Mam Tor is a 517 m hill near Castleton in the High Peak of Derbyshire, England. Its name means "mother hill", so called because frequent landslips on its eastern face have resulted in a multitude of "mini-hills" beneath it; these landslips, which are caused by unstable lower layers of shale give the hill its alternative name of Shivering Mountain. In 1979, the continual battle to maintain the A625 road on the crumbling eastern side of the hill was lost when the road closed as a through-route, with the Fox House to Castleton section of the road being re-designated as the A6187; the hill is crowned by a late Bronze Age and early Iron Age univallate hill fort, two Bronze Age bowl barrows. At the base of the Tor and nearby are four show caves: Blue John Cavern, Speedwell Cavern, Peak Cavern and Treak Cliff Cavern where lead, Blue John and other minerals were once mined. Simon Jenkins rates the panorama from Kinder Scout to Stanage Edge as one of the top ten in England. Mam Tor is on the southern edge of the Dark Peak and overlooks the White Peak, including the notable dry gorge of Winnats Pass.
It is a dominating link between the eastern end of Rushup Edge and the western end of the Great Ridge, which together separate the Hope Valley to the south from Edale to the north, is a popular ridgewalk. Mam Tor is made of rocks of Carboniferous age 320 million years old; the base of Mam Tor is composed of black shales of the Bowland Shale Formation of Serpukhovian age overlain by turbiditic sandstone of the Mam Tor Sandstone Formation of Bashkirian age. The most notable feature of Mam Tor is the active landslide which invades its southeast side to the summit, interrupts the ramparts of the hillfort, unless its builders used it as part of the defences; this rotational landslide began 4,000 years ago. The toe is a debris flow; the landslide is due to weak shales underlying sandstones, a common phenomenon all around the Dark Peak, notably at Alport Castles, Longdendale and Canyards Hills, Sheffield. Indeed, three larger landslides occur on the north side of Mam Tor, one of them cutting the main ridge at Mam Nick which allows a minor road over into Edale.
Evidence for the continued movement of the slide mass is demonstrated graphically by the severe damage to the old Mam Tor road that traversed this flow. The road was built at the beginning of the 1800s and was subsequently relaid until local authorities closed it in 1979. Layers of tarmac and gravel are up to 2 metres thick in places, demonstrating the numerous efforts to keep the road open. A short tunnel could have been made avoiding the landslip zone, but the opportunity to exclude heavy business and lorry traffic from the middle of the National Park was preferred. A local diversion for light vehicles follows the limestone gorge of Winnats Pass; this is one of the most extreme cases of geological problems affecting main transport systems in Britain, comparable with the railway at Dawlish. Current mean; the debris flow poses no threat to any inhabited buildings. The 2000 study suggests that deep drainage may be the most effective means of stabilising the flow, though this may not stop movement.
The summit of Mam Tor is encircled by early Iron Age univallate hill fort. Radiocarbon analysis suggests occupation from around 1200 BC; the earliest remaining features are two Bronze Age burial mounds, one just below the summit and the other on the summit itself, though now buried under the paving. At a stage over a hundred small platforms were levelled into the hill near the summit, allowing inhabited timber huts to be constructed; the hill fort and burial mounds are a Scheduled Ancient Monument. Breast-shaped hill List of hill forts in England Moel Famau Shining Tor Coombs, D. G.. H. "Excavation of the hillfort of Mam Tor, Derbyshire", Derbyshire Archaeological Journal, 99: 7–51 Mam Tor Landslide British Geological Survey Walk up Mam Tor Description of the walk up from Castleton
Snake Pass is a hill pass in the Derbyshire section of the Peak District, crossing the Pennines between Glossop and the Ladybower Reservoir at Ashopton. The road was engineered by Thomas Telford and opened in 1821; the pass carries the A57 road between Manchester and Sheffield, but it is no longer the main signposted route between those two cities. Like several other roads that cross the Pennines, Snake Pass has a poor accident record compared with roads in the UK although more favourable compared with other roads in the area, it is closed in winter because of snow, has seen several longer-term closures owing to subsidence following heavy rain. The road remains a popular route for tourists and motorcycles and sections have been used for semi-professional cycling races such as the Tour of Britain. Snake Pass runs through the National Trust's High Peak Estate, lies within the High Peak borough of Derbyshire, it is part of the shortest route by road from Manchester to Sheffield. The pass starts east of Glossop and climbs to the Pennines watershed between the moorland plateaux of Kinder Scout and Bleaklow to a high point of 1,680 feet above sea level, where it crosses the Pennine Way.
