the major ingredients used to make rangoli are – Pise rice solution, the dried powder made from the leaves color, burned soil was, wood sawdust, etc.. The third important element is the background. Rangoli use the background of Llype is used. Rangoli can be made in corners, or as a bell is created around. Dehri gateway is a tradition of making rangoli. God's seat, depending on lamp, place of worship and sacrifice on the altar is a tradition of decorating rangoli. With time and innovative ideas in Rangoli art is incorporated. Hospitality and tourism has had its effect and rangoli has been commercially developed in places such as hotels, its traditional charm and importance still remain. Rangoli is created using coloured rice, dry flour, flower petals, turmeric and coloured sand; the patterns include the face of Hindu deities, geometric shapes peacock motifs, round floral designs.
Many of these motifs are handed down by the previous generations. This makes rangoli a representation
Gohona Bori is a dried dal dumpling. It is popular in Bengali cuisine, it is a well known food item in Purba Medinipur. It is known as Naksha Bori, it is made with Poppy seed and various spices. The woman of the house made the dish. In 2016, IIT Kharagpur applied to get the geographical Indication for Gohona Bori, it is an age-old dish of Bengal. Before the arrival of the British in India, poppy seed was not used in Gohona Bori. After the Battle of Palashi, the British discovered a market of illegal opium in China. British forced the farmers of the Rarh region of Bengal to cultivate poppy and extorting large amounts of opium from them into China. Poppy seeds were dropped. In the past, poppy seeds became the cooking material of Bankura, Birbhum and Midnapore districts, thus the poppy seeds are used in Gohona Bori in Midnapore. In 1930, Seba Maiti, a student of Shantiniketan presented Gohona Bori to Rabindranath Tagore, made by her mother, Hirnmayi Debi, grandmother, Sheratakumari Debi. Tagore was so attracted to Bori that he wrote them a letter seeking permission to preserve the photographs of Gohona Bori at the Art Building of Shantiniketan.
As a result, Gohona Bori gained popularity as a sign of art. Abanindranath Tagore considered it to be an art. So he considered the thought of eating it was considered an act of destruction, he arranged an exhibition. Nandalal Bose described it as a jewel of the Bengali mother's jewelry box, he expressed his desire to publish a book on it. Gohona Bori were exhibited in the 59th session of Indian National Congress held in Kalyani in 1954. In 1990, the West Bengal government took part in a food festival organized by the women of Tamluk's Gohona Bori maker, they prepared Gohona Bori in front of thousands of curios men in Kolkata. In 1995 a Gohona Bori marketing group was established in Tamluk; each cook chooses their own design. Triangles and squares are common along with other geometric designs such as shells, cats, peacock, owls and butterflies
Rasgulla is an Indian syrupy dessert popular in the Indian subcontinent and regions with South Asian diaspora. It is made from ball-shaped dumplings of chhena and semolina dough, cooked in light syrup made of sugar; this is done. The dish originated in East India. In 2015, a committee formed by the government of Odisha asserted that the sweet had originated in Odisha, where it is offered at the Puri Jagannath Temple. In 2016, the West Bengal government applied for a Geographical Indications tag for the variant called "Banglar Rosogolla", clarifying that the Bengal and Odisha variants were different in "both in colour, taste, juice content and method of manufacturing."In 2017, when West Bengal got its Rosogolla's GI status, the Registry office of India clarified that West Bengal was given GI status for Banglar Rosogolla and Odisha can claim it too if they site the place of origin of their variant along with colour, taste, juice content and method of manufacturing. The dessert is known as Roshogolla in Bengali and Rasagola in Odia.
Rasgulla is derived from the words gulla. Other names for the dish include Roshgulla, Rossogolla, Rasagola and Rasbhari or Rasbari. According to historians of Odisha, the rasgulla originated in Puri, as khira mohana, which evolved into the Pahala rasgulla, it has been traditionally offered as bhog to goddess Lakshmi at Puri. According to the local legend, Laxmi gets upset because her husband Lord Jagannath goes on a 9-day sojourn without her consent. So, she locks Jai Vijay Dwar, one of the temple gates and prevents his convoy from re-entering the sanctum sanctorum of the temple. To appease her, Jagannath offers her rasgullas; this ritual, known as Bachanika, is part of the "Niladri Bije" observance, which marks the return of the deities to the temple after the Ratha Yatra. The Jagannath Temple scholars such as Laxmidhar Pujapanda and researchers like Jagabandhu Padhi state that the tradition has existed since the 12th century, when the present-day temple structure was first built. Pujapanda states that the Niladri Bije tradition is mentioned in Niladri Mahodaya, dated to the 18th century by Sarat Chandra Mahapatra.
