Seedorf is a municipality in the canton of Uri in Switzerland. Seedorf has an area, as of 2006, of 15.5 km2, of this area,19. 2% is used for agricultural purposes, while 40. 6% is forested. Of the rest of the land,5. 4% is settled, in the 1993/97 land survey,38. 6% of the total land area was heavily forested, while 0. 7% is covered in small trees and shrubbery. Of the agricultural land,0. 3% is used for farming or pastures, while 9. 0% is used for orchards or vine crops and 10. 0% is used for alpine pastures. Of the settled areas,2. 0% is covered with buildings,0. 1% is industrial,0. 3% is classed as special developments,0. 8% is listed as parks and greenbelts and 2. 2% is transportation infrastructure. Of the unproductive areas,0. 3% is unproductive standing water,1. 6% is unproductive flowing water,21. 6% is too rocky for vegetation, Seedorf has a population of 1,807. As of 2007,4. 4% of the population was made up of foreign nationals, over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 12. 1%.
Most of the population speaks German, with Italian being second most common, as of 2007 the gender distribution of the population was 50. 5% male and 49. 5% female. In the 2007 federal election the FDP party received 91. 1% of the vote, in Seedorf about 67. 7% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. Seedorf has an unemployment rate of 0. 5%, as of 2005, there were 77 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 21 businesses involved in this sector. 156 people are employed in the sector and there are 20 businesses in this sector. 119 people are employed in the sector, with 34 businesses in this sector. The historical population is given in the table
Glarus is the capital of the canton of Glarus in Switzerland. Since 1 January 2011, the municipality Glarus incorporates the former municipalities of Ennenda, Glarus lies on the river Linth between the foot of the Glärnisch to the west and the Schilt to the east. Very few buildings built before the fire of 1861 remain, wood and plastics, as well as printing, are the dominant industries. The symbol of the city is the city church. The official language of Glarus is German, but the spoken language is the local Alemannic Swiss German dialect. Glarus is first mentioned in the early 9th Century in Latin as Clarona, in 1178 it was first mentioned in German as Glarus. On 10 February 878, the Emperor Charles the Fat gave his wife Richgard or Richardis the monasteries of Säckingen, of St. Felix and this land grant included extensive political rights and a large estate. This estate covered land in the Rhine and Frick valleys, the southern Hotzenwald, land in Zürich, along Lake Walen, Glarus remained under the Säckingen Abbey until 1395, when the Glarus valley broke away from the Abbey and became independent.
It became the capital of the Linth valley in 1419, in the 18th and 19th centuries, the valley began to be industrialized. Huldrych Zwingli a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland served in his first, Roman Catholic, ecclesiastical post in Glarus and he served there for ten years. It was in Glarus, whose soldiers were used as mercenaries in Europe, the Swiss Confederation was embroiled in various campaigns with its neighbours, the French, the Habsburgs, and the Papal States. Zwingli placed himself solidly on the side of the Holy See, in return, Pope Julius II honoured Zwingli by providing him with an annual pension. He took the role of chaplain in several campaigns in Italy, the decisive defeat of the Swiss in the Battle of Marignano caused a shift in mood in Glarus in favour of the French rather than the pope. Zwingli, the partisan, found himself in a difficult position. Even though he had preached in Glarus for 10 years, the town remained strongly Catholic, following the Second war of Kappel in 1531 both the Catholic and Protestant residents were given the right to worship in town.
