Jonathan Belcher was a merchant and politician from the Province of Massachusetts Bay during the American colonial period. Belcher served for over a decade as colonial governor of the British colonies of New Hampshire and Massachusetts and for ten years as governor of New Jersey. Born into a wealthy Massachusetts merchant family, Belcher attended Harvard College and entered into the family business and local politics, he was instrumental in promoting Samuel Shute as governor of Massachusetts in 1715, sat on the colony's council, but became disenchanted with Shute over time and joined the populist faction of Elisha Cooke, Jr. After the sudden death of Governor William Burnet in 1729 Belcher acquired the governorships of Massachusetts and New Hampshire. During his tenure, Belcher politically marginalized those who he perceived as opposition and made many powerful enemies in both provinces. In a long-running border dispute between Massachusetts and New Hampshire, Belcher sided with Massachusetts interests despite proclaiming neutrality in the matter.
It was discovered that he allowed illegal logging on Crown lands by political allies. His opponents, led by William Shirley and Samuel Waldo convinced the Board of Trade to replace Belcher, the border dispute was resolved in New Hampshire's favor. Belcher was appointed governor of New Jersey in 1747 with support from its Quaker community, he unsuccessfully attempted to mediate the partisan conflicts between New Jersey's Quakers and large landowners, promoted the establishment of the College of New Jersey, now Princeton University. Through most of his tenure as royal governor, Belcher was ill with a progressive nervous disorder, died in office in 1757. Belchertown, Massachusetts is named for him. Jonathan Belcher was born in Cambridge, Province of Massachusetts Bay, on 8 January 1681/2; the fifth of seven children, his father Andrew was an adventurer and businessman, his mother, Sarah Gilbert Belcher, was the daughter of a politically well connected Connecticut merchant and Indian trader. His mother died when he was seven, his father sent him to live with relatives in the country while he expanded his trading business.
Andrew Belcher was successful in trade, although some of it was in violation of the Navigation Acts, some was conducted with pirates. However he made his money, he became one of the wealthiest men in Massachusetts in the 1680s and 1690s. To promote the family's status, he sent his son to the Boston Latin School in 1691, Harvard College in 1695, where Belcher was listed second behind Jeremiah Dummer. Belcher and Dummer both went on to political careers in the province, sometimes as allies, but as opponents. Belcher's five sisters all married into politically or economically prominent families, forging important connections that would further his career. In January 1705/6 Belcher married Mary Partridge, the daughter of former New Hampshire Lieutenant Governor William Partridge, an occasional business partner of his father's; the couple had three children before she died in 1736. His brother-in-law through this marriage was the painter Nehemiah Partridge. Belcher graduated from Harvard at the age of 17, entered into his father's business.
The trading empire his father built encompassed trade from the West Indies to Europe, included shares or outright ownership of more than 15 ships. In the spring of 1704 Belcher's father sent him to London to cultivate business contacts of his own, to secure military supply contracts. After forging relations based on his father's letters of introduction in London, Belcher traveled to the Netherlands to do the same with Dutch merchants, to begin a tour of western Europe. After seeing the sights of Rotterdam and Amsterdam he traveled to Hanover, where he was received by Electress Sophia and met the future King of Great Britain, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. After calling on the Prussian court in Berlin, he returned to New England. During these travels he was exposed to a variety of religious practices, but found regular comfort in Christian services most similar to the Calvinist-leaning New England Congregational Church, he came to see himself as a defender of that faith practice, which permeated his political life.