According to Mahapatra, several temple scriptures, which are over 300 years old, provide the evidence of rasgulla offering ritual in Puri. According to folklore, Pahala had a large number of cows; the village would produce excess milk, the villagers would throw it away when it became spoilt. When a priest from the Jagannath Temple saw this, he taught them the art of curdling, including the recipe for rasagulla. Pahala thus went on to become the biggest market for chhena-based sweets in the area. According to the Bengali culinary historian Pritha Sen, in the mid-18th century, many Odia cooks were employed in Bengali homes who arguably have introduced Rasgulla along with many other Odia dishes. According to another theory, it is possible that the Bengali visitors to Puri might have carried the recipe for rasgulla back to Bengal in the nineteenth century; this claim is contested by Bengali historians. According to food historians K. T. Achaya and Chitra Banerji, there are no references to cheese in India before the 17th century.
The milk-based sweets were made up of khoa, before the Portuguese influence led to introduction of cheese-based sweets. Therefore, the possibility of a cheese-based dish being offered at Jagannath Temple in the 12th century is unlikely. According to Nobin Chandra Das' descendant Animikh Roy and historian Haripada Bhowmik, rasgulla is not mentioned as one of the chhappan bhog in the early records of the Temple, they state that it would have been a blasphemy to offer something made from spoiled milk to a deity. However, Michael Krondl argues that Hindu dietary rules vary from region to region, it is possible that this restriction did not exist in present-day Odisha. According to Asit Mohanty, an Odia research scholar on Jagannath cult and traditions, the sweet is mentioned as "Rasagola" in the 15th century text Jagamohana Ramayana of Balaram Das; the text mentions Rasagola, along with other sweets found in Odisha. There is mention of many other cheese made sweets like Chhenapuri and Rasabali. Another ancient text Premapanchamruta of Bhupati mentions cheese.
It is being argued. The spongy white rasgulla is believed to have been introduced in present-day West Bengal in 1868 by a Kolkata-based confectioner named Nobin Chandra Das. Das started making rasgulla by processing the mixture of chhena and semolina in boiling sugar syrup in contrast to the mixture sans semolina in the original rasgulla in his sweet shop located at Sutanuti, his descendants claim that his recipe was an original, but according to another theory, he modified the traditional Odisha rasgulla recipe to produce this less perishable variant. Yet another theory is that rasgulla was first prepared by someone else in Bengal, Das only popularized it. In Banglar Khabar, food historian Pranab Ray states that a man named Braja Moira had introduced rasgulla in his shop near Calcutta High Court in 1866, two years before Das started selling the dish. In 1906, Panchana Bandopadhyay wrote that rasgullla was invented in the 19th century by Haradhan Moira, a Phulia-based sweetmaker who worked
Rabindra Sangeet known as Tagore Songs, are songs from the Indian subcontinent written and composed by the Bengali polymath Rabindranath Tagore, winner of the 1913 Nobel Prize in Literature. Tagore was a prolific composer with around 2,230 songs to his credit; the songs have distinctive characteristics in the music of Bengal, popular in Bangladesh. It is characterised by its distinctive rendition while singing which includes a significant amount of ornamentation like meend, etc. and is filled with expressions of romanticism. The music is based on Hindustani classical music, Carnatic Classical Music, Western tunes and the inherent Folk music of Bengal and inherently possess within them, a near perfect balance, an endearing economy of poetry and musicality. Lyrics and music both hold equal importance in Rabindra Sangeet. In fact, Tagore created some 6 new Taal or Rhythm because he felt the traditional taals existing at the time could not do justice and were coming in the way of the seamless narrative of the lyrics.
