National Rally (France)
The National Rally, until June 2018 known as the National Front, is a right-wing populist and nationalist political party in France. Most political commentators place the RN on the far-right, but other sources suggest that the party's position on the political spectrum has become more difficult to define clearly. Owing to the French electoral system, the party's representation in public office has been limited despite its significant share of the vote, its major policies include opposition to French membership in NATO, European Union, the Schengen Area, the Eurozone. As an anti-European Union party, the National Rally has opposed the European Union since its creation; the party supports greater government intervention in the economy, protectionism, a zero tolerance approach to law and order, significant cuts to legal immigration. The party was founded in 1972 to unify a variety of French nationalist movements of the time. Jean-Marie Le Pen was the party's first leader and the undisputed centre of the party from its start until his resignation in 2011.
While the party struggled as a marginal force for its first ten years, since 1984 it has been the major force of French nationalism. The 2002 presidential election was the first in France to include a National Front candidate in the run-off after Jean-Marie Le Pen beat the Socialist candidate in the first round. In the run-off, he finished a distant second to Jacques Chirac, his daughter Marine Le Pen was elected to succeed him. In April 2017, she temporarily stepped down in order to concentrate on being the presidential candidate and to unite voters. While her father was nicknamed the "Devil of the Republic" by mainstream media, Marine Le Pen pursued a policy of "de-demonisation" of the party by softening its image, she endeavoured to extract it from its far-right cultural roots, to normalise it by giving it a culture of government, censuring controversial members like her father, suspended, expelled from the party in 2015. Since her election as the leader of the party in 2011, the popularity of the FN continued to grow apace as the party won several municipalities at the 2014 municipal elections.
The party once again came in first place in the 2015 regional elections with a historic result of just under 28% of the vote. By 2015, the FN had established itself as one of the largest political forces in France, unusually being both most popular and most controversial political party. At the party congress on 11 March 2018, Marine Le Pen proposed renaming the party to Rassemblement national, pending approval by a vote of party members. On 1 June 2018, she announced the renaming of the party after its approval by 80.81% of the party's adherents. The party maintains. One of the primary progenitors of the party was the Action Française, founded at the end of the 19th century, its descendants in the Restauration Nationale, a pro-monarchy group that supports the claim of the Count of Paris to the French throne. More the party drew from the Poujadism of the 1950s, which started out as an anti-tax movement without relations to the right-wing, but included among its parliamentary deputies "proto-nationalists" such as Jean-Marie Le Pen.
Another conflict, part of the party's background was the Algerian War, the right-wing dismay over the decision by French President Charles de Gaulle to abandon his promise of holding on to French Algeria. In the 1965 presidential election, Le Pen unsuccessfully attempted to consolidate the right-wing vote around the right-wing presidential candidate Jean-Louis Tixier-Vignancour. During the late 1960s and early 1970s, the French far-right consisted of small extreme movements such as Occident, Groupe Union Défense, the Ordre Nouveau. While the ON had competed in some local elections since 1970, at its second congress in June 1972 it decided to establish a new political party to contest the 1973 legislative elections; the party was launched on 5 October 1972 under the name National Front for French Unity, or Front National. In order to create a broad movement, the ON sought to model the new party on the more established Italian Social Movement, which at the time appeared to establish a broad coalition for the Italian right.
The FN adopted a French version of the MSI tricolour flame as its logo. It wanted to unite the various French far-right currents, brought together Le Pen's nationalist group, Roger Holeindre's Party of French Unity, Georges Bidault's Justice and Liberty movement, former Poujadists, Algerian War veterans, some monarchists, among others. Le Pen was chosen to be the first president of the party, as he was untainted with the militant public image of the ON and was a moderate figure on the far-right; the National Front fared poorly in the 1973 legislative elections, receiving 0.5% of the national vote. In 1973 the party created a youth movement, the Front national de la jeunesse; the rhetoric used in the campaign stressed old far-right themes and was uninspiring to the electorate at the time. Otherwise, its official program at this point was moderate, differing little from
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
The Identitarian movement or Identitarianism is a European, North American and New Zealander far-right and white nationalist movement that originated in France. The identitarians began as a youth movement, with their name derived from the French Nouvelle Droite Génération Identitaire, the anti-Zionist and National Bolshevik Unité Radicale. Although the youth wing of the anti-immigration and nativist Bloc Identitaire, it has taken on its own identity and is classified as a separate entity altogether. French essayists such as Renaud Camus, Alain de Benoist and Guillaume Faye are considered the movement's leading intellectual figures, it picks up philosophically in the post-war period hostile to fascistic ideologies, as a form of unifying the responses to the questions of identity and being, a misreading of Nietzsche promoted by Martin Heidegger. The movement is a part of the counter-jihad movement, with many adherents espousing the white genocide conspiracy theory and its variant The Great Replacement conspiracy theory.
