An alternative investment or alternative investment fund is an investment or fund that invests in asset classes other than stocks and cash. The term is a loose one and includes tangible assets such as precious metals, wine, coins, or stamps and some financial assets such as real estate, private equity, distressed securities, hedge funds, carbon credits, venture capital, film production, financial derivatives, cryptocurrencies. Investments in real estate and shipping are often termed "alternative" despite the ancient use of such real assets to enhance and preserve wealth. In the last century, fancy color diamonds have emerged as an alternative investment class as well. Alternative investments are to be contrasted with traditional investments; as the definition of alternative investments is broad and research varies across the investment classes. For example and wine investments may lack high-quality data; the Goizueta Business School at Emory University has established the Emory Center for Alternative Investments to provide research and a forum for discussion regarding private equity, hedge fund, venture capital investments.
In recent years, the growth of alternative finance has opened up new avenues to investing in alternatives. These include the following: Equity crowdfunding platforms allow "the crowd" to review early-stage investment opportunities presented by entrepreneurs and take an equity stake in the business. An online platform acts as a broker between investors and founders; these platforms differ in the types of opportunities they will offer up to investors, how much due diligence is performed, degree of investor protections available, minimum investment size and so on. Equity crowdfunding platforms have seen a significant amount of success in the UK and, with the passing of JOBS Act Title III in early 2016, are now picking up steam in the United States; the investor-led model was introduced by UK-based crowdfunding platform SyndicateRoom and makes it necessary for any startup seeking funding to first be vetted by an experienced investor, investing a significant amount of the target round. Only available in the UK, SEIS funds and EIS funds present a tax-efficient way of investing in early-stage ventures.
These work much like venture capital funds, with the added bonus of receiving government tax incentives for investing and loss relief protection should the companies invested in fail. Such funds help to diversify investor exposure by investing into multiple early ventures. Fees are charged by the management team for participating in the fund, these can end up totaling anywhere between 15% and 40% of the fund value over the course of its life. Private equity consists of large-scale private investments into unlisted companies in return for equity. Private funds are formed by combining funds from institutional investors such as high-net-worth individuals, insurance companies, pension funds. Funds are used alongside borrowed money and the money of the private equity firm itself to invest in businesses they believe to have high growth potential. In Europe, venture capital, buy-ins and buy-outs are considered private equity; the notion of “infrastructure as an asset class” has grown in the past seven years.
But, so far, this development has been the preserve of institutional investors: pension funds, insurance companies and sovereign wealth funds, with limited access to high-net-worth investors. In a 1986 paper, William Baumol used the repeat sale method and compared prices of 500 paintings sold over 410 years before concluding that the average real annual return on art was 0.55%. Another study of high-quality oil paintings sold in Sweden between 1985 and 2016 determined the average return to be 0.6% annually. However, art gallerists are sometimes ambivalent to the idea of treating artwork as an investment. Art is notoriously difficult to value, there are quite a few factors to bear in mind for art valuation; the "Merrill Lynch/Cap Gemini Ernst & Young World Wealth Report 2003", based on 2002 data, showed high-net-worth individuals, as defined in the report, to have 10% of their financial assets in alternative investments. For the purposes of the report, alternative investments included "structured products, luxury valuables and collectibles, hedge funds, managed futures, precious metals".
By 2007, this had reduced to 9%. No recommendations were made in either report about the amount of money investors should place in alternative investments. Alternative investments are sometimes used as a way of reducing overall investment risk through diversification; some of the characteristics of alternative investments may include: Low correlation with traditional financial investments such as stocks and bonds It may be difficult to determine the current market value of the asset Alternative investments may be illiquid Costs of purchase and sale may be high There may be limited historical risk and return data A high degree of investment analysis may be required before buying Liquid alternatives are alternative investments that provide daily liquidity. Liquid alternative investments should produce returns uncorrelated to GDP growth, must have protection against systemic market risk and should be too small to create new systemic risks for the market. Hedge funds may be included in this category.
