André-Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri was a French photographer who started his photographic career as a daguerreotypist but gained greater fame for patenting his version of the carte de visite, a small photographic image, mounted on a card. Disdéri, a brilliant showman, made this system of mass-production portraiture world famous. Disdéri began his working life in a number of occupations, while studying art, he started as a daguerreotypist in Brest in 1848 or 1849 but in December 1852 or January 1853 he moved to Nîmes. There he received assistance from Édouard Boyer and Joseph Jean Pierre Laurent with his photography-related chemistry experiments. After a year in Nîmes he moved to Paris, enabling easy access to people who would be the subjects of his cartes de visite. Photographs had served as calling cards, but Disdéri's invention of the paper carte de visite photograph second enabled the mass production of photographs. On 27 November 1854 he patented the system of printing ten photographs on a single sheet.
This was the first patent for a carte de visite. Disdéri's's cartes de visite were 6×9 cm, about the size of conventional visiting cards of the time, were made by a camera with four lenses and a sliding plate holder; the novelty spread throughout the world. According to a German visitor, Disdéri's studio became "really the Temple of Photography – a place unique in its luxury and elegance. Daily he sells three to four thousand francs worth of portraits"; the fact that these photos could be reproduced inexpensively and in great quantity brought about the decline of the daguerreotype and ushered in a carte de visite craze as they became enormously popular throughout Europe and the United States. So great was the publicity. Disdéri invented the twin-lens reflex camera; the great French photographer Nadar, Disdéri's competitor, wrote about the new invention in his autobiographical "Quand j'étais photographe", "about the appearance of Disdéri and Carte de Visite... It spelled disaster. Either you had to succumb –, to say, follow the trend – or resign."
At the pinnacle of his career, Disdéri was wealthy and renowned. By the end of his life, Disdéri had become penniless, he died on 4 October 1889 in the Hôpital Ste. Anne in Paris, "an institution for indigents and the mentally ill", he was a victim of his own invention. The system which he invented and popularized was so easy to imitate that photographers all over the world took advantage of it. McCauley, Elizabeth Anne. "Carte de visite." Oxford Companion to the Photograph, ed. Robin Lenman. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-19-866271-8. Wilder, Kelley E. "Disdéri, André-Adolphe-Eugène." Oxford Companion to the Photograph, ed. Robin Lenman. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-19-866271-8. Npg.org getty.edu metmuseum.org Encyclopædia Britannica, Andre-Adolphe-Eugene Disdéri. Accessed 28 November 2007; the virtual Cabinet Card museum. Works by Disdéri Collection Paul Frecker, London. 19th Century Actors Carte de Visite Collection. 1860-1885. 605 photographic prints on carte de visite mounts.
At University of Washington Libraries, Special Collections
Étienne-Jules Marey was a French scientist and chronophotographer. His work was significant in the development of cardiology, physical instrumentation, aviation and the science of laboratory photography, he is considered to be a pioneer of photography and an influential pioneer of the history of cinema. He was a pioneer in establishing a variety of graphical techniques for the display and interpretation of quantitative data from physiological measurement. Marey started by studying blood circulation in the human body, he shifted to analyzing heart beats, respiration and movement of the body. To aid his studies he developed many instruments for precise measurements. For example, in 1859, in collaboration with the physiologist Auguste Chauveau and the watch manufacturer Breguet, he developed a wearable Sphygmograph to measure the pulse; this sphygmograph was an improvement on an earlier and more cumbersome design by the German physiologist Karl von Vierordt. In 1869 Marey constructed a delicate artificial insect to show how an insect flies and to demonstrate the figure-8 shape it produced during movement of its wings.
He became fascinated by movements of air and started to study bigger flying animals, like birds. He adopted and further developed animated photography into a separate field of chronophotography in the 1880s, his revolutionary idea was to record several phases of movement on one photographic surface. In 1890 he published a substantial volume entitled Le Vol des Oiseaux, richly illustrated with photographs and diagrams, he created stunningly precise sculptures of various flying birds. Marey studied other animals too, he published La Machine animale in 1873. The English photographer Eadweard Muybridge carried out his "Photographic Investigation" in Palo Alto, California, to prove that Marey was right when he wrote that a galloping horse for a brief moment had all four hooves off the ground. Muybridge published his photos in 1879 and received some public attention. Marey hoped to merge anatomy and physiology. To better understand his chronophotographic images, he compared them with images of the anatomy, skeleton and muscles of the same species.
