Valencian Gothic is an architectural style. It occurred under the Kingdom of Valencia between the 13th and 15th centuries, which places it at the end of the European Gothic period and at the beginning of the Renaissance; the term "Valencian Gothic" is confined to the Kingdom of Valencia and its area of influence, which has its own characteristics. The common characteristics of the Valencian Gothic are the following: Development of the architecture by techniques used in Roman architecture and of the Mediterranean countries. On these lines, the Kingdom of Valencia was influenced by arriving from France. Clear predominance of the architecture of the cultures of the Mediterranean countries respect of the influence of the French Gothic; the architectural proportions do not change with the arrival of the Renaissance. Divergence with the classic Gothic style. Clear influence of Flamboyant Gothic, which confers uniqueness. Cladding and concealment during the 17th to 19th centuries of the Valencian Gothic by newer styles such as the Baroque or the Neoclassical, so today much of the Valencian Gothic remains hidden.
Little impact of mudejar architecture, but in spite of this, there are interesting examples of mudejar architecture in the Valencian Community, that given the occasional use, are of great singularity. The most important valencian architects of the Valencian Gothic style are: Pere Compte, Francesc Baldomar, Pere Balaguer, Andreu Julià, etc. Province of AlicanteIn Alicante, Basilica of Santa Maria, Concatedral de San Nicolás. In Castalla, Ermita de la Sangre. In Jávea, Iglesia de San Bartolomé. In Orihuela, Orihuela Cathedral. In Teulada, Iglesia de Santa Catalina. In Villena, Iglesia Arciprestal de Santiago, Iglesia de Santa María. Province of CastellónIn L'Alcora, Iglesia de Nuestra Señora de la Asunción. In Burriana, Basílica de El Salvador. In Castellfort, Ermita de San Pedro. In Castellón, Castelló Cathedral, El Fadrí. In Jérica, Ermita de San Roque. In Morella, Iglesia de Santa María. In Sant Mateu, Iglesia arciprestal de San Mateo In Segorbe Cathedral. In Vallibona, Iglesia de la Asunción de la Virgen.
Province of ValenciaIn Ademuz, Ermita de Nuestra Señora de la Huerta. In Alfauir, Monastery of Sant Jeroni de Cotalba. In Carcaixent, Ermita de San Roque de Ternils. In Castielfabib, Ermita de Nuestra Señora de Gracia. In Gandia, Collegiate Basilica of Convent of Santa Clara of Gandia. In Luchente, Monastery of the Corpus Christi. In Serra, Cartuja de Porta Coeli. In Simat de la Valldigna, Monastery of Santa María de la Valldigna. In Valencia, Cathedral of Valencia, El Miguelete, Iglesia de San Juan del Hospital, Iglesia de San Martín, Antiguo Convento del Carmen, Convento de Santo Domingo, Iglesia de Santa Catalina, Monasterio de la Trinidad, Church of San Nicolás, Iglesia de San Agustín, etc. In Xativa, Iglesia de San Francisco, Hermitage of Santa Ana, etc; the most important buildings of the Valencian civil Gothic style are: Province of AlicanteIn Cocentaina, Palace of the Counts of Cocentaina. In Alcoy, palace of the Archaeological Museum Camil Visedo. Province of CastellónIn Cinctorres, Palacio de los San Juan.
In Vilafamés, palacio del Museo de Villafamés. Province of ValenciaIn Gandia, Ducal Palace of Gandia, Archaeological Museum of Gandia. In Valencia, Llotja de la Seda, Palace of the Borgias, Torres de Serranos, Almudín de Valencia, Atarazanas del Grao, Casa del Almirante, Palacio de Joan de Valeriola, Palacio de los Escrivà, etc. In Xativa, Almudin de Xativa. Province of CastellónIn Jérica, Torre mudéjar de la Alcudia. In Onda, Iglesia de la Sangre. In Segorbe, artesonado del Salón de Sesiones del antiguo Palacio Ducal. Province of ValenciaIn Alfauir, the cloister of the Monastery of Sant Jeroni de Cotalba. In Godella, la capilla del Cristo de la Paz en la Iglesia de San Bartolomé Apóstol. In Llíria, la iglesia de la Sangre de Liria. In Sagunto, la iglesia vieja de Sagunto. In Torres Torres, baños árabes. In Valencia, Baños del Almirante. Arturo Zaragozá Catalán. Valencian Gothic Architecture. Valencia, Generalitat Valenciana, 2000, ISBN 978-84-482-2545-2 Arturo Zaragozá Catalán. Memorias Olvidadas. Imágenes de la escultura gótica valenciana.
