Grosse Pointe Park, Michigan
Grosse Pointe Park is a city in Wayne County in the U. S. state of Michigan. The population was 11,555 at the 2010 census. Bordering on Detroit with frontage on southern Lake Saint Clair, it is the westernmost of the noted Grosse Pointe suburbs, with the oldest overall housing stock of the five cities. Grosse Pointe Park is 6 miles east of downtown Detroit and thus is home to many who commute to the city on a daily basis; the area is referred to as'GPP' or "The Park". Before incorporation as a city, the area that would become the city of Grosse Pointe Park was incorporated as the Village of Fairview, which spanned Bewick Street in the west to Cadieux Road in the east in Grosse Pointe Township; the city of Detroit annexed part of the village in the township from Bewick Street to Alter Road in 1907. Fearing further annexation, the part of the village east of Alter Road incorporated as the Village of Grosse Pointe Park that year. Seeking further annexation protection from Detroit and independence from its township, the village reincorporated as a city in 1950.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.71 square miles, of which 2.17 square miles is land and 1.54 square miles is water. The water is part of Lake St. Clair. Grosse Pointe Park has about 3.5 miles of borders with Detroit, with one border between Alter Road and Wayburn to the southwest, another along Mack Avenue to the northwest. The neighborhoods in Grosse Pointe Park are built on a standard grid street pattern which flows out of Detroit, housing ranges from tightly-packed single- and multi-family brick houses rentals, on the far west side of the Park, to rows of traditionally-styled single family homes averaging over 3,000 square feet, to multimillion-dollar mansions, some of which are found on the lakeshore; the west side of the city features mixed-use neighborhoods, where retail and churches are within close walking distance. The rest of the city is residential, but at the eastern edge residents are in close walking distance to "the Village" shopping district in Grosse Pointe.
Many of the houses in the Park were built prior to World War II, many of these were designed by noted architects using the finest materials. Windmill Pointe Drive, streets such as Bishop, Yorkshire, Edgemont Park, Three Mile Drive, Buckingham, Balfour and Nottingham among others, each have dozens of large, architecturally significant homes; these mansions and mini-manses were placed on large lots which were split up, the result being that some post-war ranch style homes are mixed in with homes of traditional design. Grosse Pointe Park includes a large neighborhood located on Windmill Pointe, a once-swampy piece of land south of Jefferson Avenue, the edge of which marks the entrance to the Detroit River and the end of Lake St. Clair. A large lakefront park with a pool, movie theatre, gathering spaces for residents only is found at this spot. At the base of the point, at the foot of Three Mile Drive, is another large park, Patterson Park, known for its skating rink and walking trails. One way that people distinguish geography in Grosse Pointe Park is by location north or south of Jefferson Avenue, the south side being generalized as Windmill Pointe.
The Park includes a section known as the "cabbage patch," an area of town with densely-packed multi-family houses in contrast to the single-family homes with larger lots that populate the vast majority of the Grosse Pointes. The cabbage patch is considered to be the northwest corner of the city, bounded by Mack, Wayburn and Somerset, with a small extension south of Jefferson on Nottingham and Beaconsfield; the region's name can be seen in various local establishments such as the Cabbage Patch Cafe and Cabbage Patch Saloon. Grosse Pointe Park, along with Grosse Pointe and Grosse Pointe Farms, is in the Grosse Pointe South High School district. There are two Grosse Pointe Public School System elementary schools in the Park: Defer and Trombly schools, in addition to one middle school: Pierce Middle School; the eastern Park is served by Maire Elementary in Grosse Pointe in the Village district. Serves the one high school, South High School off Fisher Road. There is one private school in the Park, the K-8 St. Clare of Montefalco Catholic School on Charlevoix and Audubon streets.
As of the census of 2010, there were 11,555 people, 4,516 households, 3,182 families residing in the city. The population density was 5,324.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 4,997 housing units at an average density of 2,302.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 85.0% White, 10.5% African American, 0.2% Native American, 1.8% Asian, 0.5% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.5% of the population. There were 4,516 households of which 35.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.6% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.1% had a male householder with no wife present, 29.5% were non-families. 24.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.10. The median age in the city was 41.8 years. 26.5% of residents were under the age of 18.