During the years of the War of the Spanish Succession, Belcher's father was retained as a major supplier to the provincial militia and served as the province's commissary general. Belcher was involved in the management of the family's trading activities. In 1708 he traveled again to London. Before returning to Massachusetts he once again traveled to Hanover, where he was well received at court; the war effort caused economic upheavals in Massachusetts, the Belchers, who stockpiled grain and other supplies for military use, became a focus for popular discontent when food shortages arose late in the war. The family's warehouses were the targets of mob action, Belcher was beaten by a mob on one occasion. Belcher's merchant interests included the occasional trafficking in slaves, he is known to have owned slaves, ordering them from Isaac Royall, Sr.. He presented an enslaved Indian to Electress Sophia on his second visit to Hanover in 1708. Despite this, he expressed a distaste for slavery, writing in 1739, "We have but few in these parts, I wish there were less."In addition to the mercantile tra
The Connecticut River is the longest river in the New England region of the United States, flowing southward for 406 miles through four states. It rises at the U. S. border with Quebec and discharges at Long Island Sound. Its watershed encompasses five U. S. states and one Canadian province, 11,260 square miles via 148 tributaries, 38 of which are major rivers. It produces 70 % of Long Island Sound's fresh water; the Connecticut River Valley is home to some of the northeastern United States' most productive farmland, as well as a metropolitan region of two million people surrounding Springfield and Hartford, Connecticut. The word "Connecticut" is a French corruption of the Mohegan word quinetucket, which means "beside the long, tidal river"; the word came into English during the early 1600s to name the river, called "The Great River". Prior to Dutch exploration beginning in 1614, numerous indigenous tribes lived throughout the fertile Connecticut River valley. Information concerning how these tribes lived and interacted stems from English accounts written during the 1630s.
The Pequots dominated a territory in the southernmost region of the Connecticut River valley, stretching from the river's mouth at Old Saybrook, Connecticut northward to just below the Big Bend at Middletown. They warred with and attempted to subjugate neighboring agricultural tribes such as the Western Niantics, while maintaining an uneasy stand-off with their rivals the Mohegans; the Mattabesset tribe takes its name from the place where its sachems ruled at the Connecticut River's Big Bend at Middletown, in a village sandwiched between the territories of the aggressive Pequots to the south and the more peaceable Mohegans to the north. The Mohegans dominated the region due north, where Hartford and its suburbs sit after allying themselves with the Colonists against the Pequots during the Pequot War of 1637, their culture was similar to the Pequots, as they had split off from them and become their rivals some time prior to European exploration of the area. The agricultural Pocomtuc tribe lived in unfortified villages alongside the Connecticut River north of the Enfield Falls on the fertile stretch of hills and meadows surrounding Springfield, Massachusetts.
The Pocomtuc village of Agawam became Springfield, situated on the Bay Path where the Connecticut River meets the western Westfield River and eastern Chicopee River. The Pocomtuc villagers at Agawam helped Puritan explorers settle this site and remained friendly with them for decades, unlike tribes farther north and south along the Connecticut River; the region stretching from Springfield north to the New Hampshire and Vermont state borders fostered many agricultural Pocomtuc and Nipmuc settlements, with its soil enhanced by sedimentary deposits. These villages endured invasions from more aggressive confederated tribes living in New York, such as the Mohawk and Iroquois tribes; the Pennacook tribe mediated many early disagreements between colonists and other Indian tribes, with a territory stretching from the Massachusetts border with Vermont and New Hampshire, northward to the rise of the White Mountains in New Hampshire. The Western Abenaki tribe lived in the Green Mountains region of Vermont but wintered as far south as the Northfield, Massachusetts area.
They merged with members of other Algonquin tribes displaced by wars and famines. In 1614, Dutch explorer Adriaen Block became the first European to chart the Connecticut River, sailing as far north as Enfield Rapids, he called it the "Fresh River" and claimed it for the Netherlands as the northeastern border of the New Netherland colony. In 1623, Dutch traders constructed a fortified trading post at the site of Hartford, Connecticut called the Fort Huys de Hoop. Four separate Puritan-led groups settled the fertile Connecticut River Valley, they founded the two large cities that continue to dominate the Valley: Hartford and Springfield; the first group of pioneers left the Plymouth Colony in 1632 and founded the village of Matianuck several miles north of the Dutch fort. A group left the Massachusetts Bay Colony from Watertown, seeking a site where they could practice their religion more freely. With this in mind, they founded Wethersfield, Connecticut in 1633, several miles south of the Dutch fort at Hartford.
