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Alpha-Ketoglutaric acid

Α-Ketoglutaric acid is one of two ketone derivatives of glutaric acid. The term "ketoglutaric acid," when not further qualified always refers to the alpha variant. Β-Ketoglutaric acid varies only by the position of the ketone functional group, is much less common. Its anion, α-ketoglutarate called 2-oxoglutarate, is an important biological compound, it is the keto acid produced by deamination of glutamate, is an intermediate in the Krebs cycle. The enzyme alanine transaminase converts α-ketoglutarate and L-alanine to L-glutamate and pyruvate as a reversible process. Α-Ketoglutarate is a key intermediate in the Krebs cycle, coming after isocitrate and before succinyl CoA. Anaplerotic reactions can replenish the cycle at this juncture by synthesizing α-ketoglutarate from transamination of glutamate, or through action of glutamate dehydrogenase on glutamate. Glutamine is synthesized from glutamate by glutamine synthetase, which utilizes adenosine triphosphate to form glutamyl phosphate. Proline and lysine are other amino acids synthesized as well.

These three amino acids derive from glutamate with the addition of further steps or enzymes to facilitate reactions. Another function is to combine with nitrogen released in cells, therefore preventing nitrogen overload. Α-Ketoglutarate is one of the most important nitrogen transporters in metabolic pathways. The amino groups of amino acids are attached to it and carried to the liver where the urea cycle takes place. Α-Ketoglutarate is transaminated, along with glutamine, to form the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Glutamate can be decarboxylated into the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid, it is reported that high ammonia and/or high nitrogen levels may occur with high protein intake, excessive aluminum exposure, Reye's syndrome and urea cycle disorder. It plays a role in detoxification of ammonia in brain. Acting as a co-substrate for α-ketoglutarate-dependent hydroxylase, it plays important function in oxidation reactions involving molecular oxygen. Molecular oxygen directly oxidizes many compounds to produce useful products in an organism, such as antibiotics, in reactions catalyzed by oxygenases.

In many oxygenases, α-ketoglutarate helps the reaction by being oxidized with the main substrate. EGLN1, one of the α-ketoglutarate-dependent oxygenases, is an O2 sensor, informing the organism the oxygen level in its environment. In combination with molecular oxygen, alpha-ketoglutarate is one of the requirements for the hydroxylation of proline to hydroxyproline in the production of type 1 collagen. Α-Ketoglutarate, released by several cell types, decreases the levels of hydrogen peroxide, the α-ketoglutarate was depleted and converted to succinate in cell culture media. A study released linked α-ketoglutarate with increased lifespan in nematode worms. A study showed that α-ketoglutarate promotes TH1 differentiation and depletion of glutamine (by depleting its metabolite, α-ketoglutarate favors treg differentiation, it might play a role in skewing the balance in favor of tregs in the setting of the amino acid deprivation that can be seen in the tumor microenvironment. Α-Ketoglutarate can be produced by: Oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate by isocitrate dehydrogenase Oxidative deamination of glutamate by glutamate dehydrogenase From galacturonic acid by the organism Agrobacterium tumefaciensAlpha-ketoglutarate can be used to produce: Creatine-alpha ketoglutarate Click on genes and metabolites below to link to respective articles.

2OG-dependent dioxygenases

Ron Dixon (Brookside)

Ronald William "Ron" Dixon is a fictional character in the British soap opera, played by Vince Earl from 1990 until the final episode in 2003, during which time he was involved in several major storylines including his marriage to DD, being charged with murder and his feud with Jimmy Corkhill. Ron and DD arrived in Brookside Close during the autumn of 1990 with their three children, but their marriage collapsed during 1993 due to Ron's affair with Bev McLoughlin. In December 1993 she gave birth to a son called Josh, but they split up soon afterwards when she revealed that Josh wasn't his son, he was Ron's grandson and the son of Ron's son Mike. In early November of that year, at the wedding of neighbour Frank Rogers to Bev's sister Lyn Matthews, Ron and DD got into an argument after Bev turned up. Frank took Tony in the wedding car to the reception to get him away from his warring parents. During the journey, Frank crashed after he swerved to avoid an oncoming car, being driven recklessly by neighbour Jimmy Corkhill.

Frank died soon after arriving at the hospital and Tony was left in a coma with a fractured skull. At Frank's funeral, Ron learnt that Frank's post mortem had included a blood test which showed him to be over the drink-drive limit, although the full truth about the crash was still three months away from being revealed. One morning at the beginning of December 1993, Tony opened his eyes for a few minutes while Ron was visiting him in hospital. Ron was ecstatic by what he saw and was confident that Tony would be out of hospital in time for Christmas. However, when Ron returned to the hospital hours the doctor informed Ron that Tony was in a persistent vegetative state and was unlikely to recover. Ron was determined to help Tony recover, at whatever cost, wanting to find a medical cure which he had heard was possible for coma victims at specialist clinics in America, while DD was determined for him to be cured at Lourdes, which non-Catholic Ron did not think was possible. A guilt-ridden Jimmy helped out with endless fundraising efforts, with nobody else knowing that he had caused the accident.