After this, it passes a public house that used to be known as the Snake Inn, descends through forest to the Ladybower Reservoir at Ashopton. The name of the road matches its winding route, but derives from the emblem of the Snake Inn, one of the few buildings on the high stretch of road. In turn, the pub's name and sign were derived from the serpent on the Cavendish arms of William Cavendish, 6th Duke of Devonshire. In the early 21st century, the inn was renamed the Snake Pass Inn, such that the inn now refers to the road that referred to itself; the first road between Glossop and Ashopton was the Doctor's Gate, a Roman Road that follows the Shelf Brook between Shelf Moor and Coldharbour Moor, a route popular today with walkers and mountain bikers. In 1932, an Iron Age axe thought to be more than 2,000 years old was found near the site of this road; the current road further south was designed as a toll road by Thomas Telford to improve communications east of Glossop, expanding as an industrial town.
It was called the Sheffield to Glossop Turnpike and run by a turnpike trust, the Sheffield and Glossop Trust. An act of parliament to build the road was passed in 1818, construction was financed by the Duke of Norfolk and the Duke of Devonshire; the road opened in 1821. Upon opening, it was the highest turnpike road in England; the road was popular and increased toll collections of traffic heading to Glossop. Tolls were abolished on the road in June 1870; the eastern end of the pass is by the River Derwent. The river is bridged by the Ashopton Viaduct, built as part of the Ladybower Reservoir project between 1935 and 1945. Although Snake Pass is still the shortest route between Manchester and Sheffield, the more northerly Woodhead Pass, less steep and at a lower altitude, is now the primary road link between the two cities. Unlike Snake Pass, the Woodhead route is a trunk road. Traffic levels on both passes remained similar until the 1980s, but the Woodhead Pass route is now favoured as it connects directly to the M1, while Snake Pass leads into the centre of Sheffield.
Despite Sheffield and Manchester being among the largest UK cities by population, there is no direct motorway link between the two. A Manchester to Sheffield motorway was first proposed in 1966, a small section bypassing Denton and Hyde has been built, now the M67; the Woodhead Tunnel was closed in 1981 in anticipation of a road replacement, but linking the cities would have meant constructing many costly tunnels and viaducts across the Peak District. The plans were shelved, but reports in December 2014 announced a revival of the scheme; the road remains popular with drivers. In 2008, a survey by Caterham Cars rated Snake Pass the best driving road in the UK; the following year, it was listed as one of the best roads for driving in Britain by Auto Trader magazine, who described it as "offering unparalleled views over Manchester". As would be expected for a road crossing the Pennines, Snake Pass has several dangerous bends and blind summits. Like many roads in the North of England passing through similar terrain, Snake Pass has a poor safety record in comparison to other roads in the United Kingdom but it is not as dangerous as other roads bisecting hilly terrain in this part of England.
It was not among the top 10 in a list of the most dangerous roads published in July 2010, despite nine of the top ten being in Northern England. In 2012 Derbyshire Police announced a campaign to monitor motorcyclists using the pass, who are at risk of being involved in a fatal accident. In winter the road is the first of the routes between Sheffield and Manchester to be closed following snow in the area. In bad storms the entire road over the summit, including marker poles, has been buried in snow. In the winter months the road becomes icy, but gritting is not a priority as the A57 is only a "secondary" road at this point. Local councils prefer to treat streets in towns that are more to be used, as they believe that roads such as Snake Pass will be closed anyway. In 1924 Derbyshire County Council spent £2,000 installing underground telegraph wire cables beneath the road, as the above-ground installations were continually broken and disrupted following snowstorms; the British winter of 2010–11 was the coldest for decades and the road was closed on numerous occasions.