In 1635, Reverend Thomas Hooker led settlers from Cambridge, where he had feuded with Reverend John Cotton, to the site in Connecticut of the Dutch Fort House of Hope, where he founded Newtowne. Shortly after Hooker's arrival, Newtowne annexed Matianuck based on laws articulated in Connecticut's settlement charter, the Warwick Patent of 1631; the patent, had been physically lost, the annexation was certainly illegal. The fourth English settlement along the Connecticut River came out of a 1635 scouting party commissioned by William Pynchon to find the most advantageous site for commerce and agriculture, hoping to found a city there, his scouts located the Pocumtuc village of Agawam, where the Bay Path trade route crossed the Connecticut River at two of its major tributaries—the Chicopee River to the east and Westfield River to the west—and just north of Enfield Falls, the river's first unnavigable waterfall. Pynchon surmised that traders using any of these routes would have to dock and change ships at his site, thereby granting the settlement a commercial advantage.
It was named Agawam Plantation and was allied with the settlements to the south that became the state of Connecticut, but it switched allegiances in 1641 and was renamed S
Cheshire County, New Hampshire
Cheshire County is a county located in the southwestern portion of the U. S. state of New Hampshire. As of the 2010 census, the population was 77,117, its county seat is the city of Keene. Cheshire was one of the five original counties of New Hampshire, is named for the county of Cheshire in England, it was organized in 1771 at Keene. Sullivan County was created from the northern portion of Cheshire County in 1827. Cheshire County comprises NH Micropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 729 square miles, of which 707 square miles is land and 22 square miles is water; the highest point in Cheshire county is Mount Monadnock, in the northwestern part of Jaffrey, at 3,165 feet. Sullivan County Hillsborough County Worcester County, Massachusetts Franklin County, Massachusetts Windham County, Vermont Mount Monadnock Pisgah State Park As of the census of 2000, there were 73,825 people, 28,299 households, 18,790 families residing in the county; the population density was 104 people per square mile.
There were 31,876 housing units at an average density of 45 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.75% White, 0.37% Black or African American, 0.31% Native American, 0.47% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.18% from other races, 0.89% from two or more races. 0.72% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 16.2% were of English, 13.1% French, 12.7% Irish, 9.3% American, 8.7% French Canadian, 6.7% Italian and 6.5% German ancestry. 95.5% spoke English, 1.4% French and 1.2% Spanish as their first language. There were 28,299 households out of which 30.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.50% were married couples living together, 9.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.60% were non-families. 25.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 2.96. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.30% under the age of 18, 11.70% from 18 to 24, 27.00% from 25 to 44, 24.30% from 45 to 64, 13.70% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 94.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $42,382, the median income for a family was $51,043. Males had a median income of $33,821 versus $25,328 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,685. About 4.40% of families and 8.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.50% of those under age 18 and 6.30% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 77,117 people, 30,204 households, 19,284 families residing in the county; the population density was 109.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 34,773 housing units at an average density of 49.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 96.3% white, 1.2% Asian, 0.5% black or African American, 0.3% American Indian, 0.4% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.4% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 20.7% were English, 19.1% were Irish, 12.0% were German, 8.8% were French Canadian, 8.7% were Italian, 5.0% were Scottish, 4.7% were American.
Of the 30,204 households, 27.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.9% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.2% were non-families, 26.2% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.88. The median age was 40.7 years. The median income for a household in the county was $53,828 and the median income for a family was $65,936. Males had a median income of $46,014 versus $35,864 for females; the per capita income for the county was $27,045. About 6.0% of families and 10.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.5% of those under age 18 and 6.8% of those age 65 or over. The executive power of Cheshire County's government is held by three county commissioners, each representing one of the three commissioner districts within the county. In addition to the County Commission, there are five directly-elected officials: they include County Attorney, Register of Deeds, County Sheriff, Register of Probate, County Treasurer.