Valencia, Generalitat Valenciana, 2015, ISBN 978-84-482-6017-0 Mariano Torreño Calatayud. Arquitectura gótica valenciana. Valencia. Carena Editors, 2010. ISBN 978-84-96419-96-4 Route of the Monasteries of Valencia Route of the Borgias Route of the Valencian classics "Valencian Gothic architecture", by Arturo Zaragozá
A masia is a type of rural construction common to all the old Crown of Aragon: Catalonia, Valencian Community, Aragon and Provence. The estate in which the masia is located is called a mas, they are large but isolated structures, nearly always associated with a family farming or livestock operation. Through the ages, the materials used to construct masies varied determined by their location. In mountainous areas, rough stone was used, except for doorways and arches, where stone was worked. During the Middle Ages, mud was used as mortar, though on it was replaced by quicklime or cement. In places where stone was hard to come by, adobe was more common as a construction material. For the most part, masies are oriented to the south. Constructions older than 16th century have an arched main entrance while those built after the 18th century have lintel entrances. Masies were constructed with wooden beams placed perpendicular to the facade and covered by tiles. In the Pyrenees and other mountainous areas, the roofing would be made of slate.
They tended to be at least two-story buildings, with the ground floor reserved for farming tasks and housing livestock, with the upper floor reserved for the family's living quarters. If there was a floor above that, it would be used as a granary, or to house pigeons. Masies include an annexed private chapel. In modern times, many masies have been converted into residential villas, restaurants and breakfasts, or centers for rural tourism; some house have been restored and adapted for cultural uses. Some early works of the Catalan painter Joan Miró depict his family's own masia as well as Catalan peasants; the FC Barcelona youth academy is called La Masia, so named because it was located in an authentic 18th-century masia, called the'Masia de Can Planes'. The masia is located adjacent to the Camp Nou, was used to house young footballers from 1979 to 2011. Various authors. Enciclopèdia catalana, Barcelona, ISBN 84-85194-81-0 Soldevila, Ferran et alt.
Castro culture is the archaeological term for the material culture of the north-western regions of the Iberian Peninsula from the end of the Bronze Age until it was subsumed by Roman culture. It is the culture associated with the Celtiberians associated to the western Hallstatt horizon of Central Europe; the most notable characteristics of this culture are: its walled oppida and hill forts, known locally as castros, from Latin castrum "castle", the scarcity of visible burial practices, in spite of the frequent depositions of prestige items and goods and other metallic riches in rocky outcrops and other aquatic contexts since the Atlantic Bronze Age. This cultural area extended south into the lower Douro river valley; the area of Ave Valley was the core region of this culture, with a large number of small Castro settlements, but including larger oppida, the cividades, some known as citânias by archaeologists, due to their city-like structure: Cividade de Bagunte, Cividade de Terroso, Citânia de Briteiros, Citânia de Sanfins.
The Castro culture emerged during the first two centuries of the first millennium BCE, in the region extending from the Douro river up to the Minho, but soon expanding north along the coast, east following the river valleys, reaching the mountain ranges which separate the Atlantic coast of the Iberian peninsula from the central plateau or meseta. It was the result of the autonomous evolution of Atlantic Bronze Age communities, after the local collapse of the long range Atlantic network of interchange of prestige items. From the Mondego river up to the Minho river, along the coastal areas of northern Portugal, during the last two centuries of the second millennium BCE a series of settlements were established in high, well communicated places, radiating from a core area north of the Mondego, specializing themselves in the production of Atlantic Bronze Age metallurgy: cauldrons, bronze vases, roasting spits, flesh-hooks, swords and jewelry relating to a noble elite who celebrated ritual banquets and who participated in an extensive network of interchange of prestige items, from the Mediterranean and up to the British Isles.