Liquid alternatives became popular in the late 2000s, growing from $124 billion in assets under management 2010 to $310 billion in 2014. How
An alternative lifestyle is a lifestyle diverse in respect to mainstream ones, or perceived to be outside the cultural norm. Lifestyle is a media culture term derived from the concept of style in art, but not always, it implies an affinity or identification within some matching subculture. Some people with alternative lifestyles mix elements from various subcultures. Not all minority lifestyles are held to be "alternative", so the term tends to apply to newer forms of lifestyle based upon enlarged freedoms, or a decision to substitute another approach, or to not follow the usual expected path in most societies. Alternative lifestyles and subcultures originated in the 1920s with the "flapper" movement, when women cut their hair and skirts short. Women in the flapper age were the first large group of females to practice pre-marital sex, dancing and driving in modern America without scandal following them. A Stanford University cooperative house, was founded in 1972 with the theme of "exploring alternative lifestyles."
The following are examples of alternative lifestyles. This is by no means an exhaustive list. Alternative child-rearing, such as homeschooling and home births Restrictive dieting, such as veganism, freeganism, or raw foodism Living in unusual communities, such as communes, intentional communities, off-the-grid, or the tiny house movement Traveling subcultures, including lifestyle travellers and New Age travelling Simple living Bohemianism, Punk rock, antiquarian steampunk subculture and hippies. Body modification, including tattoos, body piercings, eye tattooing, non-surgical stretching like ears or genital stretching, transdermal implants Nudism and clothing optional lifestyles Non-normative sexual lifestyles, such as BDSM, polyamory and certain types of sexual fetishism or paraphilia Alternative medicine and natural methods of medical care or herbal remedies as medication Adherents to alternative spiritual and religious practices, such as Ordo Templi Orientis, Neo-pagans and New Age spiritual communities Certain religious minorities, such as the Amish who pursue a non-technological or anti-technology lifestyle Secular anti-technology community called Luddites Special interest groups into collecting Alternative culture Intentional community Intentional living Subculture Underground culture Synergy House at Stanford University
Alternative culture is a type of culture that exists outside or on the fringes of mainstream or popular culture under the domain of one or more subcultures. These subcultures may have little or nothing in common besides their relative obscurity, but cultural studies uses this common basis of obscurity to classify them as alternative cultures, or, taken as a whole, the alternative culture. Compare with the more politically charged term, counterculture. List of subcultures History of subcultures in the 20th century The Rebel Sell: Why the Culture Can't be Jammed, Joseph & Potter, Harper Perennial, 2004, ISBN 1-84112-654-3 The Conquest of Cool: Business Culture and the Rise of Hip Consumerism, Thomas, University of Chicago Press, 1998, ISBN 0-226-26012-7 Commodify Your Dissent: Salvos from The Baffler, essay collection, WW Norton & Co, 1997, ISBN 0-393-31673-4
Alternative metal is a rock music fusion genre that infuses heavy metal with influences from alternative rock and other genres not associated with metal. Alternative metal bands are characterized by downtuned, mid-paced guitar riffs, a mixture of accessible melodic vocals and harsh vocals and sometimes unconventional sounds within other heavy metal styles; the term has been in use since the 1980s. Other genres considered part of the alternative metal movement included rap metal and funk metal, both of which influenced another prominent subgenre, nu metal. Nu metal expands the alternative metal sound, combining its vocal stylings and downtuned riffs with elements of other genres, such as hip hop, thrash metal, hardcore punk and industrial metal; the genre is considered a fusion between alternative rock and heavy metal, although Allmusic states "alt-metal is a far-reaching term, used to describe everyone from Hammerlock to Neurosis to Ministry to Limp Bizkit". They remarked that alternative metal was "a style united by its nonconformist sensibility rather than any classifiable sound."One of the main characteristics of alternative metal and its subgenres are downtuned, mid-paced "chug"-like guitar riffs.