The legislative branch of Cheshire County is made up of all of the members of the New Hampshire House of Representatives from the county. In total, as of August 2018 there are 23 members from 16 different districts. Keene National Register of Historic Places listings in Cheshire County, New Hampshire Official Cheshire County web site Cheshire information pages at the University of New Hampshire National Register of Historic Places listing for Cheshire County Keene Pumpkin Festival Map of fire stations in Cheshire County
Agriculture is the science and art of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities; the history of agriculture began thousands of years ago. After gathering wild grains beginning at least 105,000 years ago, nascent farmers began to plant them around 11,500 years ago. Pigs and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Plants were independently cultivated in at least 11 regions of the world. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture in the twentieth century came to dominate agricultural output, though about 2 billion people still depended on subsistence agriculture into the twenty-first. Modern agronomy, plant breeding, agrochemicals such as pesticides and fertilizers, technological developments have increased yields, while causing widespread ecological and environmental damage. Selective breeding and modern practices in animal husbandry have increased the output of meat, but have raised concerns about animal welfare and environmental damage.
Environmental issues include contributions to global warming, depletion of aquifers, antibiotic resistance, growth hormones in industrial meat production. Genetically modified organisms are used, although some are banned in certain countries; the major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers and raw materials. Food classes include cereals, fruits, meat, milk and eggs. Over one-third of the world's workers are employed in agriculture, second only to the service sector, although the number of agricultural workers in developed countries has decreased over the centuries; the word agriculture is a late Middle English adaptation of Latin agricultūra, from ager, "field", which in its turn came from Greek αγρός, cultūra, "cultivation" or "growing". While agriculture refers to human activities, certain species of ant and ambrosia beetle cultivate crops. Agriculture is defined with varying scopes, in its broadest sense using natural resources to "produce commodities which maintain life, including food, forest products, horticultural crops, their related services".
Thus defined, it includes arable farming, animal husbandry and forestry, but horticulture and forestry are in practice excluded. The development of agriculture enabled the human population to grow many times larger than could be sustained by hunting and gathering. Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, included a diverse range of taxa, in at least 11 separate centres of origin. Wild grains were eaten from at least 105,000 years ago. From around 11,500 years ago, the eight Neolithic founder crops and einkorn wheat, hulled barley, lentils, bitter vetch, chick peas and flax were cultivated in the Levant. Rice was domesticated in China between 11,500 and 6,200 BC with the earliest known cultivation from 5,700 BC, followed by mung and azuki beans. Sheep were domesticated in Mesopotamia between 11,000 years ago. Cattle were domesticated from the wild aurochs in the areas of modern Turkey and Pakistan some 10,500 years ago. Pig production emerged in Eurasia, including Europe, East Asia and Southwest Asia, where wild boar were first domesticated about 10,500 years ago.
In the Andes of South America, the potato was domesticated between 10,000 and 7,000 years ago, along with beans, llamas and guinea pigs. Sugarcane and some root vegetables were domesticated in New Guinea around 9,000 years ago. Sorghum was domesticated in the Sahel region of Africa by 7,000 years ago. Cotton was domesticated in Peru by 5,600 years ago, was independently domesticated in Eurasia. In Mesoamerica, wild teosinte was bred into maize by 6,000 years ago. Scholars have offered multiple hypotheses to explain the historical origins of agriculture. Studies of the transition from hunter-gatherer to agricultural societies indicate an initial period of intensification and increasing sedentism. Wild stands, harvested started to be planted, came to be domesticated. In Eurasia, the Sumerians started to live in villages from about 8,000 BC, relying on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and a canal system for irrigation. Ploughs appear in pictographs around 3,000 BC. Farmers grew wheat, vegetables such as lentils and onions, fruits including dates and figs.