These villages were related to the open settlements which characterized the first Bronze Age established near the valleys and the richer agricultural lands. From the beginning of the first millennium, the network appears to collapse because the Iron Age had outdated the Atlantic tin and bronze products in the Mediterranean region, the large-scale production of metallic items was reduced to the elaboration of axes and tools, which are still found buried in large quantities all along the European Atlantic coast. During the transition of the Bronze to the Iron Age, from the Douro in modern northern Portugal and up along the coasts of Galicia until the central regions of Asturias, the settlement in artificially fortified places substituted the old open settlement model; these early hill-forts were small, being situated in hills, peninsulas or another defended places endowed with long range visibility. The artificial defences were composed of earthen walls and ditches, which enclosed an inner habitable space.
This space was left void, non urbanised, used for communal activities, comprising a few circular, oblong, or rounded squared huts, of 5 to 15 meters in the largest dimension, built with wood, vegetable materials and mud, sometimes reinforced with stony low walls. The major inner feature of these multi-functional undivided cabins were the hearth, circular or quadrangular, which conditioned the uses of the other spaces of the room. In essence, the main characteristic of this formative period is the assumption by the community of a larger authority at the expense of the elites, reflected in the minor importance of prestige items production, while the collective invested important resources and labour in the communal spaces and defences. Since the beginning of the 6th century BCE the Castro culture experienced an inner expansion: hundreds of new hill-forts were founded, while some older small ones were abandoned for new emplacements; these new settlements were founded near valleys, in the vicinity of the richest farmlands, these are protected by several defence lines, composed of ramparts and sound stony walls built not only as a defensive apparatus but as a feature which could confer prestige to the community.
Sometimes, human remains have been found in cists or under the walls, implying some kind of foundational protective ritual. Not only did the number of settlements grow during this period, but their size and density. First, the old familiar huts were substituted by groups of family housing, composed of one or more huts with hearth, plus round granaries, elongated or square sheds and workshops. At the same time, these houses and groups tended to occupy most of the internal room of the hill-forts, reducing the communitarian open spaces, which in turn would have been substituted by other facilities such as saunas, communitarian halls, shared forges. Although most of the communities of this period had self-sufficient isolated economies, one important change was the return of trade with the Mediterranean by the now independent Carthage, a thriving Western Mediterranean power. Carthaginian merchants brought imports of wine, potter
Isabelline (architectural style)
The Isabelline style called the Isabelline Gothic, or Castilian late Gothic, was the dominant architectural style of the Crown of Castile during the reign of the Catholic Monarchs, Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon in the late-15th century to early-16th century. The Frenchman Émile Bertaux named the style after Queen Isabella, it represents the transition between late Gothic and early Renaissance architecture, with original features and decorative influences of the Castilian tradition, the Flemish, the Mudéjar, to a much lesser extent, Italian architecture. The consideration or not of the Isabelline as a Gothic or Renaissance style, or as an Eclectic style, or as a phase within a greater Plateresque generic, is a question debated by historians of art and unresolved; the Isabelline style introduced several structural elements of the Castilian tradition and the typical Flanders's flamboyant forms, as well as some ornaments of Islamic influence. Many of the buildings that were built in this style were commissioned by the Catholic Monarchs or were in some way sponsored by them.