Tony contracted pneumonia and had to stay in hospital over Christmas, showed no further signs of improvement. In January 1994, Ron found him being given the last rites. DD explained that Tony was being giving the last rites at her request, which outraged Ron, still determined that a medical cure could be found. Tony's doctor, who had discussed the situation with DD persuaded Ron that there was no chance of Tony regaining consciousness, Ron soon accepted that Tony would never recover. Ron began talking of the possibility of having Tony's treatment withdrawn and allowing him to die, although DD was still determined that Tony might still recover if he was taken to Lourdes though she had accepted that there was no medical cure. Ron gave DD permission to take Tony to Lourdes in hope of curing him, despite not believing that Tony could be cured this way, but Tony died in hospital just before DD and Jackie Corkhill were due to take him to Lourdes. Jimmy broke down at Tony's funeral, unable to contain his guilt any longer, confessed to Ron at the graveside that he was driving the other car while high on cocaine.

Ron married his former girlfriend Anthea Brindley, who had revealed to him that he was the father of her daughter Megan, by now in her thirties. In December 2000, only a few days before Christmas, his life was hit by another tragedy when his son Mike was badly injured in a car crash caused by neighbour Tim O'Leary, who had fled the scene after crashing the stolen car that he had been driving. Mike was unable to walk for six months. In May 2001, after a succession of robberies at his house, Ron snapped and bought a gun off Sotto, an acquaintance of neighbour Tim O'Leary, which he used on a burglar who had entered his house; the burglar was the brother of his daughter Jacqui's boyfriend, Robbie. Ron did not realise. Robbie turned out to be the burglar. Ron was charged with his murder, he was released on bail but following his trial in December 2001 he was found guilty of manslaughter and sentenced to nine months in prison. He was freed four months later. After the verdict, Anthea left. In 2003, Ron married Bev and in the final episode, Ron and Josh moved away from the close.

Throughout his time on Brookside Close, Ron Dixon was an unpopular man. Ron discovers in 1995 that he has a daughter that he never knew about, but he kept her identity a secret, as she could have been Jimmy's daughter, although a DNA paternity test was never given, he had many petty feuds with neighbour Max Farnham. Like many of the neighbours, he despised drug dealer Jack Michaelson and was assaulted by him in 2003. Since Jimmy was involved in the death of his son, he had an ongoing feud with him; the two however reconciled when Ron's son Mike and Jimmy's daughter Lindsey were arrested in Bangkok after drugs are planted in Lindsay's daughter's teddy bear. On, Ron has an affair with Jimmy's wife, Jackie. Jackie leaves Ron. Ron expressed forgiveness during his wedding speech in 2003 noting t


Buduruwagala is an ancient buddhist temple in Sri Lanka. The complex belongs to the Mahayana school of thought; the statues date back to the 10th century. The gigantic Buddha statue still bears traces of its original stuccoed robe and a long streak of orange suggests it was once brightly painted; the central of the three figures to the Buddha's right is thought to be the Buddhist mythological figure-the Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara. To the left of this white painted figure is a female figure in the thrice-bent posture, thought to be his consort-Tara. Buduruvagala means "the rock of Buddhist Sculptures"; the name Buduruwagala is derived from the words for Buddha and stone. Most visitors Buddhists, who attend the temple will make sure to visit Buduruvagala. Buduruvagala is located about 4 miles southeast of Wellawaya in Sri Lanka; the largest of the standing Buddha statues is 51 feet from head to toe. Authorities date them to the 9th or 10th century. Buduruvagala does not have much historical records.

Its original name is unknown. It is thought to be a hermitage for monks; the sculptures of Buduruvagala include many sculptures of Bodhisattva images including Mahayana tradition. On the same rock where the sculptures are carved, there is a carved shape of about 3 feet wide and 4 feet heigh, it is of the shape of a flame. The inside wall of this carved shape is always wet of an oil that smells much like Mustard oil; this oil comes to the carved shape with no explainable reason. Buduruwagala Museum Maligawila Buddha statue Dematamal viharaya Yudaganawa

President of the Dewan Negara

The President of the Senate is the presiding officer of the Dewan Negara, the upper house of the Parliament of Malaysia. The President of the Senate is created under Article 56 of the Constitution of Malaysia; the office is similar to the Speaker of the Dewan Rakyat: the president is elected by the members of the Senate and is expected to be politically impartial. If a member of the Dewan Negara is elected as the president and is a member of a state legislative assembly, he must resign from the assembly before exercising the functions of the office; as the president may hold different titles while in office, it changes the style. The current president is Datuk SA. Vigneswaran. Therefore, while in session, the senators will call him as'Datuk Yang di-Pertua' or'Tuan Yang di-Pertua'; the main functions of the President of the Dewan Negara are: to preside over the sittings of the Dewan Negara to be responsible for the observance of the rules in the Dewan Negara to ensure the relevancy of the points raised during the debate to interpret the Standing Orders in case of disputes and the decision is final As of 29 February 2020, all Presidents of the Dewan Negara won unopposed in the presidential election.