They support the concept of a "Europe of 100 Flags", popularized by Yann Fouéré. The movement has been described as a part of the global alt-right. In Sweden, the organisation Nordiska förbundet, which founded the online encyclopedia Metapedia in 2006, promoted identitarianism, it mobilised a number of "independent activist groups" similar to their French counterparts, among them Reaktion Östergötland and Identitet Väst, which carried out a number of political actions marked by a certain degree of civil disobedience. The main identitarian youth movement is Génération Identitaire in France, a youth wing of the Bloc Identitaire party; the origin of the Italian chapter Generazione Identitaria dates from 2012. In Austria, Identitäre Bewegung Österreichs was founded in 2012. Austrian Identitarians have sometimes used the concept of a "War Against the'68ers" The movement appeared in Germany and converged with preexisting circles, centered on the magazine Blue Narcissus and its founder Felix Menzel, a martial artist and former German Karate Team Champion, who according to Gudrun Hentges – who worked for the official Federal Agency for Civic Education – belongs to the "elite of the movement".
It became a "registered association" in 2014. Drawing upon thinkers of the Nouvelle Droite and the Conservative Revolutionary movement such as Oswald Spengler, Carl Schmitt or the contemporary Russian Aleksandr Dugin, it played a role in the rise of the PEGIDA marches in 2014/15; the identitarian movement has a close linkage to members of the German New Right, e.g. to its prominent member Götz Kubitschek and his journal Sezession, for which the identitarian speaker Martin Sellner writes. As their symbol, the European Identitarian movement and Generation Identity use a yellow lambda sign, a symbol, painted on the shields of the Spartan army – popularized by the film 300 – to commemorate the Battle of Thermopylae of 480 BCE. In August 2016 members of the identitarian movement in Germany scaled the iconic Brandenburg Gate in Berlin and hung a banner in protest at European immigration and perceived Islamisation. Members of the identitarian movement erected a new summit cross in a "provocative" act on the Schafreuter, after the original one had to be removed because of damage by an unknown person.
In June 2017 the PayPal donations account of the identitarian "Defend Europe" was locked, the identitarian account of the bank "Steiermärkische Sparkasse" was closed. Defend Europe crowdfunded more than $178,000 to charter a ship in the Mediterranean, it aimed to ferry any rescued migrants back to Africa, to observe any incursions by other NGO ships into Libyan waters, to report them to the Libyan coastguard. In the event, the ship chartered by GI suffered an engine failure, had to be rescued by a ship from one of the NGOs rescuing migrants. In October 2017 key figures of the identitarian movement met in London in efforts to target the United Kingdom, discussed the founding of a British chapter as a "bridge" to link with radical movements in the US; the United Kingdom and Ireland branch was launched in late October 2017 after a banner was unfurled on Westminster Bridge reading "Defend London, Stop Islamisation". On 9 March 2018, Sellner and his girlfriend Brittany Pettibone were barred from entering the UK because their presence was "not conducive to the public good".