This led to religious groups using the town church simultaneously, an arrangement that caused numerous problems. By the 18th Century both the groups shared the church but had separate organs, in 1697 there were two financially and theologically independent parishes meeting in the city church. Following the French invasion in 1798, Glarus became the capital of the Canton of Linth in the Helvetic Republic, the administration of the Canton moved into Glarus
The Gotthard Pass or St Gotthard Pass is a mountain pass in the Alps, connecting northern and southern Switzerland. The pass lies between Airolo in the Italian-speaking canton of Ticino, and Andermatt in the German-speaking canton of Uri, and connects further Bellinzona to Lucerne, Basel, as early as 1236, Gotthard Pass was dedicated to the Roman Catholic Saint Gotthard of Hildesheim. The Gotthard Pass connects the cantons of Uri and Ticino, the pass itself is located within the latter canton, about 2 km south of the border with Uri, between the massifs of Pizzo Lucendro and Pizzo Centrale. The pass lies on the most important route between the canton of Ticino and central Switzerland as well as most of the northern part of the country. It is the most direct link between Zürich and Lugano and some regions of Germany and Italy. The nearest towns are Hospental near Andermatt and Airolo, respectively in the valleys of Urseren, the region of Andermatt lies at the foot of the Furka and Oberalp passes connecting the Rhone and Rhine valleys thus making the Gotthard area a strategic place for transports and military.
The hospice is located south of the pass at 2,091 metres, near the Lago della Piazza, Lago di Lucendro and Lago Sella are larger reservoir lakes accessible from the pass. From the north side the pass can be reached by crossing the Schöllenen, according to the oral histories of the nearby villages, seasonal deaths resulting from drowning reached a peak in April–May of most years and thus a safer crossing was required. The original bridge built under these conditions was one of so many devils bridges that the legends about them form a category in the Aarne-Thompson classification system for folktales. The legend of this particular bridge states that the Reuss was so difficult to ford that a Swiss herdsman wished the devil would make a bridge, the Devil appeared, but required that the soul of the first to cross would be given to him. The mountaineer agreed, but drove a goat across ahead of him, angered by this trickery, the devil fetched a rock with the intention of smashing the bridge, but an old woman drew a cross on the rock so the devil could not lift it anymore.
The rock is still there and, in 1977,300,000 Swiss francs were spent to move the 220 ton rock by 127 m in order to make room for the new Gotthard road tunnel. It carried only foot traffic and pack animals until 1775, when the first carriage made the journey on an improved road, several tunnels provide access through the pass. The 15 kilometres Gotthard Rail Tunnel was the first and opened in 1882 for railway traffic at a cost of around 200 workers lives and it bypassed the pass road, connecting Göschenen with Airolo. A17 kilometres motorway tunnel, the Gotthard Road Tunnel opened in 1980 and it was closed for two months in 2001 following a fatal fire. The Gotthard Base Tunnel was opened on 1 June 2016 and it is the longest rail tunnel in the world at 57.091 kilometres. A number of artists have been inspired by the dramatic scenery of the St. Gotthard Pass, the Schöllenen Gorge. Gotthard Pass is prominent in the manga series Wolfsmund by Mitsuhisa Kuji
William Tell (play)
William Tell is a drama written by Friedrich Schiller in 1804. The story focuses on the legendary Swiss marksman William Tell as part of the greater Swiss struggle for independence from the Habsburg Empire in the early 14th century, gioachino Rossinis four-act opera Guillaume Tell was written to a French adaptation of Schillers play. The play was written by Friedrich Schiller between 1803 and 1804, and published that year in a first edition of 7000 copies, since its publication, Schiller’s William Tell has been translated into many languages. Friedrich Schiller was inspired to write a play about the legendary Swiss marksman William Tell by his wife Lotte, after his friend, Johann Wolfgang Goethe, had returned from his second journey to the Lake of Lucerne in 1779, Schiller started collecting sources. The lake may take pity on him, but the Governor, public anger is fanned into rebellion when Gessler blinds an aged man for a trifling misdemeanor. Tell, the individualist, holds aloof from the rebels councils, the Baron warns Ulrich that Bertha is being used only to bait him, and that the freedom-loving people will prevail in the end, but the youth goes to join Gessler.