Rabindra Sangeet merges fluidly into Tagore's literature, most of which—poems or parts of novels, stories, or plays alike—were lyricised. Influenced by the thumri style of Hindustani music, they ran the entire gamut of human emotion, ranging from his early dirge-like Brahmo devotional hymns to quasi-erotic compositions, they emulated the tonal color of classical ragas to varying extents. Some songs mimicked a given raga's rhythm faithfully, yet about nine-tenths of his work was not bhanga gaan, the body of tunes revamped with "fresh value" from select Western, Bengali folk and other regional flavours "external" to Tagore's own ancestral culture. In fact,Tagore drew influence from sources as diverse as traditional Hindusthani Thumri to Scottish ballads. Scholars have attempted to gauge the emotive force and range of Hindustani ragas: the pathos of the purabi raga reminded Tagore of the evening tears of a lonely widow, while kanara was the confused realization of a nocturnal wanderer who had lost his way.
In bhupali he seemed to hear a voice in the wind saying'stop and come hither'. Paraj conveyed to him the deep slumber. Tagore sarodiyas Buddhadev Dasgupta and Amjad Ali Khan, his songs are popular and undergird the Bengali ethos to an extent rivalling Shakespeare's impact on the English-speaking world. It is said that his songs are the outcome of five centuries of Bengali literary churning and communal yearning. Dhan Gopal Mukerji has said that these songs transcend the mundane to the aesthetic and express all ranges and categories of human emotion; the poet gave voice to all -- big or small, poor. The poor Ganges boatman and the rich landlord air their emotions in them, they birthed a distinctive school of music whose practitioners can be fiercely traditional: novel interpretations have drawn severe censure in both West Bengal and Bangladesh. For Bengalis, the songs' appeal, stemming from the combination of emotive strength and beauty described as surpassing Tagore's poetry, was such that the Modern Review observed that "here is in Bengal no cultured home where Rabindranath's songs are not sung or at least attempted to be sung...
Illiterate villagers sing his songs". A. H. Fox Strangways of The Observer introduced non-Bengalis to rabindrasangit in The Music of Hindostan, calling it a "vehicle of a personality... go behind this or that system of music to that beauty of sound which all systems put out their hands to seize."In 1971, Amar Shonar Bangla became the national anthem of Bangladesh. It was written—ironically—to protest the 1905 Partition of Bengal along communal lines: lopping Muslim-majority East Bengal from Hindu-dominated West Bengal was to avert a regional bloodbath. Tagore saw the partition as a ploy to upend the independence movement, he aimed to rekindle Bengali unity and tar communalism. Jana Gana Mana was written in shadhu-bhasha, a Sanskritised register of Bengali, is the first of five stanzas of a Brahmo hymn that Tagore composed, it was first sung in 1911 at a Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress and was adopted in 1950 by the Constituent Assembly of the Republic of India as its national anthem.
His songs are affectionately called Rabindra Sangeet, cover topics from humanism, introspection, romance, nostalgia, modernism. Tagore worked with two subjects – first, the human being, the being and the becoming of that human being, second, Nature, in all her myriad forms and colours, of the relationship between the human being and Nature and how Nature affects the behavior and the expressions of human beings. Bhanusimha Thakurer Padavali, one of Tagore's earliest works in music, was in a language, similar and yet different from Bengali – this language, was derived from the language of the Vaishnav hymns, of texts like Jayadeva's Gita Govinda, some influences from Sanskrit can be found, courtesy Tagore's extensive homeschooling in the Puranas, the Upanishads, as well as in poetic texts like Kalidasa's Meghadūta and Abhigyanam Shakuntalam. Tagore was one of the greatest narrators of all time, throughout his life, we find a current of narration through all his works that surges with upheavals in the psyche of the people around him, as well as with the changes of seasons.
A master of metaphor, it is difficult to identify the true meaning that underlies his texts, but what is great about Tagore, is that his songs are identifi
Vasant Panchami spelled Basant Panchami, is a festival that marks the preliminary preparations for the arrival of spring, celebrated by people in various ways depending upon the region. The Vasant Panchami marks the start of preparation for Holika and Holi, which take place forty days later; the Vasant Utsava on Panchami is celebrated forty days before Spring, because any season's transition period is 40 days, after that the season comes in to full bloom. Vasant Panchami is celebrated every year on the fifth day of the bright half of the Hindu luni-solar calendar month of Magha, which falls in late January or February. Spring is known as the "King of all Seasons", so the festival commences forty days in advance.. The festival is observed by Hindus in India and Nepal, it's has been a historical tradition of Sikhs as well. In southern states, the same day is called Sri Panchami.. On the island of Bali and the Hindus of Indonesia, it is known as "Hari Raya Saraswati", it marks the beginning of the 210-day long Balinese Pawukon calendar.