Abang Ahmad Urai Chan Choong Tak Vadiveloo Govindasamy Adam Kadir Michael Chen Wing Sum Abdul Hamid Pawanteh Wong Foon Meng Abu Zahar Ujang Abang Ahmad Urai Tan Peng Khoon Chan Choong Tak Adam Kadir Michael Chen Wing Sum Gapar Gurrohu Wong Foon Meng Armani Mahiruddin Doris Sophia Brodi Dewan Negara Parliament of Malaysia Speaker of the Dewan Rakyat Parliament of Malaysia

Liberty of the Clink

The Liberty of the Clink was an area in Southwark, on the south bank of the River Thames, opposite the City of London. Although situated in Surrey the liberty was exempt from the jurisdiction of the county's high sheriff and was under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Winchester, either the Chancellor or Treasurer of the King; the liberty was the north-eastern part of the'hide of Southwark' granted by Henry I to the Priory of Bermondsey in 1104–09. The house sold it in around 1149 to Henry of Blois, the Bishop of Winchester and younger brother of King Stephen, who wanted a house for his London governmental duties; the bishopric's administration referred to it as the Manor of Southwark, i.e. the Manor of the Bishop in Southwark. It was known as the'Liberty of Winchester'; the liberty was confirmed. The Clink is most famous for its prison; the first recorded use of the term Liberty of the Clink was in 1530. It was the manorial gaol maintained by the bishop as part of the administration of the liberty.

The bishop's London residence, Winchester House, was built in the liberty and was surrounded by parkland. The liberty lay outside the jurisdiction of the City of London, that of the county authorities of Surrey, some activities forbidden in those areas were permitted within it. In 1161 Bishop Henry of Blois was granted the power to license prostitutes and brothels in the liberty by King Henry II; the prostitutes were known as Winchester Geese, many are buried in Cross Bones, an unconsecrated graveyard. To "be bitten by a Winchester goose" meant "to contract a venereal disease", "goose bumps" was slang for symptoms of venereal diseases. Theatres and playhouses were allowed in the Clink. Another was The Rose, where Christopher Marlowe both premiered plays. Bull and bear baiting were permitted; the liberty was in the parish of St Margaret's, Southwark until 1539 when it was replaced by St Saviour's. An Act of 1786 established the Clink Paving Commissioners. Bollards marked "Clink 1812", part of the works of the commissioners, can be found in the Bankside area.

As a civic area it was united in the St Saviour's District with St Saviour's and Christchurch, Surrey under the Metropolitan Board of Works from 1855. The metropolitan board assumed the powers of the paving commissioners. During the period of the Commonwealth the episcopy was abolished, the liberty was sold to a private owner in 1649, it was returned to the bishop on the restoration in 1660. The Clink prison was destroyed in 1780, the bishop's palace in 1814. In 1863 the rights of the Bishop of Winchester in the liberty were vested in the Ecclesiastical Commissioners; the liberty was abolished in 1889, when the Local Government Act 1888 merged all remaining liberties into their surrounding counties. The Liberty of the Clink had been surrounded by Surrey, but the 1888 act created a new County of London in the metropolitan area and the liberty became part of the new county; the liberty was 70 acres in area and was situated in the modern Bankside area of the London Borough of Southwark. Clink Street and Winchester Walk recall its former status.'The Borough of Southwark: Manors', A History of the County of Surrey: Volume 4, pp. 141–151

List of Comic Book Men episodes

Comic Book Men is a reality television series on AMC, set inside Kevin Smith's comic book shop Jay and Silent Bob's Secret Stash in Red Bank, New Jersey. During the course of the series, 96 episodes of Comic Book Men aired over seven seasons; each episode of Comic Book Men is accompanied by a companion podcast, titled The Secret Stash, hosted on the SModcast network. Some podcast episodes were pre-recorded during the filming of show, while others were recorded live on the SModcast Internet Radio station directly following the first airing of an episode, allowing the audience to participate by calling in to the show. Official website Comic Book Men – list of episodes on IMDb Comic Book Men at The Secret Stash podcast official site at