While they are hunting, Bertha reveals that she will love him only if he joins in the fight to liberate his own people from Gesslers grip. Tell prepares to pay a visit to his father-in-law, a leader of the rebels. Tell insists that he has nothing to fear, and sets off with his crossbow, accompanied by Walter and they pass the prison where Tell, failing to salute the Governors cap, is seized by a guardsman. Several peasants are trying to rescue him when the Governors hunting party rides up, Tell declares his failure to salute was an oversight, and the Governor remarks that he has heard that Tell is a master of the bow. My father can hit an apple at a hundred yards, says Gessler, Very well, you shall prove your skill now. Shoot an apple from the boys head, If you miss, your own head shall pay the forfeit. Tell falls upon his knees, imploring Gessler to withdraw so barbarous a command and he bares his own breast, but the Governor laughs and says, It is not your life I want, but the shot—the proof of your skill.
The boy speaks up, Father, Tell removes two arrows from his quiver, puts one in his belt, takes aim and sends the other on its way. Walter runs to his father, Heres the apple, I knew youd never hit me. Tell falls upon his knees to embrace his son, but Gessler has not finished with him, a word with you, Tell, he commands. I saw you place a second arrow on your belt, Tell answers, If the first arrow had struck my child, the second would have gone through your heart. For this answer, Gessler orders him bound and taken to the prison at Küssnacht for his threat, but a great storm comes up which proves to be the huntsmans salvation
In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative, elected body of government. Generally a modern parliament has three functions, representing the electorate, making laws, and overseeing the government, parliaments included various kinds of deliberative and judicial assemblies. The term is derived from Anglo-Norman parlement, from the verb parler talk, the meaning evolved over time, originally any discussion, conversation, or negotiation, through various kinds of deliberative or judicial groups, often summoned by the monarch. By 1400, it had come to mean in Britain specifically the British supreme legislature, various parliaments are claimed to be the oldest in the world, under varying definitions. The Sicilian Parliament, whose first assembly was convened in 1097, the Icelandic Althing, year 930, but only including the main chiefs. Since ancient times, when societies were tribal, there were councils or a headman whose decisions were assessed by village elders, some scholars suggest that in ancient Mesopotamia there was a primitive democratic government where the kings were assessed by council.
The same has been said about ancient India, where some form of deliberative assemblies existed, these claims are not accepted by most scholars, who see these forms of government as oligarchies. Ancient Athens was the cradle of democracy, the Athenian assembly was the most important institution, and every citizen could take part in the discussions. However, Athenian democracy was not representative, but rather direct, the Roman Senate controlled money and the details of foreign policy. Some Muslim scholars argue that the Islamic shura is analogous to the parliament, others highlight what they consider fundamental differences between the shura system and the parliamentary system. England has long had a tradition of a body of men who would assist, under the Anglo-Saxon kings, there was an advisory council, the Witenagemot. The name derives from the Old English ƿitena ȝemōt, or witena gemōt, the first recorded act of a witenagemot was the law code issued by King Æthelberht of Kent ca. 600, the earliest document which survives in sustained Old English prose, the Witan, along with the folkmoots, is an important ancestor of the modern English parliament.
As part of the Norman Conquest of England, the new king, William I, did away with the Witenagemot, membership of the Curia was largely restricted to the tenants in chief, the few nobles who rented great estates directly from the king, along with ecclesiastics. William brought to England the feudal system of his native Normandy and this is the original body from which the Parliament, the higher courts of law, and the Privy Council and Cabinet descend. Of these, the legislature is formally the High Court of Parliament, only the executive government is no longer conducted in a royal court. Most historians date the emergence of a parliament with some degree of power to which the throne had to defer no than the rule of Edward I, like previous kings, Edward called leading nobles and church leaders to discuss government matters, especially finance. A meeting in 1295 became known as the Model Parliament because it set the pattern for Parliaments, in 1307, Edward I agreed not to collect certain taxes without the consent of the realm
The mountains were formed over tens of millions of years as the African and Eurasian tectonic plates collided. Extreme shortening caused by the event resulted in marine sedimentary rocks rising by thrusting and folding into high mountain peaks such as Mont Blanc, Mont Blanc spans the French–Italian border, and at 4,810 m is the highest mountain in the Alps. The Alpine region area contains about a hundred peaks higher than 4000 metres, the altitude and size of the range affects the climate in Europe, in the mountains precipitation levels vary greatly and climatic conditions consist of distinct zones. Wildlife such as live in the higher peaks to elevations of 3,400 m. Evidence of human habitation in the Alps goes back to the Palaeolithic era, a mummified man, determined to be 5,000 years old, was discovered on a glacier at the Austrian–Italian border in 1991. By the 6th century BC, the Celtic La Tène culture was well established, Hannibal famously crossed the Alps with a herd of elephants, and the Romans had settlements in the region.