The gender makeup of the city was 48.4% male and 51.6% female. As of the census of 2000
U.S. Route 12 in Michigan
US Highway 12 is an east–west US Highway that runs from Aberdeen, Washington, to Detroit, Michigan. In Michigan it runs for 210 miles between New Buffalo and Detroit as a state trunkline highway and Pure Michigan Byway. On its western end, the highway is a two-lane road that runs through the southern tier of counties parallel to the Indiana state line, it forms part of the Niles Bypass, a four-lane expressway south of Niles in the southwestern part of the state, it runs concurrently with the Interstate 94 freeway around the south side of Ypsilanti in the southeastern. In between Coldwater and the Ann Arbor area, the highway angles northeasterly and passes the Michigan International Speedway. East of Ypsilanti, US 12 follows a divided highway routing on Michigan Avenue into Detroit, where it terminates at an intersection with Cass Avenue; when US 12 was designated in Michigan on November 11, 1926, along with the other original US Highways, it ran along a more northerly course. It replaced sections of the original M-11 and M-17 along Michigan Avenue in the state, the route of the much older St. Joseph Trail, a footpath used by Native Americans before European settlement in the area.
It entered from Indiana as it does now, but it followed the Lake Michigan shoreline farther north to Benton Harbor–St. Joseph before turning eastward to run through Kalamazoo, Battle Creek and Jackson. In the Ann Arbor area, it followed a more northerly path into Detroit before terminating downtown. In the 1940s and 1950s, sections of the highway were converted into freeways. Starting in 1959, these freeway segments were renumbered as part of I-94, in January 1962, US 12 was shifted to replace US Highway 112; that highway, when it was designated in 1926 replaced the original M-23 along the Chicago Road. US 112 replaced the first M-151 when the former was extended to New Buffalo in the mid-1930s. Since 1962, the highway has remained unchanged aside from minor truncations in the city of Detroit. US 112 had two business loops, both of which were renumbered Business US 12 in 1962. In 2010, the Niles business loop was decommissioned. One section of the former US 112 was renumbered US 112S for a few years in the 1930s.
Between the state line near Michiana and the interchange with I-94 near New Buffalo, US 12 forms a portion of the Lake Michigan Circle Tour. The full length of the highway in the state is a Pure Michigan Historic Byway. Outside of the various cities, most of US 12 is a two-lane state highway. One section runs concurrently with I-94 south of Ypsilanti. From there eastward, US 12 is a divided highway and a boulevard into the Detroit area; the entire length of the highway east of Coldwater is listed on the National Highway System, a network of roads important to the US's economy and mobility. US 12 enters the state of Michigan southwest of New Buffalo near the town of Michiana; the highway runs a bit inland and parallel to the Lake Michigan shore on Red Arrow Highway past the community of Grand Beach before turning eastward away from the lake on the north side of New Buffalo. US 12 intersects I-94 less than a mile east of this turn and continues due east along Pulaski Highway through rural farmland.
The highway is the main east–west street as it crosses through Three Oaks in southern Berrien County. East of Galien, the highway dips southward around Dayton Lake before passing south of Buchanan; the highway continues eastward. East of that freeway, US 12 expands into an expressway as the Niles Bypass; this bypass intersects M-139, crosses the St. Joseph River and intersects M-51 on the south side of Niles. US 12 turns northeasterly along the bypass east of downtown and departs to the southeast at an interchange with Main Street and M-60 just across the county line with Cass County. Continuing through southern Cass County, US 12 runs parallel to the state line, it turns northeasterly to run into Edwardsburg, where it intersects M-62. The highway turns southeasterly and runs to the south of Eagle Lake before entering the community of Adamsville; the highway continues on this southeasterly course until it intersects the former M-205 and M-217 near Union and turns to the northeast. US 12 intersects the southern end of M-40 before crossing into St. Joseph County at the eastern crossing of the St. Joseph River.
