Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Cilicia (Roman province)
Cilicia was an early Roman province, located on what is today the southern coast of Turkey. Cilicia was annexed to the Roman Republic in 64 BC by Pompey, as a consequence of his military presence in the east, after pursuing victory in the Third Mithridatic War, it was subdivided by Diocletian in around 297, it remained under Roman rule for several centuries, until falling to the Islamic conquests. Cilicia was the seat of the Ancient Kingdom of Armenia. It's Armenian heritage goes back thousands of years; the area was a haven for pirates. When the Cilician pirates began to attack Roman shipping and towns, the Roman senate decided to send various commanders to deal with the threat, it was during the course of these interventions. Parts of Cilicia Pedias became Roman territory in 103 BC, during Marcus Antonius Orator’s first campaign against the pirates. While the entire area of “Cilicia” was his “province”, or more his area of imperium during his propraetorial command, only a small portion of that region was made a Roman province at that time.
In 96 BC, Lucius Cornelius Sulla was appointed the propraetorial governor of Cilicia, during which time he stopped an invasion by Mithridates II of Parthia. In 80 BC, the governor of Cilicia was Gnaeus Cornelius Dolabella, convicted of illegally plundering the province, his replacement in 78 BC was Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus. He was given the responsibility of clearing out the pirates, his posting lasted until 74 BC. From 77 to 76 BC, he achieved a number of naval victories against the pirates off the Cilician coast, was able to occupy the Lycian and Pamphylian coasts. After the pirates fled to their fortified strongholds, Vatia Isauricus began attacking their coastal fortresses, he captured the town of Olympos before going on to capture Phaselis and subduing Corycus and a number of minor pirate strongholds. In 75 BC Vatia Isauricus advanced across the Taurus Mountains and succeeded in defeating the Isauri along the northern slopes, he laid siege to their principal town and managed to capture it after diverting the course of a river, thereby depriving the defenders in the town from their only source of water, after which they soon surrendered.
By 74 BC, Vatia Isauricus had organized the territory he had conquered and incorporated it into the province of Cilicia. Much of Cilicia Pedias was still held by Tigranes the Great and belonged to the kingdom of Armenia. While Cilicia Trachea was still under the domination of the pirates. Vatia Isauricus was succeeded as proconsul of Cilicia by Lucius Licinius Lucullus who used Isauricus' veterans and fleet to fight in the war against Mithridates IV of Pontus. Since Tigranes was Mithridates' ally Lucullus moved against his possessions in Cilicia Pedias and added them to the Roman province of Cilicia, it was not until Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus was granted his extraordinary command against the pirates in 67 BC, the decisive Battle of Korakesion, that the pirates were driven out and subdued, Cilicia Trachea was brought under Roman control. After Pompey was granted command of the Third Mithridatic War, he forced the surrender of King Triganes and proceeded to strip off of the king the parts of Cilicia Pedias that Triganes still possessed.
By 64 BC, Pompey had organized the new province, adding all of his recent conquests to the original province of Cilicia, made Tarsus the capital of the new province. Pompey's reorganized Cilicia had six parts: Cilicia Campestris, Cilicia Aspera, Pisidia and Lycaonia. To the east of Cilicia Campestris, Pompey left a local dynast, Tarcondimotus, in control of Anazarbos and Mount Amanus; the Tarcondimotid dynasty would continue to hold the region as staunch allies of Rome until the reign of Tiberius. In 58 BC, the island of Cyprus was added; this was the extent of the Roman province of Cilicia when Cicero was proconsul of Cilicia in 51-50 BC. The Romans had by now divided it into eight Conventus: the Conventus of Tarsus, where the governor resided; the province was reorganized by Julius Caesar in 47 BC. The Forum of Cibyra was attached to the province of Asia, together with the greater part of Pisidia, Pamphylia, as well as the Conventus of Apamea and Synnada. Further changes were made by Marcus Antonius in 36 BC, when he gave Cyprus and Cilicia Aspera to Cleopatra VII, eastern Phrygia with Lycaonia and Pisidia, to king Amyntas of Galatia.