In 1800 Napoleon crossed one of the passes with an army of 40,000. The 18th and 19th centuries saw an influx of naturalists, writers, in World War II, Adolf Hitler kept a base of operation in the Bavarian Alps throughout the war. The Alpine region has a cultural identity. The Winter Olympic Games have been hosted in the Swiss, French, at present, the region is home to 14 million people and has 120 million annual visitors. The English word Alps derives from the Latin Alpes, maurus Servius Honoratus, an ancient commentator of Virgil, says in his commentary that all high mountains are called Alpes by Celts. The term may be common to Italo-Celtic, because the Celtic languages have terms for high mountains derived from alp and this may be consistent with the theory that in Greek Alpes is a name of non-Indo-European origin. According to the Old English Dictionary, the Latin Alpes might possibly derive from a pre-Indo-European word *alb hill, Albania, a name not native to the region known as the country of Albania, has been used as a name for a number of mountainous areas across Europe.
In Roman times, Albania was a name for the eastern Caucasus, in modern languages the term alp, albe or alpe refers to a grazing pastures in the alpine regions below the glaciers, not the peaks. An alp refers to a mountain pasture where cows are taken to be grazed during the summer months and where hay barns can be found. The Alps are a crescent shaped geographic feature of central Europe that ranges in a 800 km arc from east to west and is 200 km in width, the mean height of the mountain peaks is 2.5 km. The range stretches from the Mediterranean Sea north above the Po basin, extending through France from Grenoble, the range continues onward toward Vienna and east to the Adriatic Sea and Slovenia. To the south it dips into northern Italy and to the north extends to the border of Bavaria in Germany
The Gotthard railway is the Swiss trans-alpine railway line from northern Switzerland to the canton of Ticino. The line forms a part of an important international railway link between northern and southern Europe, especially on the Rotterdam-Basel-Genoa corridor. The Gotthard Railway Company was the private railway company which financed the construction of, and originally operated. The railway comprises a main line from Immensee to Chiasso, together with branches, from Immensee to Lucerne and Rotkreuz, from Arth-Goldau to Zug, and from Bellinzona to Locarno and Luino. The main line, second highest standard railway in Switzerland, penetrates the Alps by means of the Gotthard Tunnel at 1,151 metres above sea level. The line descends as far as Bellinzona, at 241 metres above sea level, before climbing again to the pass of Monte Ceneri, on the way to Lugano and Chiasso. The extreme differences in altitude necessitate the use of long ramped approaches on each side, construction of the line started in 1872, with some lowland sections opening by 1874.
The full line opened in 1882, following completion of the Gotthard Tunnel, the line was incorporated into the Swiss Federal Railways in 1909, and electrified in 1922. By the early years of the 1870s, northern Switzerland possessed a significant network of railways, with links to the railways of Germany. To the west, a line had reached Brigue, in the upper Rhone valley, in the centre north, lines linked Olten, Lucerne and Zurich. The selected route was an ancient one, that had used by pilgrims. Treaties for the construction of the line were made with the Kingdom of Italy, in 1869, the Gotthard Railway Company was incorporated in Lucerne in 1871. The Italian government eventually contributed £2.25 million, with Switzerland, construction of the Gotthard railway started in 1872, and the first lowland sections from Biasca to Locarno and Lugano to Chiasso were opened by 1874. The whole line was inaugurated with festivities in Lucerne and Chiasso from 21 May to 25 May 1882, scheduled operation started on 1 June.