On the eastern side of the river, US 12 enters Mottville and intersects M-103. The highway continues as Chicago Road through intersects US 131 near White Pigeon, it continues to a junction with M-66 in Sturgis. East of Sturgis, US 12 turns northeasterly into Branch County. Still named Chicago Road, it passes through Batavia. Northeast of Batavia, US 12 intersects the eastern end of M-86 near Branch County Memorial Airport; the airport is on the western edge of Coldwater, after crossing the Coldwater River between Cemetery and South lakes, the highway runs through residential neighborhoods and into downtown. East of Division Street, Business Loop I-69 follows US 12 through downtown and out to an interchange with I-69 on the east side of Coldwater; the highway continues past retail businesses and parallel to the Sauk River. US 12 passes through the town of Quincy before crossing into Hillsdale County. East of the Hillsdale County line, US 12 runs easterly into Allen, where it intersects M-49; the highway continues northeastward through farmland to Jonesville, where it runs concurrently with M-99 through downtown and across a different St. Joseph River.
The trunkline continues
U.S. Route 25 in Michigan
US Highway 25 was a part of the United States Numbered Highway System in the state of Michigan that ran from the Ohio state line near Toledo and ended at the tip of The Thumb in Port Austin. The general routing of this state trunkline highway took it northeasterly from the state line through Monroe and Detroit to Port Huron. Along this southern half, it followed undivided highways and ran concurrently along two freeways, Interstate 75 and I-94. Near the foot of the Blue Water Bridge in Port Huron, US 25 turned north and northwesterly along the Lake Huron shoreline to Port Austin. Created with the initial US Highway System on November 11, 1926, US 25 replaced several previous state highway designations; some of the preceding highways followed roadways created in the early 20th centuries. It was only routed as far north as Port Huron. By the end of the 1950s, the entire route was paved. Starting in the early 1960s, segments of I-75 and I-94 were built, US 25 was shifted to follow them south of Detroit to Port Huron.
A business loop was created when the main highway bypassed downtown Port Huron, in 1973, the entire designation was removed from the state. The final routing of the highway is still maintained by the state under eight different designations, some unsigned. In its final configuration before it was decommissioned in the state, US 25 entered Michigan south of Erie and followed Dixie Highway north-northeasterly away from the state line; the highway ran parallel to US 24 about 2⁄3 mile to the east of that roadway. At LaSalle, the roadway turned more to the northeast toward Monroe. US 25 turned back to the north-northeast and followed Monroe Street next to Lake Monroe and through downtown Monroe over the River Raisin. North of town, Dixie Highway turned due north and terminated at an intersection with US 24. At the crossing of the Huron River, US 24/US 25 entered Wayne County; the highway followed Telegraph Road through downtown Flat Rock and continued into the suburban area of Downriver. At the intersection with Dix–Toledo Road near Woodhaven, US 25 separated from US 24 and continued northeasterly for about two miles to an interchange with I-75 where it merged onto the freeway.
I-75/US 25 continued on the Fisher Freeway through the Downriver suburbs of Taylor, Allen Park, Lincoln Park, Melvindale before entering the city of Detroit. The freeway curved to run east-northeasterly and passed through an industrial area of the city, crossing the River Rouge. At Clark Avenue, US 25 left the freeway to turn a block south and run along Fort Street parallel to I-75; the highway continued along Fort Street running under the approaches to the Ambassador Bridge and into downtown. In Downtown Detroit, Fort Street ended at Campus Martius Park at M-1. US 25 looped around the park and followed the street named Cadillac Square over to Randolph Street, turning north to connect to Gratiot Avenue, a major thoroughfare on the east side of Detroit; the highway followed Gratiot through the east side of Detroit running north-northeasterly. US 25 intersected the eastern end of the there-unnumbered Fisher Freeway. Gratiot Avenue carried the highway through residential neighborhoods and connected it to the Detroit City Airport.
East of the airport, the highway intersected the southern end of M-97 as well. At M-102, US 25 entered East Detroit, a suburb in Macomb County; the highway continued parallel to I-94 through Roseville and Mount Clemens. At Hall Road near Selfridge Air National Guard Base, M-59 merged with US 25 to follow Gratiot Avenue. At 23 Mile Road west of New Baltimore, US 25/M-59 turned eastward onto 23 Mile to an interchange with I-94. At that interchange, US 25 turned northeasterly onto the I-94 freeway. I-94/US 25 ran northeasterly through rural areas of Macomb County, intersecting the southern end of M-19 near New Haven; the freeway crossed into rural southern St. Clair County south of Richmond and continued northeastward to Marysville, where it turned northward, crossing Gratiot Avenue. A business loop, Business US 25 ran northeasterly from the freeway along Gratiot Avenue to run parallel to the St. Clair River. From Marysville, the freeway skirted the western side of the Port Huron area, intersecting the M-21 freeway east of the city before turning eastward to curve around the north side of town.
