Edinburgh Airport is an airport located in the Ingliston area of the City of Edinburgh, United Kingdom. It was the busiest airport in Scotland in 2018, handling over 14.3 million passengers in that year, an increase of 6.5% compared with 2017. It was the sixth-busiest airport in the United Kingdom by total passengers in 2018, it is located 5 NM west of the city centre, just off the M9 motorways. It is owned and operated by Global Infrastructure Partners, who are the majority shareholder and lead the management of Gatwick Airport; the airport has one runway and one passenger terminal, employs about 2,500 people. Turnhouse Aerodrome was the most northerly British air defence base in World War I used by the Royal Flying Corps; the small base opened in 1916 and it was used to house the 603 Squadron from 1925, which consisted of DH 9As, Westland Wapitis, Hawker Harts, Hawker Hind light bombers. All the aircraft used a grass air strip. In 1918 the Royal Air Force was formed and the airfield was named RAF Turnhouse and ownership transferred to the Ministry of Defence.
When the Second World War broke out, RAF Fighter Command took control over the airfield and a runway of 3,900 ft was paved to handle the Supermarine Spitfire. During the Battle of Britain, 3, 65, 141 Squadrons were present at the airbase; when the war ended the airfield remained under military control, but by the late 1940s the first commercial services were launched. In 1947, British European Airways started a service between Edinburgh and London using Vickers Vikings followed by the Viscount and Vanguard series. In 1952 the runway was extended to 6000 ft to handle the Vampire FB5s operated by the resident 603 Squadron. In 1956 a new passenger terminal was built to provide an improved commercial service. After the disbandment of 603 Squadron in March 1957, the Ministry of Defence transferred ownership to the Ministry of Aviation in 1960 to offer improved commercial service to the airport. Flying was temporarily diverted to East Fortune, which had its runway extended to accommodate the airliners of the period.
The British Airports Authority took over ownership of the airport on 1 April 1971 at a time when the original terminal building was running at about eight times its design capacity. Immediate improvements to the terminal were cosmetic, such as extra seating and TV monitors for flight information, it took two years for plans to be proposed for a new terminal and runway redesign. A public consultation on planning started in November 1971 and ended in February 1972. Initial stages of the redevelopment began in June 1973. Work on the new terminal building, designed by Sir Robert Matthew, started in March 1975, the building was opened by Her Majesty the Queen on 27 May 1977, opening to the public two days later. Although the original main runway 13/31 served the airport well, its alignment had the disadvantage of suffering from severe crosswinds, the other two minor runways were short and could not be extended, so movements were transferred to a new runway in an addition outside the original airfield boundary.
This runway, completed in 1977, is 2,556 m in length, was able to take all modern airliners including Concorde. A new terminal was built alongside the runway to cater for the additional traffic; the old terminal and hangars were converted into a cargo centre. International service from Edinburgh began in 1962 with a direct service to Dublin, but for many years international flights were charter and private only; this started to change during the late 1970s, with direct services to continental Europe. By the mid-1980s direct routes included Paris, Düsseldorf, Brussels and Copenhagen, but direct transatlantic flights were not yet possible as Prestwick was the only "designated gateway" in Scotland under the US-UK Bermuda II Agreement. By the time BAA had been privatised in 1987, Edinburgh Airport handled over 1.8 million passengers each year. RAF Turnhouse was operational near the passenger terminal of the airport for all of the post war period, but was closed in 1997. Since the original terminal upgrade in 1977, there have been major reconstructions, including extensions of the two passenger terminal aprons and a major expansion of car parking facilities, including a multi-storey car park in 2004.