At the time, the 15, 003-metre-long Gotthard Rail Tunnel was the worlds longest rail tunnel, soon after construction, the line was secured by the army with fortresses and ways to block the tunnel in case of an invasion. At the same time the Aargauische Südbahn completed the section from Rotkreuz to Immensee, the additional feeder lines from Lucerne to Immensee, and from Zug to Arth-Goldau were completed in 1887. The Gotthard Railway Company worked the Gotthard railway until 1909, when it became part of the Swiss Federal Railways and this was seven years after the creation of that state owned railway, and the Gotthard railway was the last major railway to be absorbed. In 1922, the line was electrified by Brown, Boveri & Cie with 15 kV 16 2⁄3 Hz AC supplied by overhead line
Lake Lucerne is a lake in central Switzerland and the fourth largest in the country. The lake has a shape, with several sharp bends. Here is the deepest point of the lake with 214 m, in front of Vitznau below the Rigi the lake turns sharply west again to reach the center of a four-arm cross, called the Chrütztrichter. At the very narrow pass between the east dropper of the Pilatus and Stansstad the lake reaches its southwestern arm at Alpnachstad on the southern foothills of the Pilatus. The lake drains its water in Lucerne from the literally correctly translated western arm Lake of Lucerne into the Reuss, the entire lake has a total area of 114 km² at an elevation of 434 m a. s. l. and a maximum depth of 214 m. Much of the shoreline rises steeply into mountains up to 1,500 m above the lake, resulting in many picturesque views including those of the mountains Rigi, the Reuss enters the lake at Flüelen and exits at Lucerne. The lake receives the Muota at Brunnen, the Engelberger Aa at Buochs, and it is possible to circumnavigate the lake by train and road, though the railway route circumvents the lake even on the north side of the Rigi via Arth-Goldau.
Since 1980, the A2 motorway leads throuth the Seelisberg Tunnel in order to reach the Gotthard Route in just half an hour in Altdorf and other passenger boats ply between the different villages and towns on the lake. It is a popular tourist destination, both for native Swiss and foreigners, and there are hotels and resorts along the shores. In addition, the meadow of the Rütli, traditional site of the founding of the Swiss Confederation, is on the Urnersee shore, a 35 km commemorative walkway, the Swiss Path, was built around the Lake of Uri to celebrate the countrys 700th anniversary in 1991. The older name of the lake is Luzerner See, the Waldstätte since the 14th century were the confederate allies of Uri and Unterwalden. The notion of Four Waldstätten, with the addition of the town of Lucerne, is first recorded in the 1450s, the name of Vierwaldstättersee is first used in the 16th century. Each part of the lake has it own designation, The first part of the lake, gersauer Becken, In front of Gersau below the Rigi massif, the deepest part.
Buochser Bucht, The bay of Bouchs, where the Engelberger Aa enters the lake, Vitznauer Bucht, The part between the Bürgenstock and Rigi. Küssnachtersee, The most northern arm, west of the Rigi with Küssnacht SZ at its northern end, the almost separate, southern arm below the southern mountainside of Pilatus near Alpnach. Horwer Bucht, The bay in front of Horw, Stanser Trichter, The part north of the Pilatus, west of Bürgenstock, and in front of Hergiswil and Stansstad. Chrütztrichter, The meeting point of Stanser Trichter, Luzernersee, Küssnachtersee, Only the bay in front of Luzern as far as Meggenhorn, with its effluence of the Reuss, is called Lake of Lucerne in original language German, not the whole lake. Lake Lucerne borders on the three original Swiss cantons of Uri and Unterwalden, as well as the canton of Lucerne, thus the name Vierwaldstättersee
Municipalities of Switzerland
Municipalities are the lowest level of administrative division in Switzerland. Each municipality is part of one of the Swiss cantons, which form the Swiss Confederation, in most cantons municipalities are part of districts or other sub-cantonal administrative divisions. There are 2,294 municipalities as of January 2016 and their populations range between several hundred thousand, and a few dozen people, and their territory between 0.32 km² and 439 km². The beginnings of the municipality system date back to the Helvetic Republic. Under the Old Swiss Confederacy, citizenship was granted by each town and these citizens enjoyed access to community property and in some cases additional protection under the law. Additionally, the towns and the rural villages had differing rights. The creation of a uniform Swiss citizenship, which applied equally for citizens of the old towns and their tenants and servants, led to conflict. The wealthier villagers and urban citizens held rights to forests, common land and other municipal property which they did not want to share with the new citizens, the compromise solution, which was written into the municipal laws of the Helvetic Republic, is still valid today.