After the freeway crossed the Black River, US 25 turned northward to separate from I-94. North of downtown Port Huron, US 25 followed Pine Grove Avenue to the eastern terminus of M-136 and followed 24th Avenue out of town. South of Lakeport, the highway changed names to Lakeshore Road and ran along the Lake Huron shoreline in The Thumb region of the state. US 25 passed Lakeport State Park in the town of the same name. North of the park, the highway crossed into southern Sanilac County and followed the shoreline to the community of Lexington where it intersected the eastern end of M-90. Further north, the highway intersected the eastern end of M-46 in Port Sanilac. North of the community of Richmondville, US 25 passed Sanilac State Park, north of Forestville, it crossed into Huron County. On the other side of the county line, the highway passed through the community of White Rock and continued along the lake to Harbor Beach. There, US 25 intersected the eastern end of M-142 and began to curve around to the northwest to follow the northern tip of The Thumb.
About 8 miles north of Harbor Beach, the highway
Peche Island, is an uninhabited 86-acre Canadian-owned island in the Detroit River, at its opening into Lake Saint Clair. It is 1.2 miles east of U. S.-owned Belle Isle, 360 yards from the Windsor shore. The island was formed from a peninsula of the Canadian shore by the action of the Detroit River. There is a central marsh on the island; the present channel was eroded. There are man-made channels cut through the island to ensure fresh water supply and recreational opportunities; the island's flora and fauna have been affected by human activity, the forest is the result of a rehabilitation programme. An Ontario provincial park, ownership was transferred to the City of Windsor in 1999; the Detroit River passes 200 yards off daily 1,000-foot-long ships pass. The island offers attractive Detroit city views, a wide sandy beach and shallow river bottom, is a favorite with summer boaters; as of June 27th 2018, the City of Windsor began to run a ferry service to the island for day trips. Tours operate Wednesdays and Sundays, weather permitting, from June to October.
Boaters and kayakers can enjoy the island's trails and beaches and 2.5 miles of canals. The park is open only during the day. Sailors are advised to anchor along the southern shore of abeam the Windsor Yacht Club. Speed between red buoy DP2 west of Peche Island and green buoy DP5 east of Peche Island must be held below 5 knots. For kayakers, the circumnavigation distance is 3 miles. From November through March large numbers of waterfowl canvasback, lesser scaup, common goldeneye and common merganser, are all found in the nearby waters. Peregrine falcons and bald eagles are attracted by these large flocks and can sometimes be seen perched in the island's larger treetops, or in the nesting platforms constructed by the Essex County Field Naturalists' Club. Muskie and walleye, bigmouth bass and perch are found in the waters surrounding the island, fishing pressures are reported low. Water quality is good, monitored, as the City of Windsor's supply is drawn from nearby. Peche Island is one of the few places.
Early French explorers' maps state Isle du Large. Possible meanings include "at a distance", since Peche Island is the farthest island upstream, on the Detroit River, before entering Lake St. Clair, or "keep your distance", because of dangerous shallows on the north side; the island was next called variations of "Peche" Isle, including Isle aux Pecheurs and Isle a la Peche, the French word for "fishing" - the island was once used as a fishing station. Local accounts from folk onomastics have incorrectly derived the name from a peach orchard once located there, or connected the name with the French word for "sin", claiming the island was once the preferred site for duels and assignations; the island was used by Ottawa Native Chief Pontiac in the summer months. It was a known as a Native fishing village because of the abundance of white fish in the waters surrounding it. After the coming of the Europeans, Alexis Maisonville purchased the island in 1774 from the Ottawa Natives; this purchase was revoked by Governor Dorchester, all islands became Native lands.