In 2005, a new 57-metre-tall air traffic control tower was completed at a cost of £10m. An extension to the terminal called the South East Pier opened in September 2006; this extension added six gates on a new pier to the south-east of the original building. A further four gates were added to the South East Pier at the end of 2008. On 19 October 2011, BAA Limited announced its intention to sell the airport, following a decision by the UK's Competition Commission requiring BAA to sell either Glasgow Airport or Edinburgh Airport. BAA announced on 23 April 2012 that it had sold Edinburgh Airport to Global Infrastructure Partners for a price of £807.2 million. In 2013, a further extension to the passenger terminal was announced, taking the terminal building up to the Edinburgh Airport tram stop; the opening of the Edinburgh Trams in May 2014 created the first rail connection to Edinburgh Airport. Whilst the number of passengers has increased, the number of flights decreased in 2014 due to plane
London Stansted Airport
London Stansted Airport is an international airport located at Stansted Mountfitchet in the district of Uttlesford in Essex, 42 mi northeast of Central London and 0.9 mi from the Hertfordshire border. London Stansted serves 200 destinations across Middle East and Africa. Stansted is a base for a number of major European low-cost carriers, being the largest base for low-cost airline Ryanair, with over 130 destinations served by the airline. In 2015 it was the fourth busiest airport in the United Kingdom after Heathrow and Manchester. Stansted's runway is used by private companies such as the Harrods Aviation, Titan Airways and XJet terminals which are private ground handlers who are able to handle private flights, charter flights and state visits. STN has a transit inside which helps people to travel to their designated gates and terminals. Owned and operated by BAA, since February 2013 the airport has been in the hands of Manchester Airports Group following a March 2009 ruling by the Competition Commission.
London Stansted Airport has one main passenger terminal, near the village of Stansted Mountfitchet. There are three passenger satellites; the terminal building was designed by Foster Associates with input from the structural engineer Peter Rice, features a "floating" roof, supported by a space frame of inverted-pyramid roof trusses, creating the impression of a stylised swan in flight. The base of each truss structure is a "utility pillar", which provides indirect uplighting illumination and is the location for air-conditioning, telecommunications and electrical outlets; the layout of the airport was designed to provide an unobstructed flow for passengers to arrive at the short-stay car park, move through the check-in hall, go through security and on to the departure gates all on the same level. From 1997 to 2007, Stansted saw rapid expansion of passenger numbers on the back of the boom in low-cost air travel, peaking at 24 million passengers in the 12 months to October 2007, but passenger numbers declined in the next five years to 2012.
Passenger totals increased, in 2016 recorded an annual increase of 8.0% to 24.3 million and numbers have since continued to rise. The airfield opened in 1943 and was used during the Second World War as RAF Stansted Mountfitchet by the Royal Air Force and the United States Army Air Forces as a bomber airfield and as a major maintenance depot. Although the official name was Stansted Mountfitchet, the base was known as Stansted in both written and spoken form; the station was first allocated to the USAAF Eighth Air Force in August 1942 as a heavy bomber airfield. As well as an operational bomber base, Stansted was a Air Technical Services Command maintenance and supply depot concerned with major overhauls and modification of B-26s. After D-Day, these activities were transferred to France, but the base was still used as a supply storage area for the support of aircraft on the continent. After the withdrawal of the Americans on 12 August 1945, Stansted was taken over by the Air Ministry and used by No. 263 Maintenance Unit, RAF for storage purposes.
In addition, between March 1946 and August 1947, Stansted was used for housing German prisoners of war. In November 1946, the established british cargo airline, London Aero and Motor Services, equipped with ex-RAF Handley Page Halifaxes, moved into Stansted, using it as a base for its operations, until it was wound up in July 1948; the Ministry of Civil Aviation took control of Stansted in 1949 and the airport was used as a base by several UK charter airlines. The US military returned in 1954 to extend the runway for a possible transfer to NATO; the transfer to NATO was never realised and the airport continued in civil use, ending up under BAA control in 1966. During the 1960s, 1970s and early 1980s the Fire Service Training School was based on the eastern side of the airfield under the auspices of the Ministry of Transport and Civil Aviation, now the Civil Aviation Authority; the school was responsible for the training of all aviation fire crews for British airfields as well as those of many overseas countries.