However, funk metal bands use a more conventional riffing style influenced by 1980s thrash metal. Alternative metal features clean and melodic vocals, influenced by those of alternative rock, in contrast to other heavy metal subgenres. Bands incorporated vocal styles that alternated between clean singing and screaming. Examples include alternative metal bands associated with the nu metal movement, such as Korn and Deftones, who have been described as having "bipolar vocals". Jonathan Gold of the Los Angeles Times wrote in 1990 "Just as rock has an alternative, wing-bands like the Replacements and Dinosaur Jr.-so does metal. Alternative metal is alternative music that rocks, and alternative metal these days can reach 10 times the audience of other alternative rock. Jane's Addiction plays an intense brand of'70s-influenced arty metal. In fact, the arty meanderings of Sab and the Zep themselves would be considered alternative metal." Houston Press has described the genre as being a "compromise for people for whom Nirvana was not heavy enough but Metallica was too heavy."The first wave of alternative metal bands emerged from many backgrounds, including hardcore punk, noise rock, Seattle's grunge scene, stoner rock, sludge metal, gothic metal and industrial.
These bands never formed a distinct scene. Jane's Addiction borrowed from art rock and progressive rock, Quicksand blended post-hardcore and Living Colour injected funk into their sound, for example, while Primus were influenced by progressive rock, thrash metal and funk and Faith No More mixed progressive rock, R&B, funk and hip hop. Fudge Tunnel's style of alternative metal included influences from both sludge noise rock; the origins of the genre can be traced back to funk rock music of the early to mid-1980s, when alternative bands like Fishbone, Faith No More and the Red Hot Chili Peppers started mixing heavy metal with funk, creating the alternative metal subgenre funk metal. Other early bands in the genre came from hardcore punk backgrounds. Bands such as Faith No More, Jane's Addiction and Soundgarden are recognized as some of the earliest alternative metal acts, with all three of these bands emerging around the same time, setting the template for the genre by mixing heavy metal music with a variety of different genres in the mid to late 1980s.
During the 1980s, alternative metal appealed to alternative rock fans, since all 1980s alt-metal bands had their roots in the American independent rock scene. The emergence of grunge as a popular style of rock music in the early 1990s helped make alternative metal more acceptable to a mainstream audience, with alternative metal soon becoming the most popular metal style of the 1990s. Several bands associated with the genre denied their status as metal bands. Helmet drummer John Stanier said "We fell into the whole metal thing by accident, we always hated it when people mentioned metal in conjunction with us." Saby Reyes-Kulkarni of Pitchfork Media stated "bands like Faith No More, Primus, the Rollins Band, dozens more were marketed as quasi-metal acts. This was only possible in a climate where record labels and college radio DJs understood that the metal audience could embrace new, albeit arty variations on the form." The alternative music festival Lollapalooza conceived by Jane's Addiction singer Perry Farrell, helped bands associated with the movement such as Tool, Rage Against the Machine, Nine Inch Nails and Alice in Chains gain exposure.
The progressive rock-influenced band Tool became a leading band in the alternative metal genre with the release of their 1993 debut album Undertow. Spin stated in August 1998 that "It was Helmet that spawned the idea of alternative metal with the punk crutch of 1992's Meantime bands such as Rage Against the Machine took the concept a crucial step further, integrating hip hop to connect with skate
Alternative R&B is a term used by music journalists to describe a stylistic alternative to contemporary R&B. "Alternative R&B" was once used by the music industry during the late 1990s to market neo soul artists, such as D'Angelo, Erykah Badu, Maxwell. There has been a variety of discussion about the differing genre terms, with several critics describing the music under the broad category of "alternative R&B" or "indie R&B"; the term "hipster R&B" has been used, as has the term "PBR&B"—a combination of "PBR" and R&B. The first use of "PBR&B" was on Twitter by Sound of the City writer Eric Harvey on a March 22, 2011, post. Three years amazed and distressed at how far the term—meant as a joke—had traveled, Harvey wrote an extensive essay about it for Pitchfork. Slate suggests the name "R-Neg-B", as a reference to "negging"; the genre has sometimes been called "noir&B". However, the terms are criticized for "pigeonholing" artists into hipster subculture and being used in a derisive manner. Barry Walters of Spin characterizes the unconventional style as an "exchange between EDM, hip hop and R&B's commercial avant-garde", cites The Weeknd's House of Balloons and Echoes of Silence, Miguel's Kaleidoscope Dream, Kelela's Hallucinogen, Holy Other's With U, Drake's Take Care and Kenna's Make Sure They See My Face are works associated with alternative R&B.