The first and only known permanent residents of the island were a French-Canadian family named LaForest. In 1775 Louisa St. Aubin gave birth to an illegitimate son Charles in 1774, she married on February 2 1780 at Ste Anne church Detroit to Antoine LaForest, son of William and Marguerite Tremblay, settlers at Grosse Pointe in 1750 when the King gave land grants for settlement in Detroit. She gave birth on January 15 1781 to her second child, Jean Marie Laforest, who may have been the first Laforest born on Peche Island. There is evidence that the LaForests were living with Indians, treated as if they were natives at this time. There is evidence that her grandmother, Louise Gauthier St. Aubin, was fluent in the native language and went to the Ottawa village to exchange her baked goods for honey and bear grease, they shared the island with local natives. According to Laforest family records the LaForest dit Tineau families never had a deed to the island, they did ask for Liberty of the island in 1832.
They received the right to fish on it. When ownership was transferred to the Crown by the Chippewa Indians in 1857, they were not asked to leave the island. A survey done by J. Barthey on February 14 1859 shows three homes on the island, they were log 16 x 32 ft with an outhouse behind each one. The names on the homes were Charles Oliver and Benjamin. Charles and Benjamin were the sons of Charles LaForest dit Ursula Soulliere. Oliver was the son of Marie Anne Casavan. Oliver left his brother Leon took it from him. In the tax rolls of 1868 in Sandwich Ontario these three are listed as living on Peche Island: Charles Teno Lafforette, Benjamin Teno Lafforette and Leon Lafforette, they had 18 acres of land each. It was Charles LaForest dit Tineau's sons that sold the island for 300 dollars to William Gasper Hall, they left Peche Island to farm on land across from the island where their brothers Jean Baptist and Antoine had been farming since 1838. Leon and his wife and family remained on the island after the sale.
They were poor. In 1877 he could not pay his taxes of $13.92 and was listed as a poor person. He died
The Dixie Highway was a United States automobile highway, first planned in 1914 to connect the US Midwest with the Southern United States. It was part of the National Auto Trail system, grew out of an earlier Miami to Montreal highway; the final result is better understood as a network of connected paved roads, rather than one single highway. It was constructed and expanded from 1915 to 1929; the Dixie Highway was inspired by the example of the earlier Lincoln Highway, the first road across the United States. The prime booster of both projects was businessman Carl G. Fisher, it was overseen by the Dixie Highway Association, funded by a group of individuals, local governments, states. In the early years the U. S. federal government played little role, but from the early 1920s on it provided increasing funding, until 1927, when the Dixie Highway Association was disbanded and the highway was taken over as part of the U. S. Route system, with some portions becoming state roads; the route was marked by a red stripe with the white letters "DH" with a white stripe above and below.
The logo was painted on utility poles. The Dixie Highway, an idea of Carl G. Fisher of the Lincoln Highway Association, was organized in early December 1914 in Chattanooga. On April 3, 1915, governors of the interested states met at Chattanooga, each selected two commissioners to lay out the route from Chicago to Miami. On May 22, 1915, the commission decided on a split route; the route left Chicago to the south via Danville and turned east to Indianapolis, where it split. The west branch headed south through Tennessee via Louisville and Nashville to Chattanooga, while the east route went east from Indianapolis to Dayton, Ohio before turning south via Cincinnati. Two alternate routes were included between Chattanooga and Atlanta, again between Atlanta and Macon, Georgia. Between Macon and Jacksonville, the west route went south to Tallahassee, Florida before turning east, while the east route had yet to be defined in detail. From Jacksonville, the route followed the east coast south to Miami along the John Anderson Highway.
The commission voted to invite Michigan and to extend a branch of the east route from Dayton north to Detroit via Toledo, as well as to study a loop around Lake Michigan and a western route between Tallahassee and Miami. Within a week, Michigan agreed to construct a loop around the Lower Peninsula, passing via South Bend, Mackinaw City and Toledo. Detroit became the northern end of the eastern division, with the old route to Indianapolis becoming a connecting link. In early April 1916, the commission approved the route between Macon and Jacksonville via Savannah and designated the more direct route via Waycross, Georgia as the central division. At the urging of locals, the eastern division was realigned to a more direct path northwest from Milledgeville, Georgia to Atlanta over the "Old Capitol Route", bypassing Macon, the old eastern division via McDonough and Macon was removed from the system in early July 1916. By early 1917, the western division had been modified in Florida to go southeast from Tallahassee via Kissimmee and Bartow to the eastern division at Jupiter.