Beginning in 1966, after Stansted was placed under BAA control, the airport was used by holiday charter operators wishing to escape the higher costs associated with operating from Heathrow and Gatwick. Stansted had been held in reserve as a third London airport since the 1950s. However, after a public inquiry at Chelmsford In 1966-67 the Government set up the Roskill Commission to review the need afresh; the Commission for the Third London Airport of 1968-71 did not include Stansted as one of its four short-listed sites and recommended that Cublington in Buckinghamshire should be developed as London's third airport.. However, the Conservative Government under Ted Heath agreed with a minority recommendation that a site at Foulness in the Thames Estuary renamed Maplin, should be developed. But, in 1974, the incoming Labour Government under Harold Wilson cancelled the Maplin project because of the economic situation. Stansted was considered as an option for long term development in the Advisory Committee on Airports Policy and the Study Group on South East Airports and was selected from a short list of six by the Conservative Government in December 1979.
The proposal, for a new terminal associated with the existing runway and the safeguarding of land for a second runway, was considered at the Airports Inquiries of 1981-83. The Inspector's Report was published in 1984 and the decision, announced in a White Paper
Transavia incorporated as Transavia Airlines C. V. and branded as transavia.com, is a Dutch low-cost airline and a wholly owned subsidiary of KLM and therefore part of the Air France-KLM group. Its main base is Amsterdam Airport Schiphol and it has other bases at Rotterdam The Hague Airport and Eindhoven Airport. Transavia maintains Transavia France as its French subsidiary; the first brainstorming sessions about starting a second charter company in the Netherlands, after Martinair, started in spring 1966, when the American Chalmers Goodlin met with captain Pete Holmes. "Slick" Goodlin had bought the dormant small company Transavia Limburg, based in Maastricht, which had 3 DC-6's available. The Dutch Government needed to be approached in order to obtain an operating license for the airline, both in order to be allowed to operate out of Amsterdam Airport, for these DC6s. At that stage John Block, a former member of the Martinair Holland management, was willing to take that on, he succeeded, the license was issued on 14 November 1966 and 2 days on 16 November 1966 the first commercial flight, flown by Captain Pete Holmes – Amsterdam/Naples/Amsterdam – on board were the Dutch Ballet Orchestra and the Dutch Dance Theatre.
This was the first flight with the new name of Transavia Holland. The company found offices at the old Schiphol Airport, Hangar 7 and the fledgling's financier Slick Goodlin appointed the three-pronged management: Commercial Director J. N. Block, Director Operations H. G. Holmes and Technical Director Kees de Blok; some of the first employees were pilots John Schurman, Hans Steinbacher & Pim Sierks, Chief Stewardess Willy Holmes-Spoelder and her stewardesses: Senior Stewardess Wil Dammers and six selected and trained young women. The first of fourteen secondhand Sud Caravelle twin-jet airliners to be operated by Transavia was delivered in summer 1969 and the type remained in service with the airline until being displaced by further deliveries of Boeing 737s in 1976. Building up the airline from scratch, ten years Transavia had a marketshare of 45% of the Dutch holiday market and became the main competitor of Martinair. In 1986, the Transavia Holland brand was changed into Transavia Airlines, it was the first airline to take advantage of the first open skies agreement signed between the UK and Dutch governments.
Transavia started operating its first scheduled service on the Amsterdam to London Gatwick route on 26 October 1986. During 1991, the airline's major shareholder, sold its 80% holding to KLM. In 1998, Transavia was the first foreign airline to operate domestic services in Greece following a change in Greek aviation law. In June 2003, KLM acquired the remaining 20 % of Transavia; the subsequent merger of Air France and KLM made Transavia a wholly owned subsidiary of Air France-KLM. In the early 2000s, Transavia was a charter airline with a low-cost airline subsidiary called Basiq Air. To strengthen its brand image, the two were combined under the transavia.com name on 1 January 2005. Transavia has Transavia France, based at Paris-Orly, which operates twenty 737-800s. A Danish unit, Transavia Denmark, based at Copenhagen was operated until the end of April 2011, but was shut down after failing to meet expectations. A strike was organised by Air France pilots in September 2014, in protest against the Air France-KLM group's increased focus on the development of Transavia, whose pilots were being paid less than those of Air France.