In 27 BC, the Roman emperor Augustus made further changes, reducing the province of Cilicia still further. Cyprus was made a separate province; the result was that Cilicia was reduced to the original parts Campestris and Aspera, renamed Syria-Cilicia Phoenice. Under Augustus, Cilicia was an imperial province, administered by a consular Legatus Augusti pro praetore; as per the late Republican and early imperial methods of provincial rule, the western mountainous parts of Cilicia, which were not easy for a governor to manage, were left to the native princes. There were a total of three of these independ
Col de Montgenèvre
The Col de Montgenèvre is a high mountain pass in the Cottian Alps, in France 2 kilometres away from Italy. The pass takes its name from the village Montgenèvre, it links Briançon in the upper Durance valley with the Susa Valley and its communes of Cesana Torinese and Susa in the Metropolitan City of Turin, Piedmont. The Col de Montgenèvre is an important road connection, is kept open in winter, its importance has always lain in the fact that it is the lowest of the principal crossings of the main range of the Alps between France and Italy. It was known to the Romans before 118 BC, when Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus started construction of the Via Domitia road, which terminated at the pass. Pompey used it on his campaign to Spain in 77 BC, claiming to have opened up a route more favorable than hitherto, it was subsequently used by Julius Caesar in travelling to Gaul and became thereafter the main route for travel between Roman Italy and southern Gaul or Spain. The Col de Montgenèvre is considered a possible route for Hannibal's famous passage through the Alps on his journey from the Rhone river valley to Italy.
Through this pass Charles VIII of France led his army in September 1494 on his way to capture the Kingdom of Naples, which would spark 65 years of intermittent warfare up and down Italy known as the Italian Wars. The Col de Montgenèvre has appeared on the Tour de France 10 times; the first person over the summit on each occasion was: 1949 Tour de France: Gino Bartali Italy 1952 Tour de France: Fausto Coppi Italy 1956 Tour de France: Valentin Huot France 1966 Tour de France: Julio Jiménez Spain 1976 Tour de France: Joop Zoetemelk Netherlands 1992 Tour de France: Richard Virenque France 1996 Tour de France: Bjarne Riis Denmark 1997 Tour de France: Richard Virenque France 1999 Tour de France: Richard Virenque France 2011 Tour de France: Sylvain Chavanel France Cottii Regnum List of highest paved roads in Europe List of mountain passes Col de Montgenèvre on Google Maps
Hautes-Alpes is a department of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur in southeastern France named after the Alps mountain range. Hautes-Alpes is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790, it consists of the southeast of the north of Provence. At the time when the department was created, the two mountain communes of La Grave and Villar-d'Arêne campaigned to be included in Hautes-Alpes and not in the neighbouring department of Isère to which they had been assigned; this was because they hoped to benefit from the relative autonomy and certain fiscal privileges enjoyed by the region since the fourteenth century under the terms of the Statute of the Briançon Escartons. Napoleon passed through Gap when he returned to reclaim France after his exile on Elba using what is now known as Route Napoléon; the department is surrounded by the following French departments: Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, Drôme, Isère, Savoie. Italy borders it on the east with the Metropolitan City of Turin and the Province of Cuneo, region of Piedmont.
Hautes-Alpes is located in the Alps mountain range. The average elevation is over 1000 m, the highest elevation is over 4000 m; the only three sizable towns are Gap, Briançon, Embrun, the subprefecture until 1926. The third highest commune in all of Europe is the village of Saint-Véran. Gap and Briançon are subprefecture in France; the following rivers flow through the department: Durance Guisane Buëch Drac Clarée SéveraisseThe Durance has been dammed to create one of the largest artificial lakes in Western Europe: the Lac de Serre-Ponçon. The Queyras valley is located in the eastern part of the department and is noted by many as being an area of outstanding beauty; the inhabitants of the department are called Haut-Alpins. The mountainous terrain explains the sparse population, about 120,000, it changed little during the 19th century, but fell to about 85,000 after World War I. Thanks in large part to tourism, the population has risen from 87,436 in 1962 to 121,419 in 1999, principally in the town of Gap.