A similar style called. The most obvious characteristic of the Isabelline is the predominance of heraldic and epigraphic motifs the symbols of the yoke and arrows and the pomegranate, which refer to the Catholic Monarchs. Characteristic of this period is ornamentation using beaded motifs of orbs worked in plaster or carved in stone. After the Catholic Monarchs had completed the Reconquista in 1492 and started the colonization of the Americas, imperial Spain began to develop a consciousness of its growing power and wealth, in its exuberance launched a period of construction of grand monuments to symbolize them. Many of these monuments were built at the command of the Queen; this exuberance found a parallel expression in the extreme profusion of decoration, called Plateresque. References to classical antiquity in the architecture of Spain were more literary, whereas in Italy, the prevalence of Roman-era buildings had given'Gothic' a meaning adapted to Italian classicist taste; until the Renaissance took hold in the Iberian peninsula, the transition from the'Modern' to the'Roman' in Spanish architecture had hardly begun.
These terms were applied with a meaning different from what one would expect now— the'Modern', an Spanish style, referred to the Gothic and its rational efficiency, while the'Roman' was the neoclassical or emotional and sensualist style of the Italian Renaissance. Regardless of the spatial characteristics of the interiors, Gothic buildings utilized proven structural systems; the Gothic style in the Iberian Peninsula had undergone a series of changes under the influence of local tradition, including much smaller windows which allowed the construction of roofs with less pitch and flat roofs. This made for a original style, yet more efficient construction. Spanish architects, accustomed to their Gothic structural conventions, looked with some contempt on the visible metal braces that Italian architects were forced to put on their buildings' arches to resist horizontal thrust, while their own Gothic building methods had avoided this problem; the development of classical architecture in the Iberian Peninsula, as elsewhere, had been moribund during the centuries of building construction done in the Gothic tradition, the neoclassical movement of the Italian Renaissance was late to arrive there.
A unique style with modern elements evolved from the Gothic inheritance in Spain. The best example of this syncretistic style is the Monastery of San Juan de los Reyes in Toledo. In the Isabelline style, decorative elements of Italianate origin were combined with Iberian traditional elements to form ornamental complexes that overlaid the structures, while retaining many Gothic elements, such as pinnacles and pointed arches. Isabelline architects clung to the Gothic solution of the problem of how to distribute the weight burden of vaults pressing on pillars: that is, by propping them up with flying buttresses. After 1530, although the Isabelline style continued to be used and its decorative ornaments were still evolving, Spanish architecture began to incorporate Renaissance ideas of form and structure. Juan Guas Egas Cueman Enrique Egas Simón de Colonia Iglesia conventual de San Pablo in Valladolid Monastery of San Juan de los Reyes in Toledo Royal Chapel of Granada Iglesia de Santa María la Real in Aranda de Duero Colegio de San Gregorio in Valladolid Monastery of Santo Tomás in Ávila Miraflores Charterhouse in Burgos Palacio del Infantado in Guadalajara Facade of the Palacio de Jabalquinto in Baeza Monastery of San Jerónimo el Real in Madrid The defunct Abbey of Santa Engracia of Zaragoza Chueca Goitia, Fernando: Historia de la arquitectura española, two volumes.
Diputación de Ávila, 2001. ISBN 84-923918-7-1
Plateresque, meaning "in the manner of a silversmith", was an artistic movement architectural, developed in Spain and its territories, which appeared between the late Gothic and early Renaissance in the late 15th century, spread over the next two centuries. It is a modification of Gothic spatial concepts and an eclectic blend of Mudéjar, Flamboyant Gothic and Lombard decorative components, as well as Renaissance elements of Tuscan origin. Examples of this syncretism are the inclusion of shields and pinnacles on facades, columns built in the Renaissance neoclassical manner, facades divided into three parts, it reached its peak during the reign of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor in Salamanca, but flourished in other such cities of the Iberian Peninsula as León and Burgos and in the territory of New Spain, now Mexico. Plateresque has been considered down to current times a Renaissance style by many scholars. To others, it is its own style, sometimes receives the designation of Protorenaissance; some call it First Renaissance in a refusal to consider it as a style in itself, but to distinguish it from non-Spanish Renaissance works.