Vasant Panchami is a festival that marks the beginning of preparations for the King of all Seasons, Spring. It is celebrated by people in various ways depending on the region. Vasant Panchami marks the start of preparation for holiday and holi which occurs forty days later. For many Hindus, Vasant Panchami is the festival dedicated to goddess Saraswati, their goddess of knowledge, language and all arts, she is the energy of Brahma, she symbolizes creative energy and power in all its form, including longing and love. The season and festival celebrates the agricultural fields' ripening with yellow flowers of mustard crop, which Hindus associate with Saraswati's favorite color. People dress in shirts or accessories, share yellow colored snacks and sweets; some add saffron to their rice and eat yellow cooked rice as a part of an elaborate feast. Many families mark this day by sitting with babies and young children, encouraging their children to write their first words with their fingers, some study or create music together.
The day before Vasant Panchami, Saraswati's temples are filled with food so that she can join the celebrants in the traditional feasting the following morning. In temples and educational institutions, statues of Saraswati are dressed in worshiped. Many educational institutions arrange special prayers or pujas in the morning to seek blessing of the goddess. Poetic and musical gatherings are held in some communities in reverence for Saraswati. In Nepal and eastern states of India such as West Bengal including north-eastern states like Tripura and Assam, people visit her temples and worship her. Most of the schools arrange special Saraswati puja for their students in their premises. In Bangladesh, all major educational institutes and universities observe it with holiday and a special puja. In the state of Odisha,The festival is celebrated as Basanta Panchami/Sri Panchami /Saraswati Puja. Homas and Yagnas are done in Colleges across the state. Students celebrate Saraswati Puja with great fervor. Toddlers start learning from this day in a unique ceremony named'Khadi-Chuan'/Vidya-Arambha.
In southern states such as Andhra Pradesh, the same day is called Sri Panchami where "Sri" refers to her as another aspect of the one goddess Devi.. Another legend behind Vasant Panchami is based on the Hindu god of love called Kama. Pradyumna is Kamadev personified, thus Vasant Panchami is known as "Madana Panchami". Pradyumna is the son of Krsna, he awakens the passions of the earth and thus. It is remembered as the day when Parvati approached Kama to wake up Shiva in Yogic meditation since the Maha Shivaratri; the other gods support Parvati, seek Kama's help to bring Shiva back from his meditation to do his duties in the world. Kama agrees and shoots arrows, made of flowers and bees, at Shiva from his heavenly bow of sugarcane in order to arouse him to pay attention to Parvati; this initiative is celebrated by Hindus as Vasant Panchami. Vasant Panchami is associated with the emotions of love and emotional anticipation in Kutch, celebrated by preparing bouquet and garlands of flowers set with mango leaves, as a gift.
People visit each other. Songs about Krishna's pranks with Radha, considered to mirror Kama-Rati, are sung; this is symbolized with the Hindu deity Kamadeva with his wife Rati. Traditionally, in Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, after bathing in the morning, people worship Shiva and Parvati. Offerings of mango flowers and the ears of wheat are traditionally made; the shrine of the Sun-God in Aurangabad district, Bihar known as the Deo-Sun Shrine, was established on Basant Panchami. The day is celebrated to commemorate the founding of the shrine by King Aila of Allahabad and the birthday of the Sun-Deo God; the statues are washed and old red clothes on them are replaced with new ones on Basant Panchami. Devotees sing and play musical instruments. People celebrate the day by eating sweet dishes and display yellow flowers in homes. In Rajasthan, it is customary for people to wear jasmine garlands. In Maharashtra, newly married couples visit a temple and offer prayers on the first Basant Panchami after the wedding.
Wearing yellow dresses. In the Punjab region and Hindus wear yellow turban or head dress. In Uttarakhan
Nakshi kantha, a type of embroidered quilt, is a centuries-old Bengali art tradition of the Bengal Region, notable in Bangladesh and Indian states of West Bengal and part of Assam. The basic material used is old cloth. Nakshi kanthas are made throughout Bangladesh, but the greater Mymensingh, Bogra, Rajshahi and Jessore areas are most famous for this craft; the colourful patterns and designs that are embroidered resulted in the name "Nakshi Kantha", derived from the Bengali word "naksha", which refers to artistic patterns. The early kanthas had a white background accented with red and black embroidery; the running stitch called. Traditionally, kantha was produced for the use of the family. Today, after the revival of the nakshi kantha, they are produced commercially; the word kantha has no discernible etymological root. The exact time of origin of the word kantha is not known but it had a precursor in kheta. According to Niaz Zaman, the word kantha originated from the Sanskrit word kontha, which means rags, as kantha is made of rags.