Brandon Neasman of The Grio observes a "changing of the guard in R&B, from the smooth, cool heartthrobs to these vulnerable, off-kilter personalities" amid the prevalence of social media in society. Neasman finds the subject matter of "these new-wave artists" to be more "relatable" and writes of alternative R&B's characteristics: lot of the production is echo-laden and lofty using a lot of synthesizers and filtered drums—sonically giving a nod to Prince's vintage'80s sound. Additionally, for the most part, it doesn't feel as if these artists are selling sex as their main entrée. Granted, they still sing about the topic, in explicit detail, but it's in equal proportion to drugs and personal philosophies. You don't get that same diversity in subject matter from the majority of modern R&B singers. Hermione Hoby of The Guardian writes that "the music is radical" and observes "an ongoing, mutually enriching dialogue between indie and electronic musicians and R&B artists." Gerrick D. Kennedy of the Los Angeles Times feels that "the new movement feels like the most significant stylistic change in R&B since neo soul rolled around in the 1990s."
Janet Jackson's sixth studio album. There are two predominating opinions regarding alternative R&B as a classifier of sonic and lyrical characteristics within the larger R&B genre, the first of the two being a reluctant acceptance of its existence – if only for the sake of marketability. Stereogum described the genre as a group of "co-conspirators, not a unified movement." In thought, How to Dress Well, while not offended by the term "PBR&B", finds it "tacky. Miguel himself has said that he is "comfortable” with the term "indie R&B" because it "insinuates a higher art. Or a deeper or somehow more artistic delivery of rhythm and blues music, it suggest there's more artistry within a genre that has become more of a cliché of itself."The latter opinion, does not approve of such ambiguous terminology, points out the not only restrictive, but discriminatory nature of the moniker. Frank Ocean, when first asked in an interview with The Quietus, whether he considers "Novacane" to be an R&B song, responded, "You're limiting it.
And that's. When you say'it's that', you listen to it in a certain way, and you might not miss it, but it's just inaccurate, you'll miss a couple of things, contextually." He proceeds to point out that race and vocal delivery are stereotypical signifiers of R&B music, in turn forcing himself and his peers into a category they may not identify within. She further explained: "It's; when I first released music and no one knew what I looked like, I would read comments like:'I've never heard anything like this before, it's not a genre.' And my picture came out six months now she's an R&B singer.'" The Fader echoes her sentiment, stating "By adding the prefix, it sidelines R&B itself by implying it's not experimental, boundary-pushing or intellectual. It throws side-eye at the genre, while at the same time claiming to have discovered something worthy within it." List of alternative R&B artists Alternative hip hop Neo soul Abebe, Nitsuh. "PBR&B". New York. Cabral, Jeanette. "PBR&B – A subgenre is born". CBC Music.