The style is characterized by ornate decorative facades covered with floral designs, festoons, fantastic creatures and all sorts of configurations. The spatial arrangement, however, is more Gothic-inspired; this fixation on specific parts and their spacing, without structural changes of the Gothic pattern, causes it to be classified as a variation of Renaissance style. In New Spain the Plateresque acquired its own configuration, clinging to its Mudéjar heritage and blending with Native American influences. In Spain its development is most remarkable in the city of Salamanca although examples are found in most regions of the country. In the 19th century with the rise of historicism, the Plateresque architectural style was revived under the name of Monterrey Style; the name Plateresque came from the silversmith trade. Diego Ortiz de Zúñiga used it for the first time, applying it to the Royal Chapel of the Cathedral of Seville in the 17th century. Traditionally Plateresque has been considered a style "Spanish", a term applied to architecture in the Spanish territories held by the Spanish Crown between the 15th and 17th centuries.
But by the mid-20th century this geographical connotation was questioned under the arguments of several authors Camón Aznar and Rosenthal, who defined Plateresque generically as a unitary amalgam of elements – Gothic and Renaissance. Aznar does not regard it as a style properly denoted as Renaissance, Rosenthal emphasizes its association with certain buildings in other European countries France and Portugal, but Germany and others; this problem highlights the imprecision of the name Plateresque and the difficulties inherent in using it to describe productions from a period of confusion and transition between styles since they are characterized by decorative profusion suggesting an attempt to disguise the failure of Spanish architects to develop new structural and spatial ideas. It has been suggested that this problem could be solved by identifying what is called Plateresque as the replacement of Gothic decoration with grotesques inspired by the works of the Italian Sebastiano Serlio. Any persuasive argument, must admit that the Plateresque or Protorenaissance was an artistic movement that responded to the demands of the ruling classes of imperial Spain, which had just completed the Reconquista and begun the colonization of the Americas.
The Spanish were developing a consciousness of their growing power and wealth, in their exuberance launched a period of construction of grand monuments to symbolize these with what are now considered national treasures. Typical Plateresque facades, like those of altarpieces, were made as as if they were the works of goldsmiths, decorated as profusely; the decoration, although of various inspirations, was of plant motifs, but had a profusion of medallions, heraldic devices and animal figures, among others. Plateresque utilized a wealth of materials: gold plates on crests and roofs, etc. There is evidence of more polychrome works at the conclusion of the first third of the 16th century, when there appeared heraldic crests of historical provenance and long balustrades, to mention one kind of less busy decoration; the proliferation of decoration for all architectural surfaces led to the creation of new surfaces and subspaces, which were in turn decorated profusely, such as niches and aediculas.
Italian elements were being developed progressively as decoration: rustications, classical capitals, Roman arches and grotesques. The decoration had specific meanings and can not be read as decorative. In a similar vein and Roman myths were depicted elsewhere to represent abstract humanist ideals, so that the decorative became a means to express and disseminate Renaissance ideals. Plataresque implemented and preferred new spatial aspects, so caustrales, or stairs of open boxes, made their appearance. However, there were few spatial changes with respect to the Gothic tradition. In America in today's Mexico, various indigenous cultures were in certain stages of development that can be considered Baroque when the Spanish brought with them the Plateresque style; this European phenomenon mixed symbiotically with local traditions, so that pure Gothic architecture was not built in America itself, but the Plateresque mixed with Native American influences, soon evolving into what came to be c
Mozarabic art and architecture
Mozarabic art refers to art of Mozarabs, Iberian Christians living in Al-Andalus, the Muslim conquered territories in the period that comprises from the Arab invasion of the Iberian Peninsula to the end of the 11th century, adopted some Arab customs without converting to Islam, preserving their religion and some ecclesiastical and judicial autonomy. Used for the whole of the Iberian peninsula, the term is now restricted, at least in architecture, to the south, with Repoblación art and architecture used for the north; the Mozarabic communities maintained some of the Visigothic churches that were older than the Arab occupation for the practice of their religious rites and were able to build new ones, because though a certain religious tolerance existed, the authorizations for building new churches were limited. When permitted, new churches were always in rural areas or in the cities' suburbs, of modest size; when Christian kingdoms of the north of the peninsula initiated an expansion, some Mozarabs opted to emigrate towards these territories where they were offered land.