The President of the General Council is Jean-Yves Dusserre of the Union for a Popular Movement. The tourist industry is dependent on skiing in winter. In summer the Alpine scenery and many outdoor activities attract visitors from across Europe; the Tour de France passes through the department regularly. This draws many cycling fanatics to watch the race. Cantons of the Hautes-Alpes department Communes of the Hautes-Alpes department Arrondissements of the Hautes-Alpes department Hautes-Alpes at Curlie Official Website Prefecture website General Council webstite A village in the French Alps built by Vauban
Roman Armenia refers to the rule of parts of Greater Armenia by the Roman Empire, from the 1st century AD to the end of Late Antiquity. While Armenia Minor had become a client state and incorporated into the Roman Empire proper during the 1st century AD, Greater Armenia remained an independent kingdom under the Arsacid dynasty. Throughout this period, Armenia remained a bone of contention between Rome and the Parthian Empire, as well as the Sasanian Empire that succeeded the latter, the casus belli for several of the Roman–Persian Wars. Only in 114 -- 118 was Emperor Trajan able to incorporate it as a short-lived province. In the late 4th century, Armenia was divided between Rome and the Sasanians, who took control of the larger part of the Armenian Kingdom and in the mid-5th century abolished the Armenian monarchy. In the 6th and 7th centuries, Armenia once again became a battleground between the East Romans and the Sasanians, until both powers were defeated and replaced by the Muslim Caliphate in the mid-7th century.
Following the fall of the Artaxiad dynasty after Pompey's campaign in Armenia in 66 BC, the Kingdom of Armenia was contested between the Roman Empire and the Parthian Empire during the Roman–Parthian Wars. Throughout most of its history during this period, under the reign of the Arsacid Dynasty, the Armenian nobility was divided among Roman-loyalists, Parthian-loyalists or neutrals. Armenia served as a client state or vassal at the frontier of the two large empires and their successors, the Byzantine and Sassanid empires. During the Byzantine–Sasanian wars, Armenia was partitioned into Byzantine Armenia and Persian Armenia. With the eastwards expansion of the Roman Republic during the Mithridatic Wars, the Kingdom of Armenia, under the Artaxiad dynasty, was made a Roman protectorate by Pompey in 66/65 BC. For the next 100 years, Armenia remained under Roman influence. Towards the middle of the 1st century AD, the rising Parthian influence disputed Roman supremacy, re-established by the campaigns of Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo.
This conflict ended after the Battle of Rhandeia, in an effective stalemate and a formal compromise: a Parthian prince of the Arsacid line would henceforth sit on the Armenian throne, but his nomination had to be approved by the Roman emperor. In 114, Emperor Trajan incorporated Armenia into the Empire, making it a full Roman province.“From Antioch the emperor marched to the Euphrates and farther northward as far as the most northerly legion-camp Satala in Lesser Armenia, whence he advanced into Armenia and took the direction of Artaxata... Trajan was resolved to make this vassal-state a province, a shift to eastern frontier of the empire generally... Armenia yielded to its fate and became a Roman governorship... Trajan thereupon advanced and occupied Mesopotamia...and, like Armenia, Mesopotamia became a Roman province.” In 113, Trajan invaded the Parthian Empire. In 114, Trajan from Antiochia in Syria conquered the capital Artaxata. Trajan deposed the Armenian king Parthamasiris and ordered the annexation of Armenia to the Roman Empire as a new province.
The new province reached the shores of the Caspian Sea and bordered to the north with the Caucasian Iberia and Albania, two vassal states of Rome. As a Roman province Armenia was administered along with Cappadocia by Catilius Severus of the gens Claudia; the Roman Senate issued coins on this occasion bearing the following inscription: ARMENIA ET MESOPOTAMIA IN POTESTATEM P. R. REDACTAE, thus solidifying Armenia's position as the newest Roman province. A rebellion by the Parthian pretender Sanatruces was put down, though sporadic resistance continued and Vologases III of Parthia managed to secure an area of south-eastern Armenia just before Trajan's death in August 117. After Trajan's death, his successor Hadrian decided not to maintain the province of Armenia. In 118, Hadrian gave Armenia up, installed Parthamaspates as its king. Parthamaspates was soon defeated by the Parthians, again fled to the Romans, who granted him the co-rule of Osroene in western Greater Armenia as a consolation. Sohaemus was named king of Armenia by Roman emperor Antoninus Pius in 140.