Ancient Egyptian agriculture relied on its seasonal flooding. Farming started in the predynastic period at the end of the Paleolithic, after 10,000 BC. Staple food crops were grains such as wheat and barley, alongside industrial crops such as flax and papyrus. In India, wheat and jujube were domesticated by 9,000 BC, soon followed by sheep and goats. Cattle and goats were domesticated in Mehrgarh culture by 8,000–6,000 BC. Cotton was cultivated by the 5th-4th millennium BC. Archeological evidence indicates an animal-drawn plough from 2,500 BC in the Indus Valley Civilisation. In China, from the 5th century BC there was a nationwide granary system and widespread silk farming. Water-powered grain mills were in use followed by irrigation. By the late 2nd century, heavy ploughs had been developed with iron mouldboards; these spread westwards across Eurasia. Asian rice was domesticated 8,200–13,500 years ago – depending on the molecular clock estimate, used – on the Pearl River in southern China with a single genetic origin from the wild rice Oryza rufipogon
Indigenous peoples of the Americas
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the Pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture; the impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, city-states, states and empires. Among these are the Aztec and Maya states that until the 16th century were among the most politically and advanced nations in the world, they had a vast knowledge of engineering, mathematics, writing, medicine and irrigation, mining and goldsmithing. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples.
At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but cater to modern needs; some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples. Indigenous peoples of the United States are known as Native Americans or American Indians and Alaska Natives. Application of the term "Indian" originated with Christopher Columbus, who, in his search for India, thought that he had arrived in the East Indies; those islands came to be known as the "West Indies", a name still used. This led to the blanket term "Indies" and "Indians" for the indigenous inhabitants, which implied some kind of racial or cultural unity among the indigenous peoples of the Americas.
This unifying concept, codified in law and politics, was not accepted by the myriad groups of indigenous peoples themselves, but has since been embraced or tolerated, by many over the last two centuries. Though the term "Indian" does not include the culturally and linguistically distinct indigenous peoples of the Arctic regions of the Americas—such as the Aleuts, Inuit or Yupik peoples, who entered the continent as a second more recent wave of migration several thousand years before and have much more recent genetic and cultural commonalities with the aboriginal peoples of the Asiatic Arctic Russian Far East—these groups are nonetheless considered "indigenous peoples of the Americas". Indigenous peoples are known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, which includes not only First Nations and Arctic Inuit, but the minority population of First Nations-European mixed race Métis people who identify culturally and ethnically with indigenous peoplehood; this is contrasted, for instance, to the American Indian-European mixed race mestizos of Hispanic America who, with their larger population, identify as a new ethnic group distinct from both Europeans and Indigenous Americans, but still considering themselves a subset of the European-derived Hispanic or Brazilian peoplehood in culture and ethnicity.
The term Amerindian and its cognates find preferred use in scientific contexts and in Quebec, the Guianas and the English-speaking Caribbean. Indígenas or pueblos indígenas is a common term in Spanish-speaking countries and pueblos nativos or nativos may be heard, while aborigen is used in Argentina and pueblos originarios is common in Chile. In Brazil, indígenas or povos indígenas are common if formal-sounding designations, while índio is still the more often-heard term and aborígene and nativo being used in Amerindian-specific contexts; the Spanish and Portuguese equivalents to Indian could be used to mean any hunter-gatherer or full-blooded Indigenous person to continents other than Europe or Africa—for example, indios filipinos. The specifics of Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the exact dates and routes traveled, are the subject of ongoing research and discussion. According to archaeological and genetic evidence and South America were the last continents in the world to gain human habitation.
During the Wisconsin glaciation, 50–17,000 years ago, falling sea levels allowed people to move across the land bridge of Beringia that joined Siberia to northwest North America. Alaska was a glacial refugium; the Laurentide Ice Sheet covered most of North America, blocking nomadic inhabitants and confining them to Alaska for thousands of years. Indigenous genetic studies suggest that the first inhabitants of the Americas share a single ancestral population, one that developed in isolation, conjectured to be Beringia; the isolat
Massachusetts the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, New York to the west; the state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, higher education and maritime trade. Plymouth was the site of the second colony in New England after Popham Colony in 1607 in what is now Maine.