Prior the ban, Sellner intended to deliver a speech to the Young Independence party, though they cancelled the event, citing supposed threats of violence from the far-left. Prior to being detained and deported, Sellner intended to deliver his speech at Speakers' Corner in Hyde Park. In June 2018 Tore Rasmussen, a Norwegian activist, denied entry to the United Kingdom, was working in the Republic of Ireland to establish a local branch of Generation Identity; the founder of the far-right Croatian party Generation of Renovation has stated that it was formed in 2017 as that country's version of the alt-right and identitarian movements. Les Identitaires, founded in 2003, is a French identitarian group. Identitäre Bewegung Österreichs is an Austrian identitarian group founded in 2012; the political party Identity Ireland was founded in 2015. Australia has a local presence of the Identitarian movement in the form of an organization known as Identity Australia which describes itself as "a youth-focused identitiarian organisation dedicated to giving European Australians a voice and restoring Australia's European charact
Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers. It is believed. More than half of all Europeans claim to speak at least one language other than their mother tongue. Always useful to traders, multilingualism is advantageous for people wanting to participate in globalization and cultural openness. Owing to the ease of access to information facilitated by the Internet, individuals' exposure to multiple languages is becoming possible. People who speak several languages are called polyglots. Multilingual speakers have acquired and maintained at least one language during childhood, the so-called first language; the first language is acquired without formal education, by mechanisms about which scholars disagree. Children acquiring two languages from these early years are called simultaneous bilinguals. In the case of simultaneous bilinguals, one language is dominant. People who know more than one language have been reported to be more adept at language learning compared to monolinguals.
Multilingualism in computing can be considered part of a continuum between internationalization and localization. Due to the status of English in computing, software development nearly always uses it. All commercial software is available in an English version, multilingual versions, if any, may be produced as alternative options based on the English original; the definition of multilingualism is a subject of debate in the same way as that of language fluency. On one end of a sort of linguistic continuum, one may define multilingualism as complete competence and mastery in another language; the speaker would have complete knowledge and control over the language so as to sound native. On the opposite end of the spectrum would be people who know enough phrases to get around as a tourist using the alternate language. Since 1992, Vivian Cook has argued that most multilingual speakers fall somewhere between minimal and maximal definitions. Cook calls these people multi-competent. In addition, there is no consistent definition of.
For instance, scholars disagree whether Scots is a language in its own right or a dialect of English. Furthermore, what is considered a language can change for purely political purposes, such as when Serbo-Croatian was created as a standard language on the basis of the Eastern Herzegovinian dialect to function as umbrella for numerous South Slavic dialects, after the breakup of Yugoslavia was split into Serbian, Croatian and Montenegrin, or when Ukrainian was dismissed as a Russian dialect by the Russian tsars to discourage national feelings. Many small independent nations' schoolchildren are today compelled to learn multiple languages because of international interactions. For example, in Finland, all children are required to learn at least two foreign languages: the other national language and one alien language. Many Finnish schoolchildren select further languages, such as German or Russian. In some large nations with multiple languages, such as India, schoolchildren may learn multiple languages based on where they reside in the country.
In major metropolitan areas of Central and Eastern India, many children may be fluent in four languages. Thus, a child of Telugu parents living in Bangalore will end up speaking his or her mother tongue at home and the state language and English in school and life. In many countries, bilingualism occurs through international communications and English being the global lingua franca, which sometimes results in majority bilingualism when the countries have just one domestic official language; this is occurring in Germanic regions such as Scandinavia, the Benelux and among Germanophones, but it is expanding into some non-Germanic countries. Many myths and much prejudice has grown around the notions of bi- and multilingualism in some Western countries where monolingualism is the norm. Researchers from the UK and Poland have listed the most common misconceptions: that bi- or multilinguals are exceptions to the ‘default’ monolingual ‘norm’; that the children would be confused with having the ability to speak two languages and the “tip-of-the-tongue states” For instance, where one knows the meaning and the specific details of a word, but cannot retrieve a word.