The Carolina division, connecting to the eastern division at Knoxville and Waynesboro, was approved in mid-May 1918. By mid-1919, a short piece on Michigan's Upper Peninsula to Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan became part of the eastern division of the highway, extended north from Detroit to Mackinaw City and across the Straits of Mackinac. For local details about the routes, see the individual articles linked; the Western route connected Chicago and Miami, Florida via Danville in Illinois. Except for realignments made since the 1920s, the western route is now Illinois Route 1 and U. S. Route 136 to Indianapolis, Indiana State Road 37 and U. S. Route 150 to Louisville, U. S. Route 31W, U. S. Route 68, U. S. Route 431 to Nashville, U. S. Route 41, U. S. Route 231, U. S. Route 41A, U. S. Route 41 to Chattanooga. At Chattanooga, the western and eastern routes intersected. S. Route 27 to Rome and returned to U. S. Route 41 at Cartersville via U. S. Route 411. At Atlanta, the eastern route split off toward Madison, with the western continuing to Macon along the present U.
S. Route 41. S. Route 19, U. S. Route 319 to Tallahassee. S. Route 27 and U. S. Route 441 to Orlando. S. Route 17 and U. S. Route 41 to Miami; the Eastern route connected Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan with Miami, running via Saginaw and Detroit in Michigan. In Michigan's Upper Peninsula, the highway followed what is now M-129 from Sault Ste. Marie to Pickford and west to follow a short portion of former U. S. Route 2, replaced by Mackinaw Trail, it crossed the Straits of Mackinac and used what is now U. S. Route 23 and old U. S. Route 10 to Detroit, it still exists in Michigan as the name of a secondary road from Saginaw southeast to the county line, from southeast Flint to northwest Pontiac, from Flat Rock southwest to Monro
Lake St. Clair
Lake St. Clair is a freshwater lake that lies between the Canadian province of Ontario and the U. S. state of Michigan. It was named after Clare of Assisi, on whose feast day it was navigated and christened by French Catholic explorers in 1679, it is part of the Great Lakes system, along with the St. Clair River and Detroit River, Lake St. Clair connects Lake Huron with Lake Erie, it has a total surface area of an average depth of just 11 feet. This lake is situated about six miles northeast of the downtown areas of Detroit and Windsor, Ontario. Along with the St. Clair River and Detroit River, Lake St. Clair connects Lake Huron with Lake Erie. Lake St. Clair measures about 22.5 nautical miles from north to south and about 21 nautical miles from east to west. Its total surface area is about 430 square miles; this is a rather shallow lake for its size, with an average depth of about 11 feet, a maximum natural depth of 21.3 feet. However, it is 27 feet deep in the navigation channel, dredged for lake freighter passage by the U.
S. Army Corps of Engineers; the lake is fed by the St. Clair River, which flows to the south from Lake Huron and has an extensive river delta where it enters Lake St. Clair; this is the largest delta of the Great Lakes System. Other rivers which feed Lake St. Clair are the Thames River and Sydenham River which originate in Southwestern Ontario, the Clinton River which originates in Michigan; the outflow from Lake St. Clair travels from its southwestern end into the Detroit River, into Lake Erie; the tarry time of the water in Lake St. Clair averages about seven days, but this can vary from as little as two to as many as thirty days, depending on the direction of the winds, the water circulation patterns, the amount of water, flowing out of Lake Huron. For water flowing through the navigation channel, the time period is only about two days. Lake St. Clair is 17 times smaller in area than Lake Ontario, it is included in the list of "Great Lakes" but is sometimes referred to as "the sixth Great Lake."
There have been isolated proposals for its official recognition as a Great Lake, which might enable it to attract public funding designated to the Great Lakes for scientific research and other projects. First Nations/Native Americans used the lake as part of their extensive navigation of the Great Lakes; the Mississaugas called present-day Lake St. Clair Waawiyaataan, meaning " the whirlpool", the Wea tribe's name derived from the lake's Miami cognate Waayaahtanonki; the Mississaugas established a village near the lake in the latter part of the 17th century. Early French mapmakers had identified the lake by a variety of French and Iroquois names, including Lac des Eaux de Mer. A variety of Native names were associated with sweetness, as the lake was freshwater as opposed to saltwater; these included Otsiketa, Kandequio or Kandekio and Oiatinonchikebo. The Iroquois called present-day Lake Huron, "The Grand Lake of the Sweet Sea" This association was conveyed on French maps as Mer Douce and Dutch maps as the Latin Mare Dulce.