Marey produced a series of drawings showing a horse trotting and galloping, first in the flesh and as a skeleton. The presence and activity of Marey in Naples is well documented, in particular thanks to the documentation preserved in the historical archive of the Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn. Marey began to travel to Naples because of his relation with madame Vilbort, wife of Joseph Vilbort, the director of the French journal Le Globe. Madame Vilbort moved to Naples to cure her illness, thanks to the warm climate, Marey followed her. Marey and madame Vilbort bought villa Maria in Posillipo in 1880. Marey accomplished in Naples part of his studies aimed at the realization of his pre-cinematographic tools and in the Dohrn zoological station studied the movement of fishes hosted in the aquarium's tanks. In a letter dated 1 November 1876 Marey requested the Stazione Zoologica to provide live ray fishes for his studies. Among the documentation that witnesses the collaboration of Marey with Anton Dohrn is the archive at the zoological station which preserves photos where the two appear together during an excursion and show Marey on board Dohrn's boat.
The usage of the chronophotographic gun, which Marey used to aim at birds, but without shooting, appeared unusual to local people who referred to Maray sometimes as the "silly from Posillipo". Marey's chronophotographic gun was made in 1882, this instrument was capable of taking 12 consecutive frames a second, with all the frames recorded on the same picture. Using these pictures he studied horses, dogs, donkeys, fish, microscopic creatures, insects, etc; some call it Marey's "animated zoo". Marey conducted the famous study about cats always landing on their feet, he conducted similar studies with a chicken and a dog and found that they could do the same. Marey studied human locomotion, he published another book Le Mouvement in 1894. Marey made movies, they were at a high speed and of excellent image quality. His research on how to capture and display moving images helped the emerging field of cinematography. Towards the end of his life he returned to studying the movement of quite abstract forms, like a falling ball.
His last great work was the observation and photography of smoke trails. This research was funded by Samuel Pierpont Langley under the auspices of the Smithsonian Institution, after the two met in Paris at the Exposition Universelle. In 1901 he was able to build a smoke machine with 58 smoke trails, it became one of the first aerodynamic wind tunnels. Eadweard Muybridge Chronophotography Works by or about Étienne-Jules Marey at Internet Archive Works by Étienne-Jules Marey at Open Library The science of movement and the image of time: online exhibition by the BIUM, with the Collège de France and Pr Marta Braun, author of Picturing Time: The Work of Etienne-Jules Marey Movements of Air, Etienne-Jules Marey, Photographer of Fluids Online exhibition of images, movies, animation Etienne-Jules Marey: digital library, BIUM Photo and biography in the Virtual Laboratory of the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science Étienne-Jules Marey on IMDb La machine animale "Bodies Against Time," an essay by Zoe Beloff in online magazine Tr
Joseph Nicéphore Niépce known or referred to as Nicéphore Niépce, was a French inventor credited as the inventor of photography and a pioneer in that field. Niépce developed heliography, a technique he used to create the world's oldest surviving product of a photographic process: a print made from a photoengraved printing plate in 1825. In 1826 or 1827, he used a primitive camera to produce the oldest surviving photograph of a real-world scene. Among Niépce's other inventions was the Pyréolophore, the world's first internal combustion engine, which he conceived and developed with his older brother Claude. Niépce was born in Saône-et-Loire, where his father was a wealthy lawyer, his older brother Claude was his collaborator in research and invention, but died half-mad and destitute in England, having squandered the family wealth in pursuit of non-opportunities for the Pyréolophore. Niepce had a sister and a younger brother, Bernard. Nicéphore was baptized Joseph but adopted the name Nicéphore, in honour of Saint Nicephorus the ninth-century Patriarch of Constantinople, while studying at the Oratorian college in Angers.
At the college he learned science and the experimental method achieving success and graduating to work as a professor of the college. Niépce served as a staff officer in the French army under Napoleon, spending a number of years in Italy and on the island of Sardinia, but ill health forced him to resign, whereupon he married Agnes Romero and became the Administrator of the district of Nice in post-revolutionary France. In 1795, Niepce resigned as administrator of Nice to pursue scientific research with his brother Claude. One source reports his resignation to have been forced due to his unpopularity. In 1801 the brothers returned to the family's estates in Chalon to continue their scientific research, where they were united with their mother, their sister and their younger brother Bernard. Here they managed the family estate as independently wealthy gentlemen-farmers, raising beets and producing sugar. In 1827 Niépce journeyed to England to visit his ill elder brother Claude, now living in Kew, near London.