Those bilingual individuals tend to have fewer vocabularies and weaker in “verbal fluency tasks” than the monolingual counterpartThese are all harmful convictions which have long been debunked, yet still persist among many parents. One view is that of the linguist Noam Chomsky in what he calls the human language acquisition device—a mechanism which enables an individual to recreate correctly
Alsace is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland. From 1982 to 2016, Alsace was the smallest administrative région in metropolitan France, consisting of the Bas-Rhin and Haut-Rhin departments. Territorial reform passed by the French legislature in 2014 resulted in the merger of the Alsace administrative region with Champagne-Ardenne and Lorraine to form Grand Est. Alsatian is an Alemannic dialect related to Swabian and Swiss German, although since World War II most Alsatians speak French. Internal and international migration since 1945 has changed the ethnolinguistic composition of Alsace. For more than 300 years, from the Thirty Years' War to World War II, the political status of Alsace was contested between France and various German states in wars and diplomatic conferences; the economic and cultural capital of Alsace, as well as its largest city, is Strasbourg. The city is the seat of bodies; the name "Alsace" can be traced to the Old High German Ali-saz or Elisaz, meaning "foreign domain".
An alternative explanation is from a Germanic Ell-sass, meaning "seated on the Ill", a river in Alsace. In prehistoric times, Alsace was inhabited by nomadic hunters. By 1500 BC, Celts began to settle in Alsace and cultivating the land, it should be noted that Alsace is a plain surrounded by the Vosges mountains and the Black Forest mountains. It creates Foehn winds which, along with natural irrigation, contributes to the fertility of the soil. In a world of agriculture, Alsace has always been a rich region which explains why it suffered so many invasions and annexations in its history. By 58 BC, the Romans had established Alsace as a center of viticulture. To protect this valued industry, the Romans built fortifications and military camps that evolved into various communities which have been inhabited continuously to the present day. While part of the Roman Empire, Alsace was part of Germania Superior. With the decline of the Roman Empire, Alsace became the territory of the Germanic Alemanni; the Alemanni were agricultural people, their Germanic language formed the basis of modern-day dialects spoken along the Upper Rhine.
Clovis and the Franks defeated the Alemanni during the 5th century AD, culminating with the Battle of Tolbiac, Alsace became part of the Kingdom of Austrasia. Under Clovis' Merovingian successors the inhabitants were Christianized. Alsace remained under Frankish control until the Frankish realm, following the Oaths of Strasbourg of 842, was formally dissolved in 843 at the Treaty of Verdun. Alsace formed part of the Middle Francia, ruled by the eldest grandson Lothar I. Lothar died early in 855 and his realm was divided into three parts; the part known as Lotharingia, or Lorraine, was given to Lothar's son. The rest was shared between Louis the German; the Kingdom of Lotharingia was short-lived, becoming the stem duchy of Lorraine in Eastern Francia after the Treaty of Ribemont in 880. Alsace was united with the other Alemanni east of the Rhine into the stem duchy of Swabia. At about this time, the surrounding areas experienced recurring fragmentation and reincorporations among a number of feudal secular and ecclesiastical lordships, a common process in the Holy Roman Empire.
Alsace experienced great prosperity during the 13th centuries under Hohenstaufen emperors. Frederick I set up Alsace as a province to be ruled by ministeriales, a non-noble class of civil servants; the idea was that such men would be more tractable and less to alienate the fief from the crown out of their own greed. The province had a central administration with its seat at Hagenau. Frederick II designated the Bishop of Strasbourg to administer Alsace, but the authority of the bishop was challenged by Count Rudolf of Habsburg, who received his rights from Frederick II's son Conrad IV. Strasbourg began to grow to become the commercially important town in the region. In 1262, after a long struggle with the ruling bishops, its citizens gained the status of free imperial city. A stop on the Paris-Vienna-Orient trade route, as well as a port on the Rhine route linking southern Germany and Switzerland to the Netherlands and Scandinavia, it became the political and economic center of the region. Cities such as Colmar and Hagenau began to grow in economic importance and gained a kind of autonomy within the "Décapole", a federation of ten free towns.