On August 12, 1679, the French explorer René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle arrived with an expedition. He named the body of water Lac Sainte-Claire as the expedition discovered it on the feast day of Saint Clare of Assisi; the historian on the voyage, Louis Hennepin, recorded. As early as 1710, the English identified the lake on their maps as Saint Clare. By the Mitchell Map in 1755, the spelling appeared as St. Clair, the form that became most used; some scholars credit the name as honoring the American Revolutionary War General Arthur St. Clair Governor of the Northwest Territory, but the name Lake St. Clair was in use with the current spelling long before St. Clair became a notable figure. Together the place name and general's name influenced settlers' naming a proliferation of nearby political jurisdictions: the Michigan county and township of St. Clair, as well as the cities of St. Clair and St. Clair Shores; the origin of the name has been confused with one Patrick Sinclair, a British officer who purchased land on the St. Clair River at the outlet of the Pine River.
There, in 1764, he built Fort Sinclair, in use for nearly twenty years before being abandoned. Unlike most smaller lakes in the region—but like the Great Lakes—Lake comes at the front of its proper name, rather than the end. Lake St Clair's location, downstream from the largest freshwater delta in the Great Lakes, has a large effect on its turbidity. Current water quality is quite good despite past incidents and a history of chemical bio-accumulation. A number of cities source drinking water from or just downstream of the lake and quality is monitored. In the early 1970s, the Canadian and American governments closed the commercial fishery over concerns of bio-accumulation of mercury; the industry responsible for this contamination was the Dow Chemical Chlor-Alkali Plant in Sarnia, Ontario. Since 1949, Dow Chemical had been operating mercury cell plants for the production of chlorine and other chemicals
Joseph Campau Street
Joseph Campau Street known as Joseph Campau Avenue is a city street in Hamtramck and Detroit in the southeastern part of the U. S. state of Michigan. Jos. Campau Historic District is located along the street in Hamtramck. Along Joseph Campau Street and the Detroit River are River Place and The Roberts Riverwalk Hotel and Residence Detroit. Joseph Campau Street has a unique collection of buildings in southeast Michigan reflecting early 20th century commercial architecture, it is adjacent to a dense neighborhood of single-family homes having a strong, cultural community focus. It retains an atmosphere of viable main street; the street is named for Joseph Campau, among Detroit, Michigan's leading citizens and wealthiest landowners at the dawn of the 19th century. He served in several public offices for the city. Campau held multiple public office positions in Detroit, he was City Trustee in 1802, City Treasurer, City Inspector of water barrels and City Assessor and over-seer of the poor. In 1802, he was an original trustee of its incorporation.
The Jos. Campau Historic District is a commercial historic district located along Joseph Campau Street in Hamtramck; the district runs from Holbrook and Lehman Streets on the south to Pulaski and Casmere Streets on the north. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2012. In 1901, a portion of Hamtramck township centered around Jos. Campau Street was incorporated as a village. People, many of them Polish, flooded into the area when a Dodge Brothers Motor Car Company plant called Dodge Main was completed in 1914 at the southeast corner of the village. Most of the stores along Joseph Campau Street opened in the 1920s; the surrounding neighborhoods were densely packed single-family homes, this section of street became the second busiest shopping district in southeast Michigan, after only downtown Detroit. The Roberts Riverwalk Hotel and Residence Detroit is located on Joseph Campau Street at the Detroit River; the former Parke-Davis Research Laboratory, designated a National Historic Landmark, was redeveloped as a boutique luxury hotel located on the Detroit International Riverfront.
The historic River Place known as Stroh River Place, is bounded by Joseph Campau Street, Wight Street, McDougall Street, the Detroit International Riverfront. Metro Detroit portal Michigan Highways portal Transportation in metropolitan Detroit