Two politically separate but often geographically similar organizations were created, the first, the so-called municipality, was a political community formed by election and its voting body consists of all resident citizens. However, the community land and property remained with the local citizens who were gathered together into the Bürgergemeinde. During the Mediation era, and especially during the Restoration era, many political municipalities were abolished and limits were placed on the exercise of political rights for everyone except the members of the Bürgergemeinde. In the Regeneration era, the revolutions of the common people helped to restore some rights again in a few cantons. In other cantons, the Bürgergemeinden were able to power as political communities. In the city of Zurich it wasnt until the Municipal Act of 1866 that the municipality came back into existence. The relationship between the municipality and the Bürgergemeinde was often dominated by the latters ownership of community property.
Often the administration and profit from the property were held by the Bürgergemeinden, leaving the political municipality dependent on the Bürgergemeinde for money. It wasnt until the municipality acquired rights over property that served the public and taxes. For example, in the city of Bern, it wasnt until after the property division of 1852 that the municipality had the right to levy taxes
Social Democratic Party of Switzerland
The Social Democratic Party of Switzerland is a political party in Switzerland. It is represented by two Federal Councilors since 1960 and got the second-most votes in the 2015 national elections, the party was founded on 21 October 1888, and is currently the second largest of the four leading coalition political parties in Switzerland. It is the only left-wing party with representatives in the Swiss Federal Council and it is the second largest political party in the Swiss parliament. The current members in the Swiss Federal Council are, Alain Berset, the SP is the biggest pro-European party in Switzerland and supports Swiss membership of the European Union, unlike most other Swiss parties. Additionally, it is opposed to capitalism and maintains a long-term goal of overcoming capitalism. The party is a member of the Socialist International, the Progressive Alliance. With its foundation in October 1888, the Social Democratic Party was considered to be the opposition to the Radicals in government and parliament.
After the unsuccessful General strike in 1918, proportional representation was introduced which helped the SP gain 41 seats in parliament, the party was a member of the Labour and Socialist International between 1927 and 1940. After the strike the party took a line and in 1943 it became the strongest party in parliament. It picked up a seat in 1959. The partys historical archives is today hosted by the Swiss Social Archives, the SP supports classical social democratic policies. To that rule, the SP stands for a government offering strong public services, the SP opposes raising the retirement age. In addition, the SP is a proponent of increasing spending in some areas such as for a publicly financed maternity leave, universal health care. In tax policy the SP opposes the notion of lowering taxes for high-income citizens, by campaigning for the harmonisation of all tax rates in Switzerland, the SP seeks more redistribution. The SP is skeptical toward the privatization of state enterprises, the SP promotes more competition in the areas of agriculture and parallel imports.