As in much of Europe, the prosperity of Alsace came to an end in the 14th century by a series of harsh winters, bad harvests, the Black Death. These hardships were blamed on Jews, leading to the pogroms of 1336 and 1339. In 1349, Jews of Alsace were accused of poisoning the wells with plague, leading to the massacre of thousands of Jews during the Strasbourg pogrom. Jews were subsequently forbidden to settle in the town. An additional natural disaster was the Rhine rift earthquake of 1356, one of Europe's worst which made ruins of Basel. Prosperity returned to Alsace under Habsburg administration during the Renaissance. Holy Roman Empire central power had begun to decline following years of imperial adventures in Italian lands ceding hegemony in Western Europe to France, which had long since centralized power. France began an aggressive policy of expanding eastward, first to the riv
White is the lightest color and is achromatic. It is the color of fresh snow and milk, is the opposite of black. White objects reflect and scatter all the visible wavelengths of light. White on television and computer screens is created by a mixture of red and green light. In ancient Egypt and ancient Rome, priestesses wore white as a symbol of purity, Romans wore a white toga as a symbol of citizenship. In the Middle Ages and Renaissance a white unicorn symbolized chastity, a white lamb sacrifice and purity, it was the royal color of the Kings of France, of the monarchist movement that opposed the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War. Greek and Roman temples were faced with white marble, beginning in the 18th century, with the advent of neoclassical architecture, white became the most common color of new churches and other government buildings in the United States, it was widely used in 20th century modern architecture as a symbol of modernity and simplicity. According to surveys in Europe and the United States, white is the color most associated with perfection, the good, cleanliness, the beginning, the new and exactitude.
White is an important color for all world religions. The Pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church, has worn white since 1566, as a symbol of purity and sacrifice. In Islam, in the Shinto religion of Japan, it is worn by pilgrims. In Western cultures and in Japan, white is the most common color for wedding dresses, symbolizing purity and virginity. In many Asian cultures, white is the color of mourning; the word white continues Old English hwīt from a Common Germanic *χwītaz reflected in OHG wîz, ON hvítr, Goth. ƕeits. The root is from Proto-Indo-European language *kwid-, surviving in Sanskrit śveta "to be white or bright" and Slavonic světŭ "light"; the Icelandic word for white, hvítur, is directly derived from the Old Norse form of the word hvítr. Common Germanic had the word *blankaz, borrowed into Late Latin as *blancus, which provided the source for Romance words for "white"; the antonym of white is black. Some non-European languages have a wide variety of terms for white; the Inuit language has seven different words for seven different nuances of white.
Sanskrit has specific words for bright white, the white of teeth, the white of sandalwood, the white of the autumn moon, the white of silver, the white of cow's milk, the white of pearls, the white of a ray of sunlight, the white of stars. Japanese has six different words, depending upon brilliance or dullness, or if the color is inert or dynamic. White was one of the first colors used in art; the Lascaux Cave in France contains drawings of bulls and other animals drawn by paleolithic artists between 18,000 and 17,000 years ago. Paleolithic artists used calcite or chalk, sometimes as a background, sometimes as a highlight, along with charcoal and red and yellow ochre in their vivid cave paintings. In ancient Egypt, white was connected with the goddess Isis; the priests and priestesses of Isis dressed only in white linen, it was used to wrap mummies. In Greece and other ancient civilizations, white was associated with mother's milk. In Greek mythology, the chief god Zeus was nourished at the breast of the nymph Amalthea.
In the Talmud, milk was one of four sacred substances, along with wine and the rose. The ancient Greeks saw the world in terms of darkness and light, so white was a fundamental color. According to Pliny the Elder in his Natural History and the other famous painters of ancient Greece used only four colors in their paintings. A plain white toga, known as a toga virilis, was worn for ceremonial occasions by all Roman citizens over the age of 14–18. Magistrates and certain priests wore a toga praetexta, with a broad purple stripe. In the time of the Emperor Augustus, no Roman man was allowed to appear in the Roman forum without a toga; the ancient Romans had two words for white. A man who wanted public office in Rome wore a white toga brightened with chalk, called a toga candida, the origin of the word candidate; the Latin word candere meant to be bright. It was the origin of the words candid. In ancient Rome, the priestesses of the goddess Vesta dressed in white linen robes, a white palla or shawl, a white veil.