Claude had descended into delirium and squandered much of the family fortune chasing inappropriate business opportunities for the Pyréolophore. Nicéphore Niépce died of a stroke on 5 July 1833, financially ruined such that his grave in the cemetery of Saint-Loup de Varennes was financed by the municipality; the cemetery is near the family house where he had experimented and had made the world's first photographic image. His son Isidore formed a partnership with Daguerre after his father's death and was granted a government pension in 1839 in return for disclosing the technical details of Nicéphore's heliogravure process. A cousin, Claude Félix Abel Niépce de Saint-Victor, was a chemist and was the first to use albumen in photography, he produced photographic engravings on steel. During 1857–1861, he discovered that uranium salts emit a form of radiation, invisible to the human eye; the date of Niépce's first photographic experiments is uncertain. He was led to them by his interest in the new art of lithography, for which he realized he lacked the necessary skill and artistic ability, by his acquaintance with the camera obscura, a drawing aid, popular among affluent dilettantes in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
The camera obscura's beautiful but fleeting little "light paintings" inspired a number of people, including Thomas Wedgwood and Henry Fox Talbot, to seek some way of capturing them more and than could be done by tracing over them with a pencil. Letters to his sister-in-law around 1816 indicate that Niépce had managed to capture small camera images on paper coated with silver chloride, making him the first to have any success at all in such an attempt, but the results were negatives, dark where they should be light and vice versa, he could find no way to stop them from darkening all over when brought into the light for viewing. Niépce turned his attention to other substances that were affected by light concentrating on Bitumen of Judea, a occurring asphalt, used for various purposes since ancient times. In Niépce's time, it was used by artists as an acid-resistant coating on copper plates for making etchings; the artist scratched a drawing through the coating bathed the plate in acid to etch the exposed areas removed the coating with a solvent and used the plate to print ink copies of the drawing onto paper.
What interested Niépce was the fact that the bitumen coating became less soluble after it had been left exposed to light. Niépce dissolved bitumen in lavender oil, a solvent used in varnishes, thinly coated it onto a lithographic stone or a sheet of metal or glass. After the coating had dried, a test subject an engraving printed on paper, was laid over the surface in close contact and the two were put out in direct sunlight. After sufficient exposure, the solvent could be used to rinse away only the unhardened bitumen, shielded from light by lines or dark areas in the test subject; the parts of the surface thus laid bare could be etched with acid, or the remaining bitumen could serve as the water-repellent material in lithographic printing. Niépce called his process heliography, which means "sun drawing". In 1822, he used it to create what is believed to have been the world's first permanent photographic image, a contact-exposed copy of an engraving of Pope Pius VII, but it was destroyed when Niépce attempted to make prints from it.
The earliest surviving photographic artifacts by Niépce, made in 1825, are copies of a
Arthur Batut was a French photographer and pioneer of aerial photography. Batut, born 1846 in Castres, was interested in history and photography, his book on kite aerial photography appeared in 1890 and contained an aerial photograph taken in 1889 from a kite over Labruguière, where he spent most his life until he died there in 1918. It is believed that in 1888 he was the first to use this method successfully. At the time, kite aerial photography had potential applications for aerial reconnaissance, but for agriculture and archeology; the first aerial photographs had been taken by Nadar from a balloon in 1858. The use of unmanned kites promised obvious advantages in a military setting. Inspired by Francis Galton, he produced composite photographs combining portraits of multiple people onto one plate. Batut, Arthur. La photographie appliquée à la production du type d'une d'une tribu ou d'une race. Paris: Gauthier-Villars et fils. Batut, Arthur. La photographie aérienne par cerf-volant. Paris: Gauthier-Villars et fils.