By early 2015, Transavia received a new corporate design dropping the ".com" from its public appearance and changed its primary colors from white/green/blue to white/green. The airline is now to be positioned as Air France-KLM's low-cost brand for the Netherlands and France. In February 2017, Transavia announced that it would shut down its base at Munich Airport by late October 2017 after only a year of service due to a change in their business strategy and negative economic outlook. Transavia has its head office in the TransPort Building, Schiphol East, on the grounds of Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, Netherlands. Transavia moved into the new building on 3 May 2010 with about 400 employees; the head office was in the Building Triport III at Schiphol Airport. Transavia Airlines C. V. is 100% owned by KLM, which in turn is owned by Air France–KLM. It holds a 40% interest in the French airline Transavia France S. A. S, which operates in the French market. Transavia France operates under the brand name of transavia, with an identical business model and image.
The financials for both parts of the Transavia brand are incorporated in the published annual accounts of their ultimate parent, Air France-KLM. Results reported for the Transavia brand are: Transavia offers the "Selection on Board" buy on board service offering food and drinks for purchase. Commencing 5 April 2011, Transavia introduced fees for hold luggage and changed the rules for hand luggage, with the maximum allowable weight for hand luggage increased from 5 kg to 10 kg; as of January 2018, the Transavia Netherlands fleet consists of the following aircraft: During the busy summer season, Transavia leases additional 737 aircraft from Sun Country Airlines, a US airline based in Eagan, Minnesota. During the slower winter season, which corresponds to Sun Country's busy season, Sun Country leases several planes from Transavia; this reciprocal arrangement allows both airlines to balance their fleets to reflect seasonal demand. Transav
Leeds Bradford Airport
Leeds Bradford Airport is located at Yeadon, in the City of Leeds Metropolitan District in West Yorkshire, about 7 miles northwest of Leeds city centre itself, about 9 miles from Bradford city centre. It was opened in October 1931 as Yeadon Aerodrome, is still referred to as Yeadon Airport by locals, it serves the cities of Leeds and Bradford, as well as the wider Yorkshire region including the cities of York and Wakefield, the District of Harrogate, is the largest airport within Yorkshire. The airport was in public ownership until May 2007, when it was sold for £145.5 million to Bridgepoint Capital. Leeds Bradford has a CAA Public Use Aerodrome Licence that allows flights for the public transport of passengers and for flight training; the Airport operates to many European destinations. The airport is the highest in England at an elevation of 681 ft. By the number of passengers handled in 2016, Leeds Bradford was the 15th busiest airport in the UK, it is a base for Eastern Jet2.com and Ryanair.
The airport was opened as the "Leeds and Bradford Municipal Aerodrome" on 17 October 1931 and was operated by the Yorkshire Aeroplane Club on behalf of Leeds and Bradford Corporations. In 1935 the aerodrome was expanded by 35 acres and scheduled flights began on 8 April 1935 with a service by North Eastern Airways from London to Newcastle upon Tyne; the service was soon extended to Edinburgh. In June 1935 Blackpool and West Coast Air Services started a service to the Isle of Man. By 1936 the London/Yeadon/Newcastle/Edinburgh service was flying three times a week and stopped at Doncaster and carried on to Aberdeen. Seasonal flights between Yeadon and Liverpool commenced. Work began on a terminal building, but progress was halted after only one section had been completed. Civil aviation at Yeadon was halted with the outbreak of the Second World War. Avro built a new shadow factory, just to the north of the aerodrome. Around 5,515 aircraft were produced and delivered from Yeadon of the following main types: Anson, Bristol Blenheim, Lancaster bomber and the Lincoln.
The Avro factory was camouflaged and had dummy cows placed on top of the factory so that from the air it would look just like fields with cattle. The original hangers remain to this day. Significant improvements were made to the aerodrome. Civil flights recommenced at the airport in 1947, after Geoff Rennard fought for Leeds and Bradford to have an aerodrome, gained permission for an Aero Club, he was appointed Airport Manager and stayed at the post for 5 years. Subsequently, Yeadon Aviation Ltd was formed in 1953 to run the Aero Club. Two years in 1955 flights to Belfast, Ostend, the Isle of Wight and Düsseldorf were added to Yeadon's destination list. Scheduled flights to London began in 1960, Dublin was added shortly after. A new runway was opened in 1965, in that year the terminal building was destroyed by a fire, with a replacement terminal opened by 1968. By the mid 1970s the package holiday had become popular in the UK and in 1976 the first holiday charter flight to the Iberian Peninsula departed Leeds Bradford.