Plymouth was founded in 1620 by passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts. In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution; the entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist and transcendentalist movements.
In the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U. S. state to recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, with the largest financial endowment of any university, Harvard Law School has educated a contemporaneous majority of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most regarded academic institutions in the world.
Massachusetts' public-school students place among the top tier in the world in academic performance, the state has been ranked as one of the top states in the United States for citizens to live in, as well as one of the most expensive. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was named after the indigenous population, the Massachusett derived from a Wôpanâak word muswach8sut, segmented as mus "big" + wach8 "mountain" + -s "diminutive" + -ut "locative", it has been translated as "near the great hill", "by the blue hills", "at the little big hill", or "at the range of hills", referring to the Blue Hills, or in particular the Great Blue Hill, located on the boundary of Milton and Canton. Alternatively, Massachusett has been represented as Moswetuset—from the name of the Moswetuset Hummock in Quincy, where Plymouth Colony commander Myles Standish, hired English military officer, Squanto, part of the now disappeared Patuxet band of the Wampanoag peoples, met Chief Chickatawbut in 1621; the official name of the state is the "Commonwealth of Massachusetts".
While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has powers within the United States as other states, it may have been chosen by John Adams for the second draft of the Massachusetts Constitution because unlike the word "state", "commonwealth" at the time had the connotation of a republic, in contrast to the monarchy the former American colonies were fighting against. Massachusetts was inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, these tribes were dependent on hunting and fishing for most of their food. Villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. In the early 1600s, after contact had been made with Europeans, large numbers of the indigenous peoples in the northeast of what is now the United States were killed by virgin soil epidemics such as smallpox, measles and leptospirosis.
Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed ap
To cities, towns, charter townships and boroughs. The term can be used to describe municipally owned corporations. Municipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which they are located; this event is marked by the award or declaration of a municipal charter. A city charter or town charter or municipal charter is a legal document establishing a municipality, such as a city or town. In Canada, charters are granted by provincial authorities; the Corporation of Chennai is the oldest Municipal Corporation in the world after UK. The title "corporation" was used in boroughs from soon after the Norman conquest until the Local Government Act 2001. Under the 2001 act, county boroughs were renamed "cities" and their corporations became "city councils". After the Partition of Ireland, the corporations in the Irish Free State were Dublin, Cork and Waterford and Drogheda, Sligo and Wexford. Dún Laoghaire gained borough status in 1930 as “The Corporation of Dun Laoghaire".
Galway's borough status, lost in 1840, was restored in 1937. The New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 allowed municipal corporations to be established within the new Provinces of New Zealand; the term fell out of favour following the abolition of the Provinces in 1876. In the United States, such municipal corporations are established by charters that are granted either directly by a state legislature by means of local legislation, or indirectly under a general municipal corporation law after the proposed charter has passed a referendum vote of the affected population. Under the enterprise meaning of the term, municipal corporations are "organisations with independent corporate status, managed by an executive board appointed by local government officials, with majority public ownership"; some MOCs rely on revenue from user fees, distinguishing them from agencies and special districts funded through taxation, although this is not always the case. Municipal corporation follows a process of externalization that requires new skills and orientations from the respective local governments, follow common changes in the institutional landscape of public services.
They are argued to be more efficient than bureaucracy but have higher failure rates because of their legal and managerial autonomy. Unincorporated area German town law Municipal incorporationA Brief Summary of Municipal Incorporation Procedures by State - University of Georgia Characteristics and State Requirements for Incorporated Places - United States CensusMunicipal disincorporation / dissolutionDissolving Cities - University of California, Berkeley Municipal Disincorporation in California - California City Finance