Just a few years in 161, Armenia was lost again to Vologases IV of Parthia. In 163, a Roman counter-attack under Statius Priscus defeated the Parthians in Armenia and reinstalled Sohaemus as the Romans' favored candidate on the Armenian throne. Armenia was in frequent dispute between the two empires and their candidates for the Armenian throne, a situation which lasted until the emergence of a new power, the Sasanians. Rome's power and influence increased over the years since, but Armenia retained its independence if only as a vassal state, although it a Roman ally against the Sasanian Empire; when Roman emperor Septimius Severus sacked the Parthian capital of Ctesiphon, many Armenian soldiers were in his army. In the 4th century, they consisted of two Roman legions, the Legio I Armeniaca and the Legio II Armeniaca. In the second half of the 3rd century, the Sassanid capital of Ctesiphon and areas of southern Armenia were sacked by the Romans under Emperor Carus, all Armenia, after half a century of Persian rule, was ceded to Diocletian in 299 as a vassal territory.
In 363, a treaty was signed between the East Roman and Sassanid Persian empires, which divided Armenia between the two. The Persians retained the larger part of Armenia while the Romans received a small part of Western Armenia. Another treaty followed between 384 and 390, the Peace of Acilisene, which established a definite line of division, running from a point just east of Karin (soon to be renamed The
Ancient history as a term refers to the aggregate of past events from the beginning of writing and recorded human history and extending as far as the post-classical history. The phrase may be used either to refer to the period of the academic discipline; the span of recorded history is 5,000 years, beginning with Sumerian Cuneiform script. Ancient History covers all continents inhabited by humans in the 3,000 BC – 500 AD period; the broad term Ancient History is not to be confused with Classical Antiquity. The term classical antiquity is used to refer to Western History in the Ancient Mediterranean from the beginning of recorded Greek history in 776 BC; this coincides with the traditional date of the Founding of Rome in 753 BC, the beginning of the history of ancient Rome, the beginning of the Archaic period in Ancient Greece. The academic term "history" is not to be confused with colloquial references to times past. History is fundamentally the study of the past through documents, can be either scientific or humanistic.
Although the ending date of ancient history is disputed, some Western scholars use the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD, the closure of the Platonic Academy in 529 AD, the death of the emperor Justinian I in 565 AD, the coming of Islam or the rise of Charlemagne as the end of ancient and Classical European history. Outside of Europe the 450-500 time frame for the end of ancient times has had difficulty as a transition date from Ancient to Post-Classical times. During the time period of'Ancient History', starting from 3000 BC world population was exponentially increasing due to the Neolithic Revolution, in full progress. According to HYDE estimates from the Netherlands world population increased exponentially in this period. In 10,000 BC in Prehistory world population had stood at 2 million, rising to 45 million by 3,000 BC. By the rise of the Iron Age in 1,000 BC that population had risen to 72 million. By the end of the period in 500 AD world population stood at 209 million. In 3,500 years, world population increased by 100 times.
Historians have two major avenues which they take to better understand the ancient world: archaeology and the study of source texts. Primary sources are those sources closest to the origin of the idea under study. Primary sources have been distinguished from secondary sources, which cite, comment on, or build upon primary sources. Archaeology is the excavation and study of artifacts in an effort to interpret and reconstruct past human behavior. Archaeologists excavate the ruins of ancient cities looking for clues as to how the people of the time period lived; some important discoveries by archaeologists studying ancient history include: The Egyptian pyramids: giant tombs built by the ancient Egyptians beginning about 2600 BC as the final resting places of their royalty. The study of the ancient cities of Harappa, Mohenjo-daro, Lothal in India; the city of Pompeii: an ancient Roman city preserved by the eruption of a volcano in AD 79. Its state of preservation is so great that it is a valuable window into Roman culture and provided insight into the cultures of the Etruscans and the Samnites.