In 1978, it was decided that, with runway extensions, the airport could be upgraded to regional airport status. Work began in 1982, was completed in November 1984; this included a significant extension to the main runway, including the construction of a tunnel to take the A658 Bradford to Harrogate road beneath the runway. The airport underwent significant extensions and redevelopments to the Terminal building, the first phase of, opened on 18 July 1985. On 4 November 1984, the day the runway extension was opened, Wardair commenced transatlantic flights from Leeds Bradford to Toronto, using Boeing 747s, though these flights were discontinued in 1989 when Wardair ceased operations. However, Worldways Canada, Odyssey International, Air Transat and Caledonian all operated the route well into the 1990s using a mixture of Lockheed Tristar and Boeing 757 200 equipment. On 2 August 1986, an Air France Concorde charter flight from Paris landed at Leeds Bradford for the first time, an estimated 70,000 people were there to see it.
Occasional Concorde charter flights, all of which used British Airways aircraft, continued until June 2000, just one month before the Concorde disaster in Paris. The airport had restricted operating hours, this deterred many charter airlines, whose cheap fares depended on'round-the-clock' use of their aircraft. In 1994, these restrictions were removed and flights could use the airport 24 hours a day, so more airlines were attracted to Leeds Bradford. Work on the airport terminal has been ongoing since 1996, the result of this has been significant growth in terminal size and passenger facilities. In 2007 nearly 2.9 million passengers passed through the airport, an 88% increase in just seven years and more than twice as many compared with 1997. Much of the growth in passenger numbers since 2003 has been due to the introduction of scheduled flights by the based low-cost airline Jet2.com. Between 2000 and 2013, the airport was home to the West/South air platform of the Yorkshire Air Ambulance, it moved to Nostell in November 2013.
The original runway was closed on 6 October 2005, to be redeveloped as a taxiway and to provide additional apron space. In N
Bristol Airport, at Lulsgate Bottom in North Somerset, is the commercial airport serving the city of Bristol and the surrounding area. It is 7 nautical miles southwest of Bristol city centre. Built on the site of a former RAF airfield, it opened in 1957 as Bristol Airport, replacing Bristol Airport as Bristol's municipal airport. From 1997 to 2010 it was known as Bristol International Airport. In 1997 a majority shareholding in the airport was sold to FirstGroup, in 2001 the airport was sold to a joint venture of Macquarie Bank and others. In September 2014, Ontario Teachers' Pension Plan bought out Macquarie to become the sole owner. In 2018 it was ranked the ninth busiest airport in the United Kingdom, handling nearly 8.7 million passengers, an over 5% increase compared with 2017. A passenger survey carried out in 2015 found that 32.5% of journeys using the airport started or ended in the city of Bristol, 9.6% in Gloucestershire, 24.5% in Somerset and 16.9% in Devon. Airlines with operating bases at the airport include Ryanair.
The airport has a Civil Aviation Authority Public Use Aerodrome Licence that allows flights for the public transport of passengers and for flying instruction. In 1927 a group of local businessmen raised £6,000 through public subscription to start the Bristol and Wessex Aeroplane Club, a flying club based at Filton Aerodrome. In 1929, Bristol Corporation took up the club's proposal to develop farmland located at Whitchurch, to the south of Bristol, into a municipal airport. On its opening by Prince George, Duke of Kent in 1930, Bristol Airport was the third civil airport in the United Kingdom. Passenger numbers grew to 4,000 by 1939. During World War II, Whitchurch was the main civil airport remaining operational; the newly formed British Overseas Airways Corporation was transferred to Whitchurch from Croydon Airport and Heston Airport. BOAC operated routes around the British Empire and to neutral nations, including the Bristol–Lisbon route, operated by the Dutch airline KLM, under charter to BOAC.