Musée Arthur Batut. Arthur Batut: Fotógrafo: 1846-1918. València: Universitat de València. ISBN 84-370-4943-1. Site devoted to Batut Batut Museum page
Auguste Bruno Braquehais was a French photographer active in Paris in the mid-19th century. His photographic work documenting the 1871 Paris Commune is considered an important early example of photojournalism. While forgotten after his death, his work was rediscovered during preparations for the Commune's centennial in 1971, his photographs have since been the exhibited at numerous museums, including the Musée d'Art et d'Histoire, the Musée d'Orsay, the Carnavalet Museum. Braquehais was born in Dieppe, Seine-Maritime, in 1823. Deaf from a young age, he attended the Institut royal des sourds et muets in Paris, he worked as a lithographer in Caen until 1850, when he met photographer Alexis Gouin, moved to Paris to work in Gouin's studio. Gouin specialized in stereoscopic plates. In 1852, Braquehais opened his own studio on the rue de Richelieu in Paris, where he produced images of female nudes. Following the death of Gouin in 1855, he managed Gouin's studio with Gouin's stepdaughter. In 1863, after the death of Gouin's widow, Braquehais opened a new studio, Paris Photography, on the Boulevard des Italiens.
Braquehais's work was exhibited at the Société française de photographie in 1864 and at the Paris Universal Exposition of 1867. In March 1871, a group of disenchanted soldiers and professionals seized control of Paris and set up a government known as the Paris Commune; this was one of the first major events in France to be "covered" by photographers. While many of these photographers focused on the ruins and destruction in the aftermath of the fall of the Commune, Braquehais ventured out of his studio at the height of the Commune's power, photographing its participants and events, most notably the toppling of the Vendôme Column. Braquehais published 109 of his photographs in a booklet, Paris During the Commune. After the fall of the Commune, government authorities used Braquehais's photos to track down and arrest the Commune's supporters. In the years after the Paris Commune, Braquehais struggled financially, though he did do photographic advertising work for a clock company. By early 1874, he was bankrupt, was jailed for 13 months for loss of confidence.
He died in a few days after his release. Braquehais's early photographs consist of portraits and female nudes, many of which were colored by his wife, Laure. Art critics have pointed out that many of Braquehais's photographs of female nudes are cluttered with distracting objects, giving the model the appearance of being isolated. Notable portraits by Braquehais include choreographer Arthur Saint-Léon. Braquehais's 109 photographs of the Paris Commune document the Commune at its height and after its fall, his photographs documenting the toppling of the Vendôme Column include scenes of the Column before its fall, a scene showing workers with ropes tied to the column ready to pull it down, a photograph of Communards posing next to the toppled statue of Napoleon that had graced the top of the column. Braquehais took numerous photographs of the various barricades the Communards had erected in anticipation of an invasion of republican forces, troops gathered at Tuileries Palace and Porte Maillot, the ruins of the Maison Thiers.
Braquehais's photographs have been exhibited by the Musée d'Orsay, the Musée d'Art et d'Histoire at St. Denis, the Carnavalet Museum, the Budapest Museum, are included in the collections of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Bibliothèque Nationale, the Bibliothèque historique de la ville de Paris. Bruno Braquehais – Luminous-Lint
Charles Marville, the pseudonym of Charles François Bossu, was a French photographer, who photographed architecture and the urban environment. He used both glass negatives, he is most well known for taking pictures of ancient Parisian quarters before they were destroyed and rebuilt under "Haussmannization", Baron Haussmann's new plan for modernization of Paris. In 1862, he was named official photographer of Paris. Marville's past was a mystery until Sarah Kennel of the National Gallery of Art and independent researcher Daniel Catan discovered that Marville's given name was Charles-François Bossu; that newly-found association allowed them to discover a variety of biographical information, including photographs of his family, considered lost to time. Bossu was born in 1813 in Paris. Coming from an "established" Paris family, he trained as a painter and engraver, he assumed the pseudonym Charles Marville around 1832, began working in his field. After 17 years, as an illustrator, he took up photography around 1850.
He had no family. He died in 1879 in Paris. Media related to Charles Marville at Wikimedia Commons -Information. Le Monde, 12/11/2010, Un scoop du XIXe siècle: le photographe Marville s'appelait Bossu. "Picture Perfect Paris," by Richard B. Woodward, The Wall Street Journal, Oct. 22, 2013 "Marville’s Vanished Paris," by Luc Sante, The New York Review of Books, Sept. 2013 "Photographer Charles Marville at the Metropolitan Museum, New York," by Ariella Budick, March 1-2, 2014, Financial Times
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog