Thomas Graham Brown
Thomas Graham Brown FRS was a Scottish mountaineer and physiologist. Graham Brown was born in Edinburgh 1882, his father – Dr John Joseph Graham Brown – was a President of the Royal College of Physicians in Edinburgh, Graham Brown read science and medicine at the University of Edinburgh in the city before moving to Glasgow and Liverpool. In 1927 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society and he climbed the first of these routes, the Sentinelle Rouge, with Frank Smythe on 1–2 September 1927. Smythe accompanied him on the first ascent of Route Major on 6–7 August 1928, according to Claire Engel, both expeditions were among the most notable of the century. Graham Brown was the editor of the Alpine Journal from 1949 to 1953, in 1935, Graham Brown made the first ascent of Alaskas 5304 m Mount Foraker in company with Charles Houston and Chychele Waterston. Graham Brown bequeathed his collection of alpine and mountaineering literature, consisting of some 20,000 items and he left his house for the use of the Edinburgh University Mountaineering Club.
The original house was sold by Edinburgh University as part of their sale of assets to meet debts in the 1990s, after protests by members of the time, the University named a flat in newly constructed student accommodation Graham Brown House and is still used by the club
Sir Leslie Stephen KCB was an English author, historian and mountaineer, and father of Virginia Woolf and Vanessa Bell. Stephen was born at Kensington Gore in London, and son of Sir James Stephen and his father was Colonial Undersecretary of State and a noted abolitionist. He was the fourth of five children, his siblings including James Fitzjames Stephen and his family had belonged to the Clapham Sect, the early 19th century group of mainly evangelical Christian social reformers. At his fathers house he saw a deal of the Macaulays, James Spedding, Sir Henry Taylor. He recounted some of his experiences in a chapter in his Life of Fawcett as well as in less formal Sketches from Cambridge. These sketches were reprinted from the Pall Mall Gazette, to the proprietor of which, George Murray Smith, the family connections included that of William Makepeace Thackeray. His brother, Fitzjames had been a friend of Thackerays and assisted in the disposition of his estate when he died in 1863 and his sister Caroline met Thackerays daughters and Minny when they were mutual guests of Julia Margaret Cameron.
This led to an invitation to visit from Leslie Stephens mother, Lady Stephen and they met at George Murray Smiths house at Hampstead. Minny and Leslie became engaged on December 4,1866 and married on June 19,1867. After the wedding they travelled to the Swiss Alps and northern Italy, and on return to England lived at the Thackeray sisters home at 16 Onslow Gardens with Anny, in the spring of 1868 Minny miscarried but recovered sufficiently for the couple to tour the eastern United States. Minny miscarried again in 1869, but became pregnant again in 1870 and on December 7 gave birth to their daughter, Laura was premature, weighing three pounds. In March 1873 Thackeray and the Stephens moved to 8 Southwell Gardens, the couple travelled extensively, and by 1875 Minny was pregnant again, but this time was in poor health. On November 27 she developed convulsions, and died the day of eclampsia. After Minnys death, Leslie Stephen continued to live with Anny, Leslie Stephen and his daughter were cared for by his sister, the writer Caroline Emelia Stephen, although Leslie described her as Silly Milly and her books as little works.
Meanwhile, Anny was falling in love with her younger cousin Richmond Ritchie, Ritchie became a constant visitor and they became engaged in May 1877, and were married on August 2. At the same time Leslie Stephen was seeing more and more of Julia Duckworth and his second marriage was to Julia Prinsep Duckworth. Julia had been born in India and after returning to England she became a model for Pre-Raphaelite painters such as Edward Burne-Jones, in 1867 she had married Herbert Duckworth by whom she had three children prior to his death in 1870. Leslie Stephen and Julia Duckworth were married on March 26,1878 and they had four children, Vanessa married Clive Bell Thoby Virginia married Leonard Woolf Adrian In May 1895, Julia died of influenza, leaving her husband with four young children aged 11 to 15
Edward Shirley Kennedy
Edward Shirley Kennedy was an English mountaineer and author, and a founding member of the Alpine Club. Kennedy was a gentleman of independent means, who attended Caius College, Cambridge as a Fellow-Commoner in his mid-thirties, at the end of that year, Kennedy was chairman of the meeting at which the Alpine Club was founded. Kennedy was made Vice-President, with John Ball as President and T. W. Hinchliff as Secretary, Kennedy served as President of the Club between 1860 and 1863. A wood engraving by Edward Whymper of The Alpine Club at Zermatt in 1864 shows Kennedy with John Ball, William Mathews, T. G. Bonney, John Tyndall, Alfred Wills, and Ulrich Lauener. Kennedy appears as a man of average height, with a full beard, carrying a long plain wooden staff. Together with Charles Hudson, Kennedy was one of the earliest practitioners of climbing without guides in the Alps, climbing Mont Blanc du Tacul, Kennedy was the editor of the second series of Peaks and Glaciers. Like the first series, this was a collection of published by the Alpine Club, these were the forerunners of the Alpine Journal.