In September 1940, No 10 Elementary Flying Training School at RAF Weston-super-Mare established a Relief Landing Ground on 14 acres at Broadfield Down by the hamlet of Lulsgate Bottom, near Redhill. Being high, at 600 ft, the site had a poor weather record during warm front conditions, when it was covered in low cloud. However, when this occurred the alternative airfields at Filton and Cardiff were clear and operational. Few facilities were constructed although pillboxes, defensive anti-aircraft guns and two Blister hangars were added. In late 1940, a Starfish site was set up south of the village of Downside and just west of the airfield, its decoy fires attracted a large quantity of Luftwaffe high explosives and incendiaries on the nights of 16 March, 3 April and 4 April 1941 during the Bristol Blitz. In 1941, RAF Fighter Command planned to use the airfield for an experimental unit, after requisitioning land from several adjacent farms, contracted George Wimpey and Company to begin work on 11 June 1941.
However, its intended use soon changed into being a satellite airfield for the fighter squadrons based at RAF Colerne. The new airfield's name was to be RAF Broadfield Down; the runways used the standard triangular pattern. The main, east-west runway was 3,891 ft long, with a designated alignment of 28/10, the others were 3,300 ft aligned 21/03 and 3,294 ft aligned 34/16; the first aircraft to land was a Luftwaffe Ju 88 at 06.20 on 24 July 1941. Returning from a raid, it was confused by the RAF electronic countermeasures radio beacon at Lympsham, re-radiating the signal from a Luftwaffe homing beacon at Brest, France. By 1942, there was no longer a need for an additional fighter airfield. With its name changed to RAF Lulsgate Bottom, the airfield was declared operational on 15 January 1942; the Miles Masters, Airspeed Oxfords and Hawker Hurricanes of No. 286 Squadron became resident, with the duty of providing realistic exercises for ground anti-aircraft defences. However, as the site lacked some basic facilities, No. 286 moved to RAF Zeals in May.
From 1 June 1942, the airfield was under No. 23 Group of Flying Training Command, became a satellite airfield for No. 3 Advanced Flying Unit, based at RAF South Cerney, flying Oxfords. In March 1943, No. 1540 Beam Approach Training Flight was formed at Lulsgate. On 27 September 1943, 3 AFU left Lulsgate for RAF Southrop, was replaced on 1 October 1943 by No. 3 Flying Instructors School, headquartered at RAF Hullavington. 3 FIS flew Oxfords and some Masters. In 1944, BOAC started to use the airfield for Dakota and Liberator crew training, BOAC flights made use of it as an alternate airfield for Whitchurch, for topping-up fuel on the Bristol–Lisbon route. On 6 February 1945, 1540 BATF left for RAF Weston Zoyland. On 18 July 1945, 3 FIS was absorbed into 7 FIS. With the war over, the RAF ceased training at Lulsgate on 15 April 1946, the next month 7 FIS left the airfield and joined the Central Flying School at RAF Little Rissington; the RAF abandoned Lulsgate on 25 October 1946. From 1948, the site was the home of the Bristol Gliding Club.
In 1949 and 1950, the Bristol Motor Cycle and Light Car Club hosted motor races on a 2 mi circuit known as Lulsgate Aerodrome, but due to planning and noise issues moved in 1950 to a site that became known as Castle Combe Circuit. Whitchurch
Manchester Airport is an international airport at Ringway, Greater Manchester, England, 7.5 nautical miles south-west of Manchester city centre. In 2016, it was the third busiest airport in the United Kingdom in terms of passenger numbers and the busiest outside London; the airport comprises three passenger terminals and a goods terminal, is the only airport in the UK other than Heathrow Airport to operate two runways over 3,280 yd in length. Manchester Airport covers an area of 560 hectares and has flights to 199 destinations, placing the airport thirteenth globally for total destinations served. Opened on 25 June 1938, it was known as Ringway Airport, why it is still referred to as "Ringway" to this day. In the Second World War, as RAF Ringway, it was a base for the Royal Air Force; the airport is owned and managed by the Manchester Airports Group, a holding company owned by the Australian finance house IFM Investors and the ten metropolitan borough councils of Greater Manchester, with Manchester City Council owning the largest stake.