In social policy, the SP is committed to social equity, the SP aims at making working conditions for women in families easier by promoting more external childcare centers and more opportunities for part-time jobs. It aims at reinforcing sexual equality in terms of eliminating wage differences based on gender, supports civil union for homosexuals, the SP rejects strengthening restrictions on asylum seekers and immigrants. Thus, it supports the integration of immigrants by which the immigrants are assigned to immigration procedures immediately after entering the country, the SP has a liberal stance toward drugs and is in favor of publicly regulated heroin consumption and the legalization of cannabis
Gotthard Base Tunnel
The Gotthard Base Tunnel is a railway base tunnel through the Alps in Switzerland. It opened on 1 June 2016, and full service began on 11 December 2016, with a route length of 57.09 km, it is the worlds longest and deepest traffic tunnel and the first flat, low-level route through the Alps. The project consists of two tunnels connecting Erstfeld with Bodio and passing below Sedrun. The base tunnel bypasses most of the Gotthard Railway, a mountain route opened in 1882 across the Saint-Gotthard Massif. It establishes a direct route usable by high-speed rail and heavy freight trains and it is the third tunnel connecting the cantons of Uri and Ticino after the Gotthard Tunnel and the Gotthard Road Tunnel. After 64 percent of Swiss voters accepted the AlpTransit project in a 1992 referendum, drilling operations in the eastern tunnel were completed on 15 October 2010 in a breakthrough ceremony broadcast live on Swiss TV, and in the western tunnel on 23 March 2011. The total projected cost of the project was 9.8 billion Swiss francs, since the 13th century, the 2,106 metre-high Gotthard Pass has been an important trade route from northern to southern Europe.
Control of its access routes led to the birth of the Swiss Confederacy, the Gotthard Pass is located halfway between Lake Lucerne and Lake Maggiore. It is the shortest link between the navigable Rhine and the Po, in 1882, with the inauguration of the Gotthard Railway Tunnel, the travel time between Altdorf and Biasca was reduced dramatically, from about 30 hours to only a few hours. This time was reduced further with the opening of the Gotthard Road Tunnel in 1980, today both the rail, and the road, routes are among the most important passages through the Alps on the north-south axis. After the opening of the tunnel, in 1980, traffic increased more than tenfold. A second tunnel will be next to the first, as per a national referendum. Construction is to start in 2020 and finish in 2027, similarly to Gruners idea, the GBT cuts through the Gotthard Massif some 600 m below the older tunnel. When the GBT is in service, standard freight trains of up to 3,600 t will be able to pass this natural barrier.
Because of ever-increasing international truck traffic, Swiss voters chose a shift in policy in February 1994. A second law, the Alpine Protection Act of 1994, required a shift of as much tonnage as possible from truck transport to train transport. The GBT substantially contributes to the requirements of laws and enables a direct flat route from the ports of the North Sea to those of the Mediterranean Sea. This is viewed as a revolution, especially in the region of Ticino, which is separated from the rest of the country by the Alps
Klausen Pass is a high mountain pass in the Swiss Alps connecting Altdorf in the canton of Uri with Linthal in the canton of Glarus. Somewhat unusually, the boundary between the two cantons does not lie at the summit of the pass, but some 8 kilometres down the slope towards Linthal, with the summit being in Uri. The Klausen Pass is crossed by a road, which has a length. The road approaches the summit from Altdorf via the Schächen Valley communities of Bürglen and Unterschächen, the road is normally closed between October and May, due to the high snowfall on the pass. At the top of the pass is a chapel, the Bruder-Klaus-Kapelle, whilst 1,500 metres to the west side of, and 100 metres below. As well as being a route for cyclists and motorcyclists, the Klausenpass forms part of the Alpine Pass Route. However the hiking trail approaches the pass from both sides using a different to that of the road. The Klausen Pass was originally a track, which by 1196 was controlled by a customs office in Bürglen.
According to legend, the border between Glarus and Uri was determined in 1315, following prolonged disputes, the two cantons agreed that at first cockcrow, two runners would start from Altdorf and Linthal and the border would be where they met. The people of Glarus decided to feed their cock well, so that it might be sympathetic to their cause, in 1590, a hospital for travellers was built at Urnerboden, with the maintenance of the pass shared between the cantons of Uri and Glarus. In 1625 Glarus transferred their section of the route to a private individual, in 1717, a chapel was built at the summit, probably dedicated to St. Nicholas of Myra. In 1870, a road was built from Altdorf to Unterschächen, the building of the road required the demolition of the 1717-built chapel, and the current Bruder-Klaus-Kapelle was built in 1938. An historic hillclimb, almost 14 miles long, known as the Klausenpassrennen, whitney Straight finished third in the 1934 event. The most recent event was held on 27–29 September 2013.
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