Kennedy was active in discussions concerning modification to the ice axe. Kennedy, together with J. F. Hardy, and guides P. and F, jenny and A. Flury, were the first to reach this col on 23 July 1861. Reprinted by Kessinger Publishers, June 2007, ISBN 1-4326-9230-5 Edward Shirley Kennedy, Passes, Longman, Green and Roberts,1862. Ed. Hereford Brooke George, Longmans,2 March 1863 E. S. Kennedy should not be confused with T. S. Kennedy of Leeds, an alpinist who made several first ascents during the same period
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title, ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971, ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the content is published in more than one media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media, the ISSN system refers to these types as print ISSN and electronic ISSN, respectively. The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers, as an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits. The last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows, NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character.
The ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, for calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, the modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker that can validate an ISSN, ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres, usually located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris. The International Centre is an organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, at the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept, where ISBNs are assigned to individual books, an ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole.
An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an identifier associated with a serial title. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change, separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. Also, a CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial
Climbing is the activity of using ones hands, feet, or any other part of the body to ascend a steep object. It is done recreationally, competitively, in trades that rely on it and it is done indoors and out, on natural and manmade structures. Climbing activities include, Ascending boulders or small outcrops, often with climbing shoes, Climbing along canyons for sport or recreation. Chalk climbing, Ascending chalk cliffs uses some of the techniques as ice climbing. Competition Climbing, A formal, competitive sport of recent origins, competition Climbing has three major disciplines, Lead and Speed. Ice climbing, Ascending ice or hard snow formations using special equipment, usually ice axes, techniques of protecting the climber are similar to those of rock climbing, with protective devices adapted to frozen conditions. Indoor climbing, Top roping, lead climbing, and bouldering artificial walls with bolted holds in a climbing gym, Ascending mountains for sport or recreation. It often involves rock and/or ice climbing, pole climbing, Climbing poles and masts without equipment.
Lumberjack tree-trimming and competitive tree-trunk or pole climbing for speed using spikes, rock climbing, Ascending rock formations, often using climbing shoes and a chalk bag. Equipment such as ropes, nuts and camming devices are normally employed, rope access, Industrial climbing, usually abseiling, as an alternative to scaffolding for short works on exposed structures. Rope climbing, Climbing a short, thick rope for speed, not to be confused with roped climbing, as in rock or ice climbing. Scrambling which includes rock climbing, and is considered part of hillwalking. Sport climbing is a form of climbing that relies on permanent anchors fixed to the rock. Top roping, Ascending a rock climbing route protected by a rope anchored at the top and protected by a belayer below Traditional climbing is a form of climbing without fixed anchors and bolts. Climbers place removable protection such as camming devices, free solo climbing, Climbing without ropes or protection. Tree climbing, Recreationally ascending trees using ropes and other protective equipment, a tower climber is a professional who climbs broadcasting or telecommunication towers or masts for maintenance or repair.
Rock and tree climbing all usually use ropes for safety or aid, pole climbing and rope climbing were among the first exercises to be included in the origins of modern gymnastics in the late 18th century and early 19th century
Alpine Club (UK)
The Alpine Club was founded in London in 1857 and is the worlds first mountaineering club. It is UK mountaineerings acknowledged senior club, on 22 December 1857 a group of British mountaineers met at Ashleys Hotel in London. All were active in the Alps and instrumental in the development of alpine mountaineering during the age of alpinism. It was at this meeting that the Alpine Club, under the chairmanship of E. S. Kennedy, was born, John Ball was the first president and Kennedy, the first vice-president, succeeded him as president of the club from 1860 to 1863. It moved its headquarters to the Metropole Hotel, for climbing, a rope was required which would be both strong and light so that lengths of it could be carried easily. A committee of the club tested samples from suppliers and prepared a specification, the official Alpine Club Rope was made by John Buckingham of Bloomsbury. It was made from three strands of manila hemp, treated to be rot proof and marked with a red thread of worsted yarn.
One hundred and fifty years later, the Alpine Club continues, and its members remain active in the Alps. For many years it had the characteristics of a London-based Gentlemens club, however, it still requires prospective members to be proposed and seconded by existing members. These higher technical standards were often to be found in such as the Alpine Climbing Group. The club has produced a suite of guidebooks which cover some of the more popular Alpine mountaineering regions and it holds extensive book and photo libraries as well as an archive of historical artifacts which are regularly lent out to exhibitions. The clubs history has recently been documented by George Band in his book Summit,150 Years of the Alpine Club and its members activities are recounted annually in the clubs publication the Alpine Journal. As of 2009, the subscription costs between £39 and £60 per year, with a £27 rate for younger members. In 1895 the club moved to 23 Savile Row, and in June 1907, from 1937 to 1990 the club was based at 74, South Audley Street, in Mayfair, London.
In 1936–1937 the surveying firm of Pilditch and Company had converted the ground floor of the building into premises for the club. The clubs library was at the back of the building, in what was once the picture gallery of Sir William Cuthbert Quilter. In 1990 the club sold its lease of 74, South Audley Street and briefly shared quarters with the Ski Club of Great Britain at 118, Eaton Square. In 1991 the Alpine Club acquired the freehold of a five-storey Victorian warehouse at 55, Charlotte Road, on the edge of the City of London, the clubs lecture room, bunk-house and archives are all housed there
Douglas William Freshfield was a British lawyer and author, who edited the Alpine Journal from 1872 to 1880. He was an member of the Royal Geographical Society and the Alpine Club. Born in London, Freshfield was the son of Henry Ray Freshfield. His father was a lawyer and member of the family firm of Freshfields. His mother was the daughter of William Crawford, MP for the City of London and she was an author and her publications included Alpine Byways and A Tour of the Grisons. In an interview with Adolfo Hess, Freshfield recalls that his family loved to take holidays in the summer of up to five weeks. He recalls that when he was six, they visited Lodore Falls in the Lake District, the following year they travelled to Scotland. In 1854, they travelled to the Swiss Alps, going from Basel to Chamonix and his father attached great importance to preserving open spaces for public enjoyment and was active in campaigns to save Hampstead Heath and Ashdown Forest. Freshfield was educated at Eton College, and University College, Oxford and he was called to the bar in 1870.
Freshfield was a traveller and mountaineer. From his childhood acquired a love of the mountains and was particularly fond of the Alps. In July 1867 he made the first ascent of the Tour Ronde, by his twenties, Freshfield was already venturing further afield. Freshfield led an exploration of the Caucasus and was the first man, officially and he described the denuded territories of Abkhazia in a moving chapter on The Solitude of Abkhazia, in The Exploration of the Caucasus published in 1892. In 1899 Douglas Freshfield travelled to Green Lakes accompanied by the Italian photographer Vittorio Sella and he conducted expeditions around Kangchenjunga and set out with his party to trek in a circle around Kangchenjunga from the North. When he arrived safely in at Dzongri, he lit a big bonfire, which could be seen from Darjeeling and he became the first mountaineer to examine the western face of Kangchenjunga, which rises from the Kanchenjunga Glacier. Freshfield described Siniolchu as The Most Superb Triumph of Mountain Architecture, in 1905 he attempted to climb Rwenzori Abruzzi in Uganda but failed due to bad weather.
However the Freshfield Pass on the mountain was named after him, Freshfield wrote extensively about travel and the Alps, editing the Alpine Journal from 1872 to 1880. He was a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society and became its Joint Secretary in 1881, at that time he was living at Stanhope Gardens, and by 1891 at Camden Hill, Hampstead
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
Longman is a publishing company founded in London, England, in 1724 and is owned by Pearson PLC. Since 1968, Longman has been used primarily as an imprint by Pearsons Schools business, the Longman brand is used for the Longman Schools in China and the Longman Dictionary. The Longman company was founded by Thomas Longman, the son of Ezekiel Longman, Thomas was apprenticed in 1716 to John Osborn, a London bookseller, and at the expiration of his apprenticeship married Osborns daughter. In August 1724, he purchased the stock and household goods of William Taylor, taylors two shops in Paternoster Row, were known respectively as the Black Swan and the Ship, and became the publishing house premises. Longman entered into partnership with his father-in-law, who held one-sixth of the shares in Ephraim Chamberss Cyclopaedia, Longman himself was one of the six booksellers who undertook the responsibility of Samuel Johnsons Dictionary. In 1754, Longman took into partnership his nephew, Thomas Longman, upon the death of his uncle in 1755, Longman became sole proprietor.