Snake Pass has been closed for longer periods owing to subsidence in the local area following rain. In January 1932 the road was c
Right of way
Right of way is "the legal right, established by usage or grant, to pass along a specific route through grounds or property belonging to another", or "a path or thoroughfare subject to such a right". This article is about access by foot, by bicycle, horseback, or along a waterway, Right-of-way focusses on highways, pipelines, etc. A footpath is a right of way. A similar right of access exists on some public land in the United States. In Canada and New Zealand, such land may alternatively be called Crown land. In some countries in Northern Europe, where the freedom to roam has taken the form of general public rights, a right of way may not be restricted to specific paths or trails; when one person owns a piece of land, bordered on all sides by lands owned by others, a court will be obliged to grant that person a right of way through the bordering land. A further definition, chiefly in American transport, is that it is a type of easement granted or reserved over the land for transportation purposes, this can be for a highway, public footpath, canal, as well as electrical transmission lines and gas pipelines.
As well this phrase describes priority of traffic flow. The New Oxford Dictionary defines it as "the legal right of a pedestrian, vehicle, or ship to proceed with precedence over others in a particular situation or place", in hiking etiquette, where when two groups of hikers meet on a steep trail, a custom has developed in some areas whereby the group moving uphill has the right of way. There is extensive public access in New Zealand, including waterways and the coast, but it is "often fragmented and difficult to locate". In the Republic of Ireland, pedestrian rights of way to churches, known as mass paths, have existed for centuries. In other cases, the modern law is unclear. Opposing these, those claiming general rights of way hark back to an anti-landed gentry position that has endured since the Land War of the 1880s. Rights of way can be asserted by Adverse possession. A case heard in 2010 concerning claims over the Lissadell House estate was based on the historical laws, since amended by the Land and Conveyancing Law Reform Act, 2009.
The 2009 Act abolished the doctrine of lost modern grant, allows a user to claim a right of way after 12 year of use across private land owned by another, 30 years on state land and 60 years on the foreshore. The claim must be duly registered, an expensive process; the user must prove "enjoyment without force, without secrecy and without the oral or written consent of the owner", a restatement of the centuries-old principle of Nec vi, nec clam, nec precario. In England and Wales, other than in the 12 Inner London Boroughs and the City of London, public rights of way are paths on which the public have a protected right to pass and re-pass; the law in England and Wales differs from that in Scotland in that rights of way only exist where they are so designated whereas in Scotland any route that meets certain conditions is defined as a right of way, in addition there is a general presumption of access to the countryside. Private rights of way or easements exist. Footpaths and other rights of way in most of England and Wales are shown on definitive maps.
A definitive map is a record of public rights of way in Wales. In law it is the definitive record of; the highway authority has a statutory duty to maintain a definitive map, though in national parks the national park authority maintains the map. Definitive maps of public rights of way have been compiled for all of England and Wales as a result of the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000, except the twelve Inner London boroughs which, along with the City of London, were not covered by the Act. To protect the existing rights of way in London, the Ramblers launched their "Putting London on the Map" in 2010 with the aim of getting "the same legal protection for paths in the capital as exists for footpaths elsewhere in England and Wales. Legislation allows the Inner London boroughs to choose to produce definitive maps if they wish, but none do so; the launch event of "Putting London on the Map" took place at the British Library, since "the Inner London Area of the Ramblers has been working with Ramblers Central Office staff to try to persuade each of the Inner London boroughs on the desirability of producing definitive maps of rights of way".