Their Hispano-Visigothic culture had been mixing with the Muslim and it is to be supposed that this contributed to the emerging cultures of the new Christian kingdoms in all fields. However it is unlikely that they were responsible for all of the artistic innovations brought to maturity in the kingdoms of the north during the 10th century. Concluding the first phase of the artistic process, comprised in the ample concept of "Pre-Romanesque" and corresponding with Hispano-Visigothic art; this has been identified with the artistic creations that were being produced during the 9th century in the so-called "nucleus of resistance" in the territories that comprised the kingdom of Asturias. However the artistic activity, in general was not limited to this area or this century, it encompassed all the northern peninsula and had continuity during the next century; the displacement of the Christian-Muslim border to the Douro basin allowed the construction of new temples in demand of the necessities of re-settling.
The now prosperous Northern kingdoms were in a condition to undertake that task, without depending on hypothetical contributions of the incorporated Mozarabs, so it cannot be assumed that all the religious buildings and all the artistic creations are owed to these rural immigrants who arrived with limitation of means and resources. After the publication in 1897 of the well-informed work in four volumes History of the Mozarabs of Spain by Francisco Javier Simonet, the professor and investigator Manuel Gómez Moreno published 20 years a monograph about The Mozarabic Churches, it is here where the Mozarabic character is applied to the churches constructed in Christian territory from the end of the 9th century until the beginning of the 11th, where the term "Mozarabic" is instituted to designate this architectural form and all of the related art. The denomination had success in becoming one, used, although other scholars claimed the interpretation lacked rigour; the Mozarabic character of the temples that Gómez Moreno referred to in his book has been questioned by modern historiography, including by the not so modern.
José Camón Aznar in his Spanish Architecture of the 10th Century considered himself against such an interpretation, after him Isidro Bango Torviso and many others, to the point that the present tendency shows a trend towards the abandoning of "Mozarabic Art" denomination altogether and its substitution by "Repoblación art and architecture to refer to the period in the north of Spain. The principal exponent is religious literature: Mozarabic missals and prayerbooks, created in the scriptorium of the monasteries. Examples of quality and originality of the miniatures and illuminated manuscripts are the Commentarium in Apocalypsin from Beatus of Liébana, Beatus of Facundus or Beatus of Tábara. Or antiphonaries like the Mozarabic Antiphonary of the Cathedral of León. Toledo and Córdoba were the most important Mozarabic centers. From Córdoba was the abbot Speraindeo, who wrote an Apologetic against Muhammad, and important for the history of philosophy studies is the Apologetic of the abbot Sansón.
The principal characteristics that define the Mozarabic architecture are the following: A great command of the technique in construction, employing principally ashlar by length and width. Absence or sobriety of exterior decoration. Diversity in the floor plans the majority stand out by the small proportions and discontinuous spaces covered by cupolas. Use of the horseshoe arch, a tight arch with the slope being two-thirds of the radius. Use of the alfiz. Use of the column as support, crowned by a Corinthian capital decorated with stylized vegetable elements; the eaves extend outwards and rest on top of corbels of lobes. The Mozarabic architecture interpreted in its definition, to say, that the Mozarabs in Muslim Iberia brought to completion, would be reduced to two examples: The Church of Bobastro: rock temple located in the place known as Mesas de Villaverde, in Ardales, of which only some ruins remain; the Church of Santa María d
Pre-Romanesque architecture in Asturias is framed between the years 711 and 910, the period of the creation and expansion of the kingdom of Asturias. In the 5th century, the Goths, a Christianized tribe of Eastern Germanic origin, arrived in the Iberian peninsula after the fall of the Roman empire, dominated most of the territory, attempting to continue Roman order by the so-called Ordo Gothorum. In the year 710, the Visigothic king Wittiza died, instead of being succeeded by the eldest of his three sons, the throne was usurped by the duke of Baetica, Roderic; the young heir sought support to recover the throne, apart from local backing, he approached the Muslim Kingdom in northern Africa. Tarik, the caliph of Damascus governor in Tangier, received permission to offer his army and disembark in Spain, ready to face the Visigothic army of King Roderic. On July 19, 711, the battle of Guadalete took place near Gibraltar, where supporters of Witiza's heir, backed by Tarik's Muslim army, killed King Roderic and destroyed the Visigothic army.