Ringway, after which the airport was named, is a village with a few buildings and church at the southern edge of the airport. Future developments include the £800 million Manchester Airport City logistics, manufacturing and hotel space next to the airport. Ongoing and future transport improvements include the £290 million Eastern Link relief road, due to open in summer 2019. A High Speed 2 station known as Manchester Interchange, is earmarked for opening in 2033, will directly connect the airport to Central London in under an hour and create a regular sub-10 minute shuttle service for connecting rail passengers from central Manchester to the Airport - relieving stress on the Styal Line to the Airport from Manchester which has become one of the most congested routes on the National Rail network. After the airport handled a record 27.8 million passengers in 2017, the Airport is undergoing a major expansion programme to double the size of Terminal 2, with the first phase due to open in spring 2019.
The £1 billion expansion will be completed in 2024 and enable the Terminal 2 to handle 35 million passengers. Capacity exists for up to 50 million passengers annually with two runways, however this potential figure is limited by the airport's restriction to 61 aircraft movements per hour as well as existing terminal sizes to process arrivals and departures. Construction started on Ringway on 28 November 1935 and opened in June 1937 and on 25 June 1938, in Ringway parish, north of Wilmslow, its northern border was Yewtree Lane between Firtree Farm and The Grange, east of the crossroads marked "Ringway", its southeast border a little west of Altrincham Road, along the lane from Oversleyford running northeast east into Styal. During the Second World War, it was the Royal Air Force's base RAF Ringway and was important in military aircraft production and training parachutists. After the Second World War, the base reverted to a civilian airport and expanded to its present size. Manchester Airport was the busiest airport after Heathrow for a number of decades following the war.
In 1972, the M56 motorway opened to the airport. By 1993, the airport railway station opened. From 1997 to 2001 its second runway was built, causing large-scale protests in the Cheshire in the village of Styal where natural habitats were disturbed and listed buildings were dismantled to make way for the second runway. More British Airways have scaled down operations from the Manchester Airport with the sale of their BA Connect subsidiary to Flybe. In October 2008 the daily New York–JFK service was terminated and in March 2013, the frequent service to London–Gatwick was terminated as well; this leaves a BA Shuttle serving London Heathrow. American Airlines operations remain in Terminal 3 with daily flights to Philadelphia, but has terminated services to New York and Charlotte, North Carolina. Since taking over BA Connect's select routes, Flybe has gone on to add several more destinations. In 2012, Flybe introduced the "mini hub" concept co-ordinating the arrival and departure times of various domestic services throughout the day and thereby creating combinations such as Norwich-Manchester-Belfast, Glasgow-Manchester-Southampton or Edinburgh-Manchester-Exeter and others to be accomplished in each direction with conveniently short transfer times.
In 2013 Virgin Atlantic introduced its'Little Red' short-haul brand to take-up some of the available Heathrow and Gatwick slots. Manchester was the inaugural destination, with services were operated by aircraft'wet-leased' from Aer Lingus. However, these services ceased in March 2015 due to low popularity; as of October 2017 there is a second London route by Flybe to London-Southend operating up to thrice daily. As part of the Government's'The Future of Air Transport' White Paper, Manchester Airport published its Master Plan on its proposed expansions until 2030. Demolition of older buildings, such as old storage buildings, the old Alpha Catering Building and Males Garage, to the east of Terminal 2 has begun, to make way for a new apron and taxiway towards runway 05L/23R and an eastwards extension of Terminal 2, planned to provide 15 more covered stands. A full-length parallel taxiway may be added to the second runway and more crossing points added across the first runway to improve ground movements of aircraft.
The World Logistics Hub is part of the Airport City Enterprise Developments in South Manchester. This development is designed to meet the growing demand for cargo handling space and
British Airways is the flag carrier and the second largest airline in the United Kingdom based on fleet size and passengers carried, behind easyJet. The airline is based in Waterside near its main hub at London Heathrow Airport. In January 2011 BA merged with Iberia, creating the International Airlines Group, a holding company registered in Madrid, Spain. IAG is the world's third-largest airline group in terms of annual revenue and the second-largest in Europe, it is listed in the FTSE 100 Index. BA was created in 1974 after a British Airways Board was established by the British government to manage the two nationalised airline corporations, British Overseas Airways Corporation and British European Airways, two regional airlines, Cambrian Airways from Cardiff, Northeast Airlines from Newcastle upon Tyne. On 31 March 1974, all four companies were merged to form British Airways. After 13 years as a state company, BA was privatised in February 1987 as part of a wider privatisation plan by the Conservative government.