In 2011 Lambeth Council passed a resolution to work towards creating a definitive map for their borough, but this does not yet exist. The City of London has produced a Public Access Map. Definitive maps exist for the Outer London boroughs; some landowners allow access over their land without dedicating a right of way. These are physically indistinguishable from public rights of way, but they are may be subject to restrictions; such paths are closed at least once a year, so that a permanent right of way cannot be established in law. In Scotland, a right of way is a route over which the public has been able to pass unhindered for at least 20 years; the route must link two "public places", such as churches or roads. Unlike in England and Wales there is no obligation on Scottish local authorities to signpost rights of way; however the charity Scotways, formed in 1845 to protect rights of way, recor
A castle is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages by predominantly the nobility or royalty and by military orders. Scholars debate the scope of the word castle, but consider it to be the private fortified residence of a lord or noble; this is distinct from a palace, not fortified. Usage of the term has varied over time and has been applied to structures as diverse as hill forts and country houses. Over the 900 years that castles were built, they took on a great many forms with many different features, although some, such as curtain walls and arrowslits, were commonplace. European-style castles originated in the 9th and 10th centuries, after the fall of the Carolingian Empire resulted in its territory being divided among individual lords and princes; these nobles built castles to control the area surrounding them and the castles were both offensive and defensive structures. Although their military origins are emphasised in castle studies, the structures served as centres of administration and symbols of power.
Urban castles were used to control the local populace and important travel routes, rural castles were situated near features that were integral to life in the community, such as mills, fertile land, or a water source. Many castles were built from earth and timber, but had their defences replaced by stone. Early castles exploited natural defences, lacking features such as towers and arrowslits and relying on a central keep. In the late 12th and early 13th centuries, a scientific approach to castle defence emerged; this led with an emphasis on flanking fire. Many new castles were polygonal or relied on concentric defence – several stages of defence within each other that could all function at the same time to maximise the castle's firepower; these changes in defence have been attributed to a mixture of castle technology from the Crusades, such as concentric fortification, inspiration from earlier defences, such as Roman forts. Not all the elements of castle architecture were military in nature, so that devices such as moats evolved from their original purpose of defence into symbols of power.
Some grand castles had long winding approaches intended to dominate their landscape. Although gunpowder was introduced to Europe in the 14th century, it did not affect castle building until the 15th century, when artillery became powerful enough to break through stone walls. While castles continued to be built well into the 16th century, new techniques to deal with improved cannon fire made them uncomfortable and undesirable places to live; as a result, true castles went into decline and were replaced by artillery forts with no role in civil administration, country houses that were indefensible. From the 18th century onwards, there was a renewed interest in castles with the construction of mock castles, part of a romantic revival of Gothic architecture, but they had no military purpose; the word castle is derived from the Latin word castellum, a diminutive of the word castrum, meaning "fortified place". The Old English castel, Old French castel or chastel, French château, Spanish castillo, Italian castello, a number of words in other languages derive from castellum.
The word castle was introduced into English shortly before the Norman Conquest to denote this type of building, new to England. In its simplest terms, the definition of a castle accepted amongst academics is "a private fortified residence"; this contrasts with earlier fortifications, such as Anglo-Saxon burhs and walled cities such as Constantinople and Antioch in the Middle East. Feudalism was the link between a lord and his vassal where, in return for military service and the expectation of loyalty, the lord would grant the vassal land. In the late 20th century, there was a trend to refine the definition of a castle by including the criterion of feudal ownership, thus tying castles to the medieval period. During the First Crusade, the Frankish armies encountered walled settlements and forts that they indiscriminately referred to as castles, but which would not be considered as such under the modern definition. Castles served a range of purposes, the most important of which were military and domestic.
As well as defensive structures, castles were offensive tools which could be used as a base of operations in enemy territory. Castles were established by Norman invaders of England for both defensive purposes and to pacify the country's inhabitants; as William the Conqueror advanced through England, he fortified key positions to secure the land he had taken. Between 1066 and 1087, he established 36 castles such as Warwick Castle, which he used to guard against rebellion in the English Midlands. Towards the end of the Middle Ages, castles tended to lose their military significance due to the advent of powerful cannons and permanent artillery fortifications. A castle could act as a stronghold and prison but was a place where a knight or lord could entertain his peers. Over time the aesthetics of the design became more important, as the castle's appearance and size began to refle
Alport Height is a hill near Wirksworth in Derbyshire. It is a popular picnic site, since it has extensive views to the South, is the first hill over 1,000 ft within easy reach of the Derby area. Like Shining Cliff Woods, 2 km to the east, it is in the care of the National Trust, it was one of their first acquisitions in Derbyshire, acquired in 1930. It is possible to see Derby city centre from the summit, as well as The Wrekin, the Long Mynd, Clee Hill and the Malvern Hills. On an exceptionally clear day it is possible to see the Sutton Coldfield and Lichfield masts, the Birmingham city centre skyline, the Lickey Hills just beyond Birmingham. At night, Pye Green mast can be seen. There are associated buildings in a compound on the summit; the hill is sometimes known as Alport Stone after the name of the conspicuous pillar of quarried gritstone, some 20 ft high, near its summit. The boulder has 3 or 4 recognised climbing routes up it, one being an 8 m route of climbing-grade E5. John Gill's bouldering website has early photographs of pioneer climbers in action on the Stone.