They protected the penates of Rome. White symbolized their purity and chastity; the early Christian church adopted the Roman symbolism of white as the color of purity and virtue. It became the color worn by priests during Mass, the color worn by monks of the Cistercian Order, under Pope Pius V, a former monk of the Dominican Order, it became the official color worn by the pope himself. Monks of the Order of Saint Benedict dressed in the white or gray of natural undyed wool, but changed to black, the color of humility and penitence. Postclassical history art, the white lamb became the symbol of the sacrifice of Christ on behalf of mankind. John the Baptist described Christ as the lamb of God; the white lamb was the center of one of the most famous paintings of the Medieval period, the Ghent Altarpiece by Jan van Eyck. White was the symbolic color of the transfiguration; the Gospel of Saint Mark describes Jesus' clothing in this event as "shining, exceeding white as snow." Artists such as Fra Angelico used their skill
The European Union is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located in Europe. It has an area of an estimated population of about 513 million; the EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture and regional development. For travel within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002 and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency; the EU and European citizenship were established when the Maastricht Treaty came into force in 1993. The EU traces its origins to the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community, established by the 1951 Treaty of Paris and 1957 Treaty of Rome.
The original members of what came to be known as the European Communities were the Inner Six: Belgium, Italy, the Netherlands, West Germany. The Communities and its successors have grown in size by the accession of new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to its remit; the latest major amendment to the constitutional basis of the EU, the Treaty of Lisbon, came into force in 2009. While no member state has left the EU or its antecedent organisations, the United Kingdom signified the intention to leave after a membership referendum in June 2016 and is negotiating its withdrawal. Covering 7.3% of the world population, the EU in 2017 generated a nominal gross domestic product of 19.670 trillion US dollars, constituting 24.6% of global nominal GDP. Additionally, all 28 EU countries have a high Human Development Index, according to the United Nations Development Programme. In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence.
The union maintains permanent diplomatic missions throughout the world and represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G7 and the G20. Because of its global influence, the European Union has been described as an emerging superpower. During the centuries following the fall of Rome in 476, several European States viewed themselves as translatio imperii of the defunct Roman Empire: the Frankish Empire and the Holy Roman Empire were thereby attempts to resurrect Rome in the West; this political philosophy of a supra-national rule over the continent, similar to the example of the ancient Roman Empire, resulted in the early Middle Ages in the concept of a renovatio imperii, either in the forms of the Reichsidee or the religiously inspired Imperium Christianum. Medieval Christendom and the political power of the Papacy are cited as conducive to European integration and unity. In the oriental parts of the continent, the Russian Tsardom, the Empire, declared Moscow to be Third Rome and inheritor of the Eastern tradition after the fall of Constantinople in 1453.
The gap between Greek East and Latin West had been widened by the political scission of the Roman Empire in the 4th century and the Great Schism of 1054. Pan-European political thought emerged during the 19th century, inspired by the liberal ideas of the French and American Revolutions after the demise of Napoléon's Empire. In the decades following the outcomes of the Congress of Vienna, ideals of European unity flourished across the continent in the writings of Wojciech Jastrzębowski, Giuseppe Mazzini or Theodore de Korwin Szymanowski; the term United States of Europe was used at that time by Victor Hugo during a speech at the International Peace Congress held in Paris in 1849: A day will come when all nations on our continent will form a European brotherhood... A day will come when we shall see... the United States of America and the United States of Europe face to face, reaching out for each other across the seas. During the interwar period, the consciousness that national markets in Europe were interdependent though confrontational, along with the observation of a larger and growing US market on the other side of the ocean, nourished the urge for the economic integration of the continent.
In 1920, advocating the creation of a European economic union, British economist John Maynard Keynes wrote that "a Free Trade Union should be established... to impose no protectionist tariffs whatever against the produce of other members of the Union." During the same decade, Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi, one of the first to imagine of a modern political union of Europe, founded the Pan-Europa Movement. His ideas influenced his contemporaries, among which Prime Minister of France Aristide Briand. In 1929, the latter gave a speech in favour of a European Union before the assembly of the League of Nations, precursor of the United Nations. In a radio address in March 1943, with war still raging, Britain's leader Sir Winston Churchill spoke warmly of "restoring the true greatness of Europe" once victory had been achieved, mused on the post-war creation of a "Council of Europe" which would bring the European nations together to build peace. After World War II, European integration was seen as an antidote to the extreme nationalism which had devastated the continent.
In a speech delivered on 19