Like any other folk art, kantha making is influenced by factors such as materials available, daily needs, climate and economic factors. The earliest form of kantha was the patchwork kantha, the kanthas of the decorative appliqué type evolved from this; the earliest mention of Bengal Kantha is found in the book Sri Sri Chaitanya Charitamrita by Krishnadas Kaviraj, written some five hundred years ago. The famous Bengali poet Jasimuddin had a famous poem'Nakshi Kanthar Math' on Nakshi Kantha Traditionally old sarees and dhotis were used to make kanthas. Kantha making was not a full-time job. Women in every household were expert in the art. Rural women worked at leisure time or during the lazy days of the rainy season, so taking months or years to finish a kantha was normal. At least five to seven sarees were needed to make a standard-size kantha. Today the old materials are replaced by new cotton cloths. Traditionally the thread was collected from the old sarees; that is done today. When a kantha is being made, first the sarees are joined together to attain the required size, layers are spread out on the ground.
The cloths are smoothed, no folds or creases are left in between. During the process, the cloth is kept flat on the ground with weights on the edges; the four edges are stitched and two or three rows of large running stitches are done to keep the kantha together. At this stage, the kantha can be stitched at leisure time. Designs and motifs were not drawn on the cloth; the design was first outlined with needle and thread, followed by focal points, the filling motifs were done. In a kantha with a predominant central motif the centre was done first, followed by corner designs and the other details. In some types of kanthas wooden blocks were used to print the outline; the blocks are replaced today by patterns drawn in tracing papers. Modern Kantha-stitch craft industry involves a complex multi-staged production model; the following is how kanthas are categorized, according to the stitch type: The running stitch kantha is the indigenous kantha. They are subdivided into par tola. Nakshi kanthas are further divided into motif or scenic kanthas.
The name was derived from Persian word lehr. This type of kantha is popular in Rajshahi; these kanthas are further divided into Kautar khupi, borfi or diamond. The Lik or Anarasi type of kantha is found in the Jessore areas; the variations are lik tan, lik tile, lik jhumka, lik lohori. This type of kantha was introduced by the English during the British Rule in India; the stitch used in these kanthas is the cross-stitch. This type of kantha is found only in Rajshahi area; the popular motif used is the undulating vine motif. The earliest and most basic stitch found in kanthas is the running stitch; the predominant form of this stitch is called the kantha stitch. The other forms of stitches used are the Chatai or pattern darning, Kaitya or bending stitch, weave running stitch, darning stitch, Jessore stitch, threaded running stitch, Lik phor or anarasi or ghar hasia stitches; the stitches used in modern-day kantha are the arrowhead stitch. Stitches like the herringbone stitch, satin stitch and cross-stitch are used.
Kanthas denote quilts used as wrappers. However, depending on the size and purpose, kanthas may be divided into various articles, each with its specific names; the various types of kantha are as follows: Quilt: A light quilted covering made from the old sarees/dhotis/lungis and sometimes from sheet cloths. Large spread: An embellished quilt embroidered in traditional motifs and innovative style Puja floor spread: Cloth spread for sitting at a place of worship or for an honoured guest. Cosmetic wrapper: A narrow embroidered wrapper to roll and store away a woman's comb, eye kohl, sandal paste, oil bottle, etc. A tying string is used to bind the wrap, as in day satches. Wallet: Small envelope-shaped bag for keeping money, betel leaves, etc. Cover for Quran (ghilaf in A
Baluchar Sari or Baluchuri Sari is a type of sari, a garment worn by women across India and Bangladesh. This particular type of sari originated in Bengal and is known for depictions of mythological scenes on the pallu of the sari, it was produced in Murshidabad but presently Bishnupur and its surrounding places of West Bengal is the only place where authentic Baluchuri saris are produced. It takes one week to produce one such sari; the Baluchari Sari has been granted the status of geographical indication in India. In the history of textiles in Bengal, Baluchari or Baluchuri came much after muslin. Two hundred years ago Baluchari was practiced in a small village called Baluchar in Murshidabad district, from where it got its name. In the eighteenth century, Murshidkuli Khan, Nawab of Bengal patronized its rich weaving tradition and brought the craft of making this sari from Dhaka to the Baluchar village in Murshidabad and encouraged the industry to flourish. After a flood of the Ganga river and the subsequent submerging of the village, the industry moved to Bishnupur village in Bankura district.