He greatly extended the colonial trade of the firm, in 1794 he took Owen Rees as a partner, in the same year, Thomas Brown entered the house as an apprentice. Of these, Thomas Norton Longman succeeded to the business, in 1804 two more partners were admitted, and the former apprentice Brown became a partner in 1811, in 1824 the title of the firm was changed to Longman, Rees, Brown & Green. In 1799 Longman purchased the copyright of Lindley Murrays English Grammar, in the following year Richmal Mangnalls Historical and Miscellaneous Questions for the Use of Young People was purchased, and went through 84 editions by 1857. About 1800 he purchased the copyright of Southeys Joan of Arc and Wordsworths Lyrical Ballads and he published the works of Wordsworth, Coleridge and Scott, and acted as London agent for the Edinburgh Review, which was started in 1802. In 1802 appeared the first part of Reess Cyclopædia, edited by Abraham Rees and this was completed in 39 volumes plus 6 volumes of plates in 1819.
They issued in 1829 Lardners Cabinet Encyclopaedia, and in 1832 McCullochs Commercial Dictionary, Thomas Norton Longman died on 29 August 1842, leaving his two sons and William, in control of the business in Paternoster Row. The two brothers were known for their literary talent. The family control of the firm was continued by Thomas Norton Longman, in December 1940, Longmans Paternoster Row offices were destroyed in The Blitz, along with most of the companys stock. The company survived this crisis and became a company in 1948. Longman was acquired by the global publisher Pearson, owner of Penguin and The Financial Times, in 1972, Mark Longman, last of the Longman family to run the company, died. Longman continued to exist as an imprint of Pearson, under the name Pearson Longman, Pearson Longman specialized in English, including English as a second or foreign language, economics, political science, and religion. Longman is now used by Pearsons ELT business
Mount Everest, known in Nepal as Sagarmāthā and in China as Chomolungma/珠穆朗玛峰, is Earths highest mountain. Its peak is 8,848 metres above sea level, Mount Everest is in the Mahalangur Range. The international border between China and Nepal runs across Everests summit point and its massif includes neighbouring peaks Lhotse,8,516 m, Nuptse,7,855 m, and Changtse,7,580 m. In 1856, the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India established the first published height of Everest, known as Peak XV, at 8,840 m. The current official height of 8,848 m as recognised by China and Nepal was established by a 1955 Indian survey, in 2005, China remeasured the height of the mountain and got a result of 8844.43 m. An argument regarding the height between China and Nepal lasted five years from 2005 to 2010, China argued it should be measured by its rock height which is 8,844 m but Nepal said it should be measured by its snow height 8,848 m. In 2010, an agreement was reached by both sides that the height of Everest is 8,848 m and Nepal recognises Chinas claim that the rock height of Everest is 8,844 m.
In 1865, Everest was given its official English name by the Royal Geographical Society upon a recommendation by Andrew Waugh, the British Surveyor General of India. As there appeared to be several different local names, Waugh chose to name the mountain after his predecessor in the post, Sir George Everest, Mount Everest attracts many climbers, some of them highly experienced mountaineers. There are two main climbing routes, one approaching the summit from the southeast in Nepal and the other from the north in Tibet, as of 2016 there are well over 200 corpses on the mountain, with some of them even serving as landmarks. The first recorded efforts to reach Everests summit were made by British mountaineers, with Nepal not allowing foreigners into the country at the time, the British made several attempts on the north ridge route from the Tibetan side. Tragedy struck on the descent from the North Col when seven porters were killed in an avalanche. They had been spotted high on the mountain that day but disappeared in the clouds, never to be seen again, Tenzing Norgay and Edmund Hillary made the first official ascent of Everest in 1953 using the southeast ridge route.
Tenzing had reached 8,595 m the previous year as a member of the 1952 Swiss expedition, the Chinese mountaineering team of Wang Fuzhou, and Qu Yinhua made the first reported ascent of the peak from the north ridge on 25 May 1960. In 1802, the British began the Great Trigonometric Survey of India to fix the locations, starting in southern India, the survey teams moved northward using giant theodolites, each weighing 500 kg and requiring 12 men to carry, to measure heights as accurately as possible. They reached the Himalayan foothills by the 1830s, but Nepal was unwilling to allow the British to enter the country due to suspicions of political aggression, several requests by the surveyors to enter Nepal were turned down. The British were forced to continue their observations from Terai, a region south of Nepal which is parallel to the Himalayas, conditions in Terai were difficult because of torrential rains and malaria. Three survey officers died from malaria while two others had to retire because of failing health, nonetheless, in 1847, the British continued the survey and began detailed observations of the Himalayan peaks from observation stations up to 240 km distant
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker