McKinley Morganfield, known professionally as Muddy Waters, was an American blues singer-songwriter and musician, cited as the "father of modern Chicago blues", an important figure on the post-war blues scene. Muddy Waters grew up on Stovall Plantation near Clarksdale, by age 17 was playing the guitar and the harmonica, emulating the local blues artists Son House and Robert Johnson, he was recorded in Mississippi by Alan Lomax for the Library of Congress in 1941. In 1943, he moved to Chicago to become a full-time professional musician. In 1946, he recorded his first records for Columbia Records and for Aristocrat Records, a newly formed label run by the brothers Leonard and Phil Chess. In the early 1950s, Muddy Waters and his band—Little Walter Jacobs on harmonica, Jimmy Rogers on guitar, Elga Edmonds on drums and Otis Spann on piano—recorded several blues classics, some with the bassist and songwriter Willie Dixon; these songs included "Hoochie Coochie Man", "I Just Want to Make Love to You" and "I'm Ready".
In 1958, he traveled to England, laying the foundations of the resurgence of interest in the blues there. His performance at the Newport Jazz Festival in 1960 was recorded and released as his first live album, At Newport 1960. Muddy Waters' influence is incalculable, on blues as well as other American idioms—such as Rock and roll and Rock music. Muddy Waters' birthplace and date are not conclusively known, he stated that he was born in Rolling Fork, Mississippi, in 1915, but other evidence suggests that he was born in Jug's Corner, in neighboring Issaquena County, in 1913. In the 1930s and 1940s, before his rise to fame, the year of his birth was reported as 1913 on his marriage license, recording notes, musicians' union card. A 1955 interview in the Chicago Defender is the earliest in which he stated 1915 as the year of his birth, he continued to say this in interviews from that point onward; the 1920 census lists him as five years old as of March 6, 1920, suggesting that his birth year may have been 1914.
The Social Security Death Index, relying on the Social Security card application submitted after his move to Chicago in the mid-1940s, lists him as being born April 4, 1913. His gravestone gives his birth year as 1915, his grandmother, Della Grant, raised him. Grant gave him the nickname "Muddy" at an early age because he loved to play in the muddy water of nearby Deer Creek. "Waters" was added years as he began to play harmonica and perform locally in his early teens. The remains of the cabin on Stovall Plantation where he lived in his youth are now at the Delta Blues Museum in Clarksdale, Mississippi, he had his first introduction to music in church: "I used to belong to church. I was a good Baptist. So I got all of my good moaning and trembling going on for me right out of church," he recalled. By the time he was 17, he had purchased his first guitar. "I sold the last horse. Made about fifteen dollars for him, gave my grandmother seven dollars and fifty cents, I kept seven-fifty and paid about two-fifty for that guitar.
It was a Stella. The people ordered them from Sears-Roebuck in Chicago." He started playing his songs in joints near his hometown on a plantation owned by Colonel William Howard Stovall. In August 1941, Alan Lomax went to Stovall, Mississippi, on behalf of the Library of Congress to record various country blues musicians. "He brought his stuff down and recorded me right in my house," Muddy recalled for Rolling Stone magazine, "and when he played back the first song I sounded just like anybody's records. Man, you don't know how I felt that Saturday afternoon when I heard that voice and it was my own voice. On he sent me two copies of the pressing and a check for twenty bucks, I carried that record up to the corner and put it on the jukebox. Just played it and played it and said,'I can do it, I can do it.'" Lomax came back in July 1942 to record him again. Both sessions were released by Testament Records as Down on Stovall's Plantation; the complete recordings were reissued by Chess Records on CD as Muddy Waters: The Complete Plantation Recordings.
The Historic 1941–42 Library of Congress Field Recordings in 1993 and remastered in 1997. In 1943, Muddy Waters headed to Chicago with the hope of becoming a full-time professional musician, he recalled arriving in Chicago as the single most momentous event in his life. He lived with a relative for a short period while driving a truck and working in a factory by day and performing at night. Big Bill Broonzy one of the leading bluesmen in Chicago, had Muddy Waters open his shows in the rowdy clubs where Broonzy played; this gave Muddy Waters the opportunity to play in front of a large audience. In 1944, he bought his first electric guitar and formed his first electric combo, he felt obliged to electrify his sound in Chicago because, he said, "When I went into the clubs, the first thing I wanted was an amplifier. Couldn't nobody hear you with an acoustic." His sound reflected the optimism of postwar African Americans. Willie Dixon said that "There was quite a few people around singing the blues but most of them was singing all sad blues.
Muddy was giving his blues a little pep." Three years in 1946, he recorded some songs for Mayo Williams at Columbia Records, with an old-fashioned combo consisting of clarinet and piano. That year, he began recording for Aristocrat Records, a newly formed label run by the brothers Leonard and Phil Chess. In 1947, he played guitar w
William James Dixon was an American blues musician, songwriter and record producer. He was proficient in playing both the upright bass and the guitar, sang with a distinctive voice, but he is best known as one of the most prolific songwriters of his time. Next to Muddy Waters, Dixon is recognized as the most influential person in shaping the post–World War II sound of the Chicago blues. Dixon's songs have been recorded by countless musicians in many genres as well as by various ensembles in which he participated. A short list of his most famous compositions includes "Hoochie Coochie Man", "I Just Want to Make Love to You", "Little Red Rooster", "My Babe", "Spoonful", "You Can't Judge a Book by the Cover"; these songs were written during the peak years of Chess Records, from 1950 to 1965, were performed by Muddy Waters, Howlin' Wolf, Little Walter, Bo Diddley. Dixon was an important link between the blues and rock and roll, working with Chuck Berry and Bo Diddley in the late 1950s, his songs have been covered by some of the most successful musicians of the past sixty years including Bob Dylan and Jimi Hendrix.
Jeff Beck, The Doors, Led Zeppelin, The Rolling Stones and Steppenwolf all featured at least one of his songs on their debut albums, a measure of his influence on rock music. He received a Grammy Award and was inducted into the Blues Hall of Fame, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, the Songwriters Hall of Fame. Dixon was born in Vicksburg, Mississippi, on July 1, 1915, he was one of fourteen children. His mother, Daisy rhymed things she said, a habit her son imitated. At the age of seven, young Dixon became an admirer of a band that featured pianist Little Brother Montgomery, he sang his first song at Springfield Baptist Church at the age of four Dixon was first introduced to blues when he served time on prison farms in Mississippi as a young teenager. In his teens, he learned how to sing harmony from a local carpenter, Theo Phelps, who led a gospel quintet, the Union Jubilee Singers, in which Dixon sang bass, he began adapting his poems into songs and sold some to local music groups. Dixon left Mississippi for Chicago in 1936.
A man of considerable stature, standing 6 and a half feet tall and weighing over 250 pounds, he took up boxing, at which he was successful, winning the Illinois State Golden Gloves Heavyweight Championship in 1937. He became a professional boxer and worked as Joe Louis's sparring partner, but after four fights he left boxing in a dispute with his manager over money. Dixon met Leonard Caston at a boxing gym. Dixon performed in several vocal groups in Chicago, but it was Caston that persuaded him to pursue music seriously. Caston built him his first bass, made of one string. Dixon's experience singing bass made the instrument familiar, he learned to play the guitar. In 1939, Dixon was a founding member of the Five Breezes, with Caston, Joe Bell, Gene Gilmore and Willie Hawthorne; the group blended blues and vocal harmonies, in the mode of the Ink Spots. Dixon's progress on the upright bass came to an abrupt halt with the advent of World War II, when he refused induction into military service as a conscientious objector and was imprisoned for ten months.
He refused to go to war because he would not fight for a nation in which institutionalized racism and racist laws were prevalent. After the war, he formed, he reunited with Caston, forming the Big Three Trio, which went on to record for Columbia Records. Dixon signed with Chess Records as a recording artist, but he began performing less, being more involved with administrative tasks for the label. By 1951, he was a full-time employee at Chess, where he acted as producer, talent scout, session musician and staff songwriter, he was a producer for the Chess subsidiary Checker Records. His relationship with Chess was sometimes strained, but he stayed with the label from 1948 to the early 1960s. During this time Dixon's output and influence were prodigious. From late 1956 to early 1959, he worked in a similar capacity for Cobra Records, for which he produced early singles for Otis Rush, Magic Sam, Buddy Guy, he recorded for Bluesville Records. From the late 1960s until the mid-1970s, Dixon ran his own record label, Yambo Records, two subsidiary labels and Spoonful.
He released his 1971 album, Peace?, on Yambo and singles by McKinley Mitchell, Lucky Peterson and others. Dixon is considered one of the key figures in the creation of Chicago blues, he worked with Chuck Berry, Muddy Waters, Howlin' Wolf, Otis Rush, Bo Diddley, Joe Louis Walker, Little Walter, Sonny Boy Williamson, Koko Taylor, Little Milton, Eddie Boyd, Jimmy Witherspoon, Lowell Fulson, Willie Mabon, Memphis Slim, Washboard Sam, Jimmy Rogers, Sam Lay and others. In December 1964, the Rolling Stones reached number one on the UK Singles Chart with their cover of Dixon's "Little Red Rooster". In the same year, the group covered "I Just Want To Make Love To You" on their debut album, The Rolling Stones. In his years, Dixon became a tireless ambassador for the blues and a vocal advocate for its practitioners, founding the Blues Heaven Foundation, which works to preserve the legacy of the blues and to secure copyrights and royalties for blues musicians who were exploited in the past. Speaking with the simple eloquence, a hallmark of his songs, Dixon claimed, "The blues are the roots and the other musics are the fruits.
It's better keeping the roots alive. The blues are the roots of all American music; as long as Americ
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
A civil township is a used unit of local government in the United States, subordinate to a county. The term town is used in New England, New York, Wisconsin to refer to the equivalent of the civil township in these states. Specific responsibilities and the degree of autonomy vary based on each state. Civil townships are distinct from survey townships, but in states that have both, the boundaries coincide and may geographically subdivide a county; the U. S. Census Bureau classifies civil townships as minor civil divisions. There are 20 states with civil townships. Township functions are overseen by a governing board and a clerk or trustee. Township officers include justice of the peace, road commissioner, assessor and surveyor. In the 20th century, many townships added a township administrator or supervisor to the officers as an executive for the board. In some cases, townships run local libraries, senior citizen services, youth services, disabled citizen services, emergency assistance, cemetery services.
In some states, a township and a municipality, coterminous with that township may wholly or consolidate their operations. Depending on the state, the township government has varying degrees of authority. In the Upper Midwestern states near the Great Lakes, civil townships, are but not always, overlaid on survey townships; the degree to which these townships are functioning governmental entities varies from state to state and in some cases within a state. For example, townships in the northern part of Illinois are active in providing public services — such as road maintenance, after-school care, senior services — whereas townships in southern Illinois delegate these services to the county. Most townships in Illinois provide services such as snow removal, senior transportation, emergency services to households residing in unincorporated parts of the county; the townships in Illinois each have a township board, whose board members were called township trustees, a single township supervisor. In contrast, civil townships in Indiana are operated in a consistent manner statewide and tend to be well organized, with each served by a single township trustee and a three-member board.
Civil townships in these states are not incorporated, nearby cities may annex land in adjoining townships with relative ease. In Michigan, general law townships are corporate entities, some can become reformulated as charter townships, a status intended to protect against annexation from nearby municipalities and which grants the township some home rule powers similar to cities. In Wisconsin, civil townships are known as "towns" rather than townships, but they function the same as in neighboring states. In Minnesota, state statute refers to such entities as towns yet requires them to have a name in the form "Name Township". In both documents and conversation, "town" and "township" are used interchangeably. Minnesota townships can be either Non-Urban or Urban, but this is not reflected in the township's name. In Ohio, a city or village is overlaid onto a township unless it withdraws by establishing a paper township. Where the paper township does not extend to the city limits, property owners pay taxes for both the township and municipality, though these overlaps are sometimes overlooked by mistake.
Ten other states allow townships and municipalities to overlap. In Kansas, some civil townships provide services such as road maintenance and fire protection services not provided by the county. In New England, the states are subdivided into towns, which are functioning municipal corporations that provide most local services. While counties exist in New England, for the most part they serve as dividing lines for state judicial systems. With the exception of a few remote areas of New Hampshire and Maine, every square foot of New England lies within the borders of an incorporated town. New England has cities, most of which are towns whose residents have voted to replace the town meeting form of government with a city form. In portions of New Hampshire and Maine, county subdivisions that are not incorporated are referred to as townships, or by other terms such as "gore", "grant", "location", "plantation", or "purchase". In New York, counties are further subdivided into towns and cities, the principal forms of local government.
Towns fulfill a function similar to those of townships in other states. As is the case in most of New England, every square foot of New York's territory is incorporated. New York towns contain one or more incorporated villages, village residents pay both town and village taxes. Towns include a number of unincorporated hamlets. A Pennsylvania township is a unit of local government, responsible for services such as police departments, local road and street maintenance, it acts the same as a borough. Townships were established based on convenient geographical boundaries and vary in size from six to fifty-two square miles. A New Jersey township is similar, in that it is a form of municipal government equal in status to a village, borough, or city, provides similar services to a Pennsylvania township. In the South, outside cities and towns there is no local government other than the county. North Carolina is no exception to that rule, but it does have townships as minor geographical subdivisions of counties, including
American Community Survey
The American Community Survey is an ongoing survey by the U. S. Census Bureau, it gathers information contained only in the long form of the decennial census, such as ancestry, educational attainment, language proficiency, disability and housing characteristics. These data are used by many public-sector, private-sector, not-for-profit stakeholders to allocate funding, track shifting demographics, plan for emergencies, learn about local communities. Sent to 295,000 addresses monthly, it is the largest household survey that the Census Bureau administers; the United States Constitution requires an enumeration of the population every ten years and “in such Manner as they shall by Law direct.” From the first census in 1790, legislators understood that the census should collect basic demographic information beyond the number of people in the household. James Madison first proposed including questions in the census to “enable them to adapt the public measures to the particular circumstances of the community.”
Such knowledge collected with each census, he said, “would give them an opportunity of marking the progress of the society." The number and type of questions included in censuses since 1790 have reflected current American societal trends and the growing nation’s expanded data needs. By 1940, advancements in statistical methods enabled the Census Bureau to start asking a sample of the population a subset of additional detailed questions without unduly increasing cost or respondent burden. In subsequent decades, questions, asked of all respondents, as well as new questions, moved to the subsample questionnaire form; as that form grew longer than the census form sent to most households, it became known as the census “long form.” Following the 1960 Census, federal and local government officials, as well as those working in the private sector, began demanding more timely long-form-type data. Lawmakers representing rural districts claimed they were at a data disadvantage, unable to self-fund additional surveys of their populations.
Congress explored the creation of a mid-decade census, holding hearings and authorizing a mid-decade census in 1976, but not funding it. Efforts to obtain data on a more frequent basis began again after the 1990 Census, when it became clear that the more burdensome long form was depressing overall census response rates and jeopardizing the accuracy of the count. At Congress's request, the Census Bureau tested a new design to obtain long-form data. U. S. statistician Leslie Kish had introduced the concept of a rolling sample design in 1981. This design featured ongoing, monthly data collection aggregated on a yearly basis, enabling annual data releases. By combining multiple years of this data, the Census Bureau could release "period" estimates to produce estimates for smaller areas. After a decade of testing, it launched as the American Community Survey in 2005, replacing the once-a-decade census long form; the ACS has an initial sample of 3.5 million housing unit addresses and group quarters in the United States.