Tarik and his troops took advantage of their military superiority, marched on the Visigothic capital, taking it without opposition. According to the chronicles, Asturian mercenaries, recruited by the Romans for their courage and fighting spirit, fought alongside King Roderic; these warriors, together with the rest of the retreating Gothic army, sought refuge in the mountains of Asturias, where they tried to safeguard some of the sacred relics from Toledo cathedral, the most important of, the Holy Ark, containing a large number of relics from Jerusalem. The kingdom of Asturias arose seven years in 718, when the Astur tribes, rallied in assembly, decided to appoint Pelayo as their leader, a person of uncertain origin, since for some chroniclers he was a Visigothic nobleman who fled from the Muslim conquerors and for others he was an indigenous nobleman associated with the Visigothic kingdom. Whatever the case, Pelayo joined the local tribes and the refuged Visigoths under his command, with the intention of progressively restoring Gothic Order, based on the kingdom of Toledo's political model.
The kingdom of Asturias disappeared with King Alfonso III, who died in December of the year 910. In two hundred years, the 12 kings of the dynasty founded by Pelayo were to recover territory from the Muslims, a process which required the court to be moved south, to León, for its strategic position in the struggle that culminated 800 years after it had started with the taking of Granada and the expulsion of the last Arabic king from the Iberian Peninsula; the symbol of the flag of Asturias, a golden cross, a blue background with the Latin motto Hoc signo, tvetvr pivs, Hoc signo vincitvr inimicvs, sums up the unified character that Christianity gave the armed struggle. Asturian Pre-Romanesque is a singular feature in all Spain, while combining elements from other styles and developed its own personality and characteristics, reaching a considerable level of refinement, not only as regards construction, but in terms of decoration and gold ornamentation; this last aspect can be seen in such relevant works as the Cross of the Angels, the Victory Cross, the agate Box, the Reliquary in Astorga Cathedral and the Cross of Santiago.
As court architecture, the situation of Pre-Romanesque monuments followed in the wake of the various locations of the kingdom's capital. As regards its evolution, from its appearance, Asturian Pre-Romanesque followed a "stylistic sequence associated with the kingdom's political evolution, its stages outlined". Five stages are distinguished. A second stage comprises the reign of Alfonso II, entering a stage of stylistic definition, third comprises the reigns of Ramiro I and Ordoño I. From this period, of the young kingdom's rise and consolidation, the existence of two churches have been registered; the Church of Santa Cruz at the court's original location, Cangas de Onís, of which we only have written references, because it was destroyed in 1936. The present-day one dates from 1950 and, like the original, is built over a barrow covering a dolmen; the legend goes that the name Santa Cruz comes from the oaken cross carried by King Pelayo in the battle of Covadonga, the first "little-big victory" against the Arabs, to be covered in gold and precious stones, coming to be called La Victoria, emblem of the Asturian flag.
Chronicles state that the Church of Santa Cruz was built in stone masonry, one nave with a barrel vault and a main chapel on one side. The second of these constructions is the Church of San Juan Apóstol y Evangelista, Santianes de Pravia, located in Santianes, its construction results from the move of the royal court from Cangas de Onís to Pravia, an old Roman settlement and crossroads. The church, built between the years 774 and 783 showed a number of elements anticipating Asturian Pre-Romanesque.