The carrier expanded with the acquisition of British Caledonian in 1987, Dan-Air in 1992, British Midland International in 2012. Its preeminence highlights the reach of the country's influence as many of its destinations in several regions were part of the British Empire, it is a founding member of the Oneworld airline alliance, along with American Airlines, Cathay Pacific and the now defunct Canadian Airlines. The alliance has since grown to become the third largest, after Star Alliance. Proposals to establish a joint British airline, combining the assets of the British Overseas Airways Corporation and British European Airways were first raised in 1953 as a result of difficulties in attempts by BOAC and BEA to negotiate air rights through the British colony of Cyprus. BOAC was protesting that BEA was using its subsidiary Cyprus Airways to circumvent an agreement that BEA would not fly routes further east than Cyprus to the important oil regions in the Middle East; the Chairman of BOAC, Miles Thomas, was in favour of merger as a potential solution to this disagreement and had backing for the idea from the Chancellor of the Exchequer at the time, Rab Butler.
However, opposition from the Treasury blocked the proposal. It was only following the recommendations of the 1969 Edwards Report that a new British Airways Board, managing both BEA and BOAC, the two regional British airlines Cambrian Airways based at Cardiff, Northeast Airlines based at Newcastle upon Tyne, was constituted on 1 April 1972. Although each airline's individual branding was maintained two years the British Airways Board unified its branding establishing British Airways as an airline on 31 March 1974. Following two years of fierce competition with British Caledonian, the second-largest airline in the United Kingdom at the time, the Government changed its aviation policy in 1976 so that the two carriers would no longer compete on long-haul routes. British Airways and Air France operated the supersonic airliner Aerospatiale-BAC Concorde, the world's first supersonic passenger service flew in January 1976 from London Heathrow to Bahrain. Services to the US began on 24 May 1976 with a flight to Washington Dulles airport, flights to New York JFK airport followed on 22 September 1977.
Service to Singapore was established in co-operation with Singapore Airlines as a continuation of the flight to Bahrain. Following the Air France Concorde crash in Paris and a slump in air travel following the 11 September attacks in New York in 2001, it was decided to cease Concorde operations in 2003 after 27 years of service; the final commercial Concorde flight was BA002 from New York JFK to London Heathrow on 24 October 2003. In 1981 the airline was instructed to prepare for privatisation by the Conservative Thatcher government. Sir John King Lord King, was appointed chairman, charged with bringing the airline back into profitability. While many other large airlines struggled, King was credited with transforming British Airways into one of the most profitable air carriers in the world; the flag carrier was privatised and was floated on the London Stock Exchange in February 1987. British Airways effected the takeover of the UK's "second" airline, British Caledonian, in July of that same year.
The formation of Richard Branson's Virgin Atlantic in 1984 created a competitor for BA. The intense rivalry between British Airways and Virgin Atlantic culminated in the former being sued for libel in 1993, arising from claims and counterclaims over a "dirty tricks" campaign against Virgin; this campaign included allegations of poaching Virgin Atlantic customers, tampering with private files belonging to Virgin and undermining Virgin's reputation in the City. As a result of the case BA management apologised "unreservedly", the company agreed to pay £110,000 damages to Virgin, £500,000 to Branson and £3 million legal costs. Lord King stepped down as chairman in 1993 and was replaced by his deputy, Colin Marshall, while Bob Ayling took over as CEO. Virgin filed a separate action in the US that same year regarding BA's domination of the trans-Atlantic routes, but it was thrown out in 1999. In 1992 British Airways expanded through the acquisition of the financially troubled Dan-Air, giving BA a much larger presence at Gatwick airport.
British Asia Airways, a subsidiary based in Taiwan, was formed in March 1993 to operate between London and Taipei. That same month BA purchased a 25% stake in the Australian airline Qantas and, with the acquisition of Brymon Airways in May, formed British Airways Citiexpress. In September 1998, British Airways, along with American Airlines, Cathay Pacific and Canadian