Alport Castles in the High Peak area Alport, a hamlet in the White Peak area
Kinder Scout is a moorland plateau and National Nature Reserve in the Dark Peak of the Derbyshire Peak District in England. Part of the moor, at 636 metres above sea level, is the highest point in the Peak District, the highest point in Derbyshire, the highest point in the East Midlands. In excellent weather conditions the city of Manchester and the Greater Manchester conurbation can be seen, as well as Winter Hill near Bolton, the mountains of Snowdonia in North Wales. To the north across the Snake Pass lie the high moors of Bleaklow and Black Hill, which are of similar elevation. Kinder Scout featured on the BBC television programme Seven Natural Wonders as one of the wonders of the Midlands, though it is considered by many to be in Northern England, lying between the cities of Manchester and Sheffield; the history and meaning of the name have been studied by Broderick. In chronostratigraphy, the British sub-stage of the Carboniferous period, the'Kinderscoutian' derives its name from Kinder Scout.
Kinder Scout is accessible from the villages of Edale in the High Peak of Derbyshire. It is the moors to the north; this has resulted in the erosion of the underlying peat, prompting work by Derbyshire County Council and the Peak District National Park to repair it, in conjunction with the landowner, the National Trust. The plateau was the location of the mass trespass in 1932. From the National Park's inception, a large area of the high moorland north of Edale was designated as'Open Country'. In 2003, the "right to roam" on uncultivated land was enshrined into law, this area of open country has been extended. Parts of the Kinder Scout plateau are still closed for conservation, public safety, grouse shooting or fire prevention reasons, but prior notice is given on the Peak District National Park Authority's website. Kinder Downfall is the tallest waterfall in the Peak District, with a 30-metre fall, it lies on the River Kinder, where it flows west over one of the gritstone cliffs on the plateau edge.
The waterfall was known as Kinder Scut, it is from this that the plateau derives its name. Although little more than a trickle in summer, in spate conditions it is impressive. In certain wind conditions, the water is blown back on itself, the resulting cloud of spray can be seen from several miles away. Below the Downfall the River Kinder flows into Kinder Reservoir. In cold winters the waterfall freezes providing local mountaineers with an icy challenge that can be climbed with ice axes and crampons; some of Kinder's many gritstone cliffs were featured in the first rock-climbing guide to the Peak District, Some Gritstone Climbs, published in 1913 and written by John Laycock. Major English and Welsh peaks visible from Kinder Scout include Winter Hill, Pendle Hill, Whernside, Pen-y-ghent, Fountains Fell, Buckden Pike, Great Whernside, Margery Hill, the Weaver Hills, Axe Edge, The Roaches, Shining Tor, the Long Mynd, Corndon Hill, Cilfaesty Hill, Moel y Golfa, Cadair Berwyn, Beeston Castle, Alderley Edge, Arenig Fawr, Moel Famau, Glyder Fach, Tryfan, Y Garn, Carnedd Llewelyn and Foel-fras.