The Census Bureau selects a random sample of addresses to be included in the ACS. Each address has about a 1-in-480 chance of being selected in a given month, no address should be selected more than once every five years. Data is collected by internet, telephone interviews and in-person interviews. One third of those who do not respond to the survey by mail or telephone are randomly selected for in-person interviews. About 95 percent of households across all response modes respond. Like the decennial census, ACS responses are confidential; every employee at the Census Bureau takes an oath of nondisclosure and is sworn for life to not disclose identifying information. Violations can result in a 5-year prison sentence and/or $250,000 fine. Under 13 U. S. C. § 9, census responses are "immune from legal process" and may not "be admitted as evidence or used for any purpose in any action, suit, or other judicial or administrative proceeding." The Census Bureau aggregates individual ACS responses into estimates at many geographic summary levels.
Among these summary levels are legal and administrative entities such as states, counties and congressional districts, as well as statistical entities such as metropolitan statistical areas, block groups, census designated places. Estimates for census blocks are not available from ACS. In order to balance geographic resolution, temporal frequency, statistical significance, respondent privacy, ACS estimates released each year are aggregated from responses received in the previous calendar year or previous five calendar years; the Census Bureau provides guidance for data users about which data set to use when analyzing different population and geography sizes. From 2007 to 2013, 3-year estimates were available for areas with 20,000 people or more; this data product was discontinued in 2015 due to budget cuts. The last 3-year release was the 2011-2013 ACS 3-year estimates. Current data releases include: 1-year estimates are available for areas with a population of at least 65,000 people; the 2015 ACS 1-year estimates were released in 2016 and summarize responses received in 2015 for all states but only 26% of counties due to the 65,000 minimum population threshold.
This is most suitable for data users interested in shorter-term changes at medium to large geographic scales. Supplemental estimates are shown in annual tables summarizing populations for geographies with populations of 20,000 or more. 5-year estimates are available for areas down to the block group scale, on the order of 600 to 3000 people. The 2015 ACS 5-yea
John "Jimmie" William Crutchfield was a professional baseball outfielder in Negro league baseball from 1930 to 1945. Crutchfield began his career with the Birmingham Black Barons in 1930 but the following year moved to the Indianapolis ABC's; when the team ran into financial difficulties, he left to play with the Pittsburgh Crawfords, where he remained for the next five years. Teamed with Ted Page and Cool Papa Bell, they formed what is considered the best outfield in the Negro Leagues. During this time, his performance earned him three appearances in the East-West All-Star game. In the 1935 game, Crutchfield made an astonishing catch when he chased down a long drive and leapt in the air, catching the ball in his bare hand. In 1941 he was named an All-Star again, this time as a member of the Chicago American Giants. Crutchfield served in the military during World War II from 1943 to 1944. After his baseball career was over, he went to work for the United States Postal Service. Crutchfield died in Chicago in 1993 and was interred in the nearby Burr Oak Cemetery, Illinois, buried in an unmarked grave until 2004 when Peoria, Illinois anesthesiologist Jeremy Krock contacted members of the Society for American Baseball Research to try to get a proper headstone on the grave of Crutchfield, who comes from the same town as Krock.
This launched the Negro Leagues Baseball Grave Marker Project of which Dr. Krock still works with today. Riley, James A; the Biographical Encyclopedia of the Negro Baseball Leagues, New York: Carroll & Graf, pp. 201–202, ISBN 0-7867-0959-6 Negro league baseball statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference Negro League Baseball Player's Association Find a Grave Bio
Emmett Louis Till was a young African-American, lynched in Mississippi in 1955 at the age of 14, after being accused of offending a white woman in her family's grocery store. The brutality of his murder and the fact that his killers were acquitted drew attention to the long history of violent persecution of African Americans in the United States. Till posthumously became an icon of the Civil Rights Movement. Till was raised in Chicago. During summer vacation in August 1955, he was visiting relatives near Money, in the Mississippi Delta region, he spoke to 21-year-old Carolyn Bryant, the white married proprietor of a small grocery store there. Although what happened at the store is a matter of dispute, Till was accused of flirting with or whistling at Bryant. In 1955, Carolyn Bryant had testified Till made verbal advances; the jury did not hear Bryant's testimony, due to the judge ruling it inadmissible. Decades Bryant disclosed that she had fabricated part of the testimony regarding her interaction with Till the portion where she accused Till of grabbing her waist and uttering obscenities.
Till's interaction with Bryant unwittingly, violated the strictures of conduct for an African-American male interacting with a white woman in the Jim Crow-era South. Several nights after the store incident, Bryant's husband Roy and his half-brother J. W. Milam went abducted the boy, they took him away and beat and mutilated him before shooting him in the head and sinking his body in the Tallahatchie River. Three days Till's body was discovered and retrieved from the river. Till's body was returned to Chicago where his mother insisted on a public funeral service with an open casket. "The open-coffin funeral held by Mamie Till Bradley exposed the world to more than her son Emmett Till's bloated, mutilated body. Her decision focused attention not only on U. S. racism and the barbarism of lynching but on the limitations and vulnerabilities of American democracy". Tens of thousands attended his funeral or viewed his open casket, images of his mutilated body were published in black-oriented magazines and newspapers, rallying popular black support and white sympathy across the U.
S. Intense scrutiny was brought to bear on the lack of black civil rights in Mississippi, with newspapers around the U. S. critical of the state. Although local newspapers and law enforcement officials decried the violence against Till and called for justice, they responded to national criticism by defending Mississippians, temporarily giving support to the killers. In September 1955, Bryant and Milam were acquitted by an all-white jury of Till's kidnapping and murder. Protected against double jeopardy, the two men publicly admitted in a 1956 interview with Look magazine that they had killed Till. Till's murder was seen as a catalyst for the next phase of the Civil Rights Movement. In December 1955, the Montgomery bus boycott began in Alabama and lasted more than a year, resulting in a US Supreme Court ruling that segregated buses were unconstitutional. According to historians, events surrounding Emmett Till's life and death continue to resonate; some writers have suggested that every story about Mississippi returns to Till, or the Delta region in which he died, in "some spiritual, homing way."
An Emmett Till Memorial Commission was established in the early 21st century. The Sumner County Courthouse includes the Emmett Till Interpretive Center. Fifty-one sites in the Mississippi Delta are memorialized as associated with Till. Emmett Till was born in 1941 in Chicago. Emmett's mother Mamie was born in the small Delta town of Mississippi; the Delta region encompasses the large, multi-county area of northwestern Mississippi in the watershed of the Yazoo and Mississippi rivers. When Carthan was two years old, her family moved to Argo, Illinois, as part of the Great Migration of rural black families out of the South to the North to escape violence, lack of opportunity and unequal treatment under the law. Argo received so many Southern migrants that it was named "Little Mississippi". Mississippi was the poorest state in the U. S. in the 1950s, the Delta counties were some of the poorest in Mississippi. Mamie Carthan was born in Tallahatchie County, where the average income per white household in 1949 was $690.
For black families, the figure was $462. In the rural areas, economic opportunities for blacks were nonexistent, they were sharecroppers who lived on land owned by whites. Blacks had been disenfranchised and excluded from voting and the political system since 1890, when the white-dominated legislature passed a new constitution that raised barriers to voter registration. Whites had passed ordinances establishing racial segregation and Jim Crow laws. Mamie raised Emmett with her mother. Louis abused her, choking her to unconsciousness, to which she responded by throwing scalding water at him. For violating court orders to stay away from Mamie, Louis Till was forced by a judge in 1943 to choose between jail or enlisting in the U. S. Army. In 1945, a few weeks before his son's fourth birthday, he was executed for the rape and murder of an Italian woman. At the age of six, Emmett contracted polio. Mamie and Emmett moved to Detroit, where she