Baluchari Sari made of tassar silk and a thousand years old when the Jagat Malla king rule in Mallabhum. This flourishing trend declined during British rule, due to political and financial reasons, it became. In the first half of twentieth century, Subho Thakur, a famous artist, felt the need to recultivate the rich tradition of Baluchari craft. Though Bishnupur was always famous for its silk, he invited Akshay Kumar Das, a master weaver of Bishnupur, to his center to learn the technique of jacquard weaving. Sri Das went back to Bishnupur and worked hard to weave Baluchari on their looms with the financial and moral support of Sri Hanuman Das Sarda of Silk Khadi Seva Mandal. Once Bishnupur was the capital of Malla dynasty and different kinds of crafts flourished during their period under the patronage of Malla kings. Temples made of terracotta bricks were one achievement of these rulers. A major influence of these temples can be seen in Baluchari sarees. Mythological stories taken from the walls of temples and woven on Baluchari sarees is a common feature in Bishnupur.
The production process of Baluchari or Baluchuri can be divided into several parts: Cultivation of cocoons: Since the discovery so many years ago that the fibre or filament composing the cocoon of the silkworm can be constructed into a beautiful and durable fabric, silkworms have been bred for the sole purpose of producing raw silk. Processing of yarns: To make the yarn soft, it is boiled in a solution of soda and soap and dyed in acid colour, according to the requirement of the sari; the yarn is stretched from both the sides in opposite directions putting some force with both palms. This process is needed to make the yarn crisper. Motif making: Making of the motifs for'pallavs' and other part of Baluchari is in itself an intricate process; the design is drawn on a graph paper, it is coloured and punching is done using cards. After punching, these cards are fixed in the jacquard machine. Weaving: After the jacquard loom has been introduced, the weaving of a Baluchari sari takes five to six days.
Two weavers work on a shifting basis. Baluchari thus prepared becomes a sign of the attire of status. Maintenance of quality of Baluchari sari is taken care of precisely; the quality is checked from the stage of dying of the yarn to the packaging of the sari. Baluchari saris, or locally called Baluchuri saris, today have depictions from scenes of Mahabharat and Ramayana. During the Mughal and British eras, they had a square design in the pallu with paisley motifs in them, depicted scenes from the lives of the Nawab of Bengal featuring women smoking hookahs, nawabs driving horse carriages, European officers of the East India Company, it would take two craftsmen working for a week to produce one sari. The main material used is silk and the sari is polished after weaving. While there isn’t a lot of variation in the method of weaving used today, balucharis can be broadly categorized based on the threads used in weaving the patterns: Baluchari: The simplest balucharis have resham threads in a single colour to weave the entire pattern Baluchari: These balucharis have threads in two or more colours with attractive meenakari work that further brightens the patterns Swarnachari called Swarnachuri: They are the most gorgeous balucharis, woven with gold or silver coloured threads that illuminate the patterns to a much larger extent.
These saris were worn by women from upper class and Zamindar households in Bengal during festive occasions and weddings. With the changing times, the Baluchari sari has had a makeover and a touch of eco-friendliness in terms of the used yarns and colours. Cotton Kapas is spun with fibres of banana plants and bamboo shoots and the dyes are extracts of fruits, flowers and vegetables such as pomegranate, neem fruits and leaves, basil leaves, marigold flowers and others; the organic baluchari cotton sarees were displayed in the sari fair organised by Rang Mahal, a forum of weavers from Nadia district in West Bengal. However, with the GI certification of Baluchari or Baluchuri sarees with reference to Bankura district of West Bengal in India, it is now not permitted to use the term Baluchari or Baluchuri for any other similar product based on cotton or any other material; the Baluchari sari was one of the award winners for the main weaving styles amongst 34 National Awards for the years 2009 and 2010 presented by the Hon.
President Pranab Mukherjee. The Baluchari sari of Bankura was s