The Edale Cross lies south of Kinder Scout, under Kinder Low and on the former Hayfield to Edale road. It marks the former junction of the three wards of the Forest of Peak: Glossop and Longdendale and Campagna; the first cross on the site may have been set up by the Abbots of Basingwerk Abbey to mark the southern boundary of their land, granted in 1157. The date of the current cross is unknown. At some point it fell down, was re-erected in 1810, when the date and initials JG, WD, GH, JH and JS were carved into it; these stand for John Gee, William Drinkwater and Joseph Hadfield and John Shirt, local farmers of the day who raised the cross. The cross is a Scheduled Ancient Monument. Mermaid's Pool, a small pool below Kinder Downfall, is said to be inhabited by a mermaid who will grant immortality upon whoever sees her on Easter Eve. Pennines Rambling Kinder Scout Computer-generated summit panoramas. Note: the panorama shown is not all visible from the summit. There is a large summit plateau. Douglas, Ed.
Kinder Scout: The People's Mountain. Vertebrate Publishing. ISBN 1911342509. Smith, Roly, ed.. Kinder Scout: Portrait of a Mountain. Derbyshire County Council Libraries and Heritage Department. ISBN 0903463687
Codnor Castle is a ruined 13th-century castle in Derbyshire, England. The land around Codnor came under the jurisdiction of William Peverel after the Norman conquest. Although registered as a Scheduled Ancient Monument and Grade II Listed Building the site is as at 2016, a Building at Risk; the castle is a stone was established by William Peverel. The present fragmentary remains represent a three-storey keep and a strong curtain wall and ditch, flanked by round towers; the outer bailey is on a lower level and was constructed at a period. The castle overlooks the counties of Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire, it had a deep moat and on its eastern side there was once a considerable abundance of trees, which have now been cut down. On the west side there was a courtyard, fortified by huge round towers, which had battlements. In other parts of the ruins there is evidence that the outer walls had loopholes included to allow bowmen to use them if necessary. By 1211 it was owned by a descendant of the Norman knight Anchetil de Greye.
Henry's descendants include the long line of Lords Grey of Codnor, the Lords Grey of Ruthyn and Rotherfield, Lady Jane Grey and the Earls of Stamford, the extinct families of the Dukes of Suffolk and Kent. His son Richard settled in Codnor and was a loyal Baron to Henry III. Along with his brother John they served the King in the Holy Land. John Grey distinguished himself in the Scottish wars and found himself in great favour with Edward III. Together with William D'Eincourt, the Lord Grey commanded all the knights of Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire in case of an invasion. Henry, the last of the family, died during the reign of Henry VII without a legitimate heir, he left part of his lands to his illegitimate sons and Richard, part to his widow, Katherine Stourton. The remainder went to his aunt Elizabeth Grey, who in 1429 married Sir John Zouche, the youngest son of the fourth Baron Zouche of Harringworth. Sir John Zouche of Codnor was three times High Sheriff of Derbyshire; the castle remained in the hands of the Zouche family for two hundred years until they sold up and emigrated to Virginia in 1634.
Sir Streynsham Master, High Sheriff of Derbyshire, who bought the Codnor Castle estate in 1692, is reported as the last resident of the castle. He lived there until his death in 1724. Today the remnants of Codnor Castle are a fragile ruin; the site is now owned. Public access is managed by The Codnor Castle Heritage Trust. There are public footpaths to the Castle from Codnor Market Place, where there is an information board in partnership with Derbyshire County Council, as well as public footpaths from the east in the Erewash valley. In June 2007, Channel 4's Time Team programme carried out an archaeological dig around the castle. A preserved gold noble of Henry IV was found in the moat and is now displayed at Derby Museum and Art Gallery. Most Haunted Live! visited the castle as part of a paranormal investigation'As Live' special in 2017. The programme was broadcast in March 2018. Castles in Great Britain and Ireland List of castles in England Codnor Castle – official website Bibliography of sources relating to Codnor Castle Heanor & District Local History Society covers the Codnor area, their site contains a page of the castle Codnor & District Local History & Heritage website – Codnor Castle webpage "Time Team arrives at Codnor Castle" – Ripley & Heanor News Earthwork Analysis English Heritage Research Reports Archaeological Evaluation and Assessment of Results report by Wessex Archaeology on Time Team dig Heritage at Risk: Codnor+Castle