The Terracotta Army: the mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor in ancient China. The discovery of Knossos by Minos Kalokairinos and Sir Arthur Evans; the discovery of Troy by Heinrich Schliemann. Most of what is known of the ancient world comes from the accounts of antiquity's own historians. Although it is important to take into account the bias of each ancient author, their accounts are the basis for our understanding of the ancient past; some of the more notable ancient writers include Herodotus, Arrian, Polybius, Sima Qian, Livy, Josephus and Tacitus. A fundamental difficulty of studying ancient history is that recorded histories cannot document the entirety of human events, only a fraction of those documents have survived into the present day. Furthermore, the reliability of the information obtained from these surviving records must be considered. Few people were capable of writing histories, as literacy was not widespread in any culture until long after the end of ancient history; the earliest known systematic historical thought emerged in ancient Greece, beginning with Herodotus of Halicarnassus.
Thucydides eliminated divine causality in his account of the war between Athens and Sparta, establishing a rationalistic element which set a precedent for subsequent Western historical writings. He was the first to distinguish between cause and immediate origins of an event; the Roman Empire was an ancient culture with a high literacy rate, but many works by its most read historians are lost. For example, Livy, a Roman historian who lived in the 1st century BC, wrote a history of Rome called Ab Urbe Condita in 144 volumes. Indeed, only a minority of the work of any major Roman historian has survived. Click the above link to find a listed timeline that provides an overview for Ancient History, its context ranges from 3200 BC to 400 AD. Prehistory is the period before written history; the early human migrations in the Lower Paleolithic saw Homo erectus spread across Eurasia 1.8 million years ago. The controlled use of fire occurred 800,000 years ago in the Middle Paleolithic. 250,000 years ago, Homo sapiens emerged in Africa.
60–70,000 years ago, Homo sapiens migrated out of Africa along a coastal route to South and So
Alpes Poeninae known as Alpes Graiae, was a small Alpine province of the Roman Empire, one of three such provinces in the western Alps between Italy and Gaul. It comprised the Canton Valais, its strongest indigenous tribe were the Salassi. Their territory was annexed by emperor Augustus in 15 BC, its chief city was Augusta Praetoria Salassorum. The province was named for the Roman name of the Great St Bernard Pass. Near the pass was a sanctuary dedicated to Jupiter Poeninus; because the name Poeninus is similar to Poenus, some Roman authors inferred that the Carthaginian general Hannibal crossed this part of the Alps in his famous march on Italy in 218 BC, using either the Great St Bernard or Little St Bernard passes. The Roman historian Livy explains that Poeninus was a corruption of Penninus, the name of a deity worshipped by a local tribe. Livy adds that it was implausible that Hannibal took such a northerly route, as these high mountain passes would have been inaccessible at the time. Tacitus mentions the Alpes Poeninae in connection with the movements of Otho.
Most historians agree, according to Polybius that Hannibal's army passed through the Alps via the region of the Segusii, the pass known today as Montgenèvre. After the region was conquered in 15 BC, it was incorporated into Raetia, a large district which stretched from the central Alps to the Danube; the population included a number of Celtic tribes, including the Nantuates and Seduni on the northern side of the St. Bernard Pass and the Salassi on the southern side. By the time of Emperor Claudius the tribes were Romanized and the Vallis Poenina district was removed from the Raetia et Vindolicia province. Vallis Poenina included much of the valley north of the St. Bernard Pass. A new capital civitas was established near the ruins of Octodurus and the residents enjoyed at least the protections of the Latin Rights; the Vallis Poenina district was merged with the Alpes Graiae or Alpes Atrectianae district to form the Alpes Graiae et Poeninae province. By the 3rd century AD there were several senator ranked families living in the province.
Under the reforms of Diocletian, the province became part of the Diocese of Gaulliae. In 381, the first Bishop of the region, was mentioned. After the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, the region was invaded by the Burgundians and incorporated into their kingdom. In 574 it came under their authority; the Roman name and borders fell into disuse and by the Dark Ages it was part of Sapaudia. Polybius - Istoriài - XXXIV. X