Archived from the original on March 1, 2016. Fennessey, Sean. "Love vs. Money: The Weeknd, Frank Ocean, R&B's Future Shock"; the Village Voice. Archived from the original on May 12, 2011. Retrieved January 29, 2013
Alternative media are media that differ from established or dominant types of media in terms of their content, production, or distribution. Alternative media take many forms including print, video and street art; some examples include the counter-culture zines of the 1960s, ethnic and indigenous media such as the First People's television network in Canada, more online open publishing journalism sites such as Indymedia. While mainstream mass media, on the whole, "represent government and corporate interests", alternative media tend to be "non-commercial projects that advocate the interests of those excluded from the mainstream", for example, the poor and ethnic minorities, labor groups, LGBT identities; these media disseminate marginalized viewpoints, such as those heard in the progressive news program Democracy Now!, create communities of identity, as seen for example in the It Gets Better Project, created on YouTube in response to a rise in gay teen suicides at the time it was created. Alternative media challenge the dominant beliefs and values of a culture and have been described as "counter-hegemonic" by adherents of Antonio Gramsci's theory of cultural hegemony.
However, since the definition of alternative media as counter to the mainstream is limiting, some approaches to the study of alternative media address the question of how and where these media are created, as well as the dynamic relationship between the media and the participants that create and use them. There are various definitions of "alternative media." John Downing, for example, defines "radical alternative media" as media "that express an alternative vision to hegemonic policies and perspectives". In his assessment of a variety of definitions for the term, Chris Atton notes the importance of alternative media production originating from small-scale, counter-hegemonic groups and individuals. Christian Fuchs argues that alternative media must have four distinct properties; the first being that the audience of these media must be involved in the creation of what is put out in alternative media. The second is; the third is that it should create a perspective different from that of the state and major corporations.
The fourth property is that alternative media must "establish different types of relationships with the market and/or the state." Approaches to the academic study of alternative media attempt to understand the ways in which these media are significant, each emphasizing a different aspect of media, including the role of the public sphere, social movements, the participation by communities that create the media. One way of understanding alternative media is to consider their role in the process of democratic communication. Philosopher Jürgen Habermas proposed that a healthy democratic community requires a space where rational debate can take place between engaged citizens, it is essential that the dialogue in this public sphere occurs outside the control of any authority so that citizens can exchange ideas as equals. This translates to the need for a free press. In Habermas's idea of the public sphere, participation is open to everyone, all participants are considered equal, any issue can be raised for debate.
However, this view fails to note the inherent exclusion of women and minorities from the debate in the public sphere. In light of this social inequality, philosopher Nancy Fraser argues for the importance of multiple independent public spheres, in which members of subordinated groups can first deliberate their issues and concerns among themselves and assert those issues into the larger public sphere; the alternative media associated with these counter-public spheres are critical in developing the needs and identity of the group and in challenging the larger dominant public sphere. A feminist counter-public sphere is, for example, responsible for circulating the view that women's issues such as domestic abuse and reproductive rights are deserving of debate in the larger public sphere. Social movements are a type of collective action, they involve large, sometimes informal, groups or organizations which focus on specific political or social issues and instigate, resist or undo the social change.
Social movement media is how social movements use media, oftentimes, due to the nature of social movements, that media tends to be an alternative. Communication is vital to the success of social movements. Research shows that social movements experience significant difficulties communicating through mainstream media because the mainstream media systematically distort, stigmatize, or ignore social movement viewpoints, they may deny social movements' access or representation at critical moments in their development, employ message frames that undermine or weaken public perceptions of a movement's legitimacy or implicitly encourage movement actors who seek coverage to cater to the questionable values of mainstream reportage on social activism, including a heightened interest in violence and slogans. This problematic coverage of social movements is referred to as the protest paradigm: the idea that mass media marginalizes protest groups through their depictions of the protesters, and, by doing so, subsequently support the status quo.
As a result, social movements turn to alternative media forms and practices in order to more achieve their goals. An example of how the mainstream media problematically covers social movements is the Occupy movement, which began with Occupy Wall Street in September 2011; the Occupy movement protests against social and economic inequality around the world, its primary goal being to make the econo
The Alternative (album)
The Alternative is the second album by English musical artist IAMX, released on 28 April 2006 in Europe and a year in the UK and Ireland. It was re-issued on Metropolis Records in the US on 6 May 2008, it is the second IAMX album to contain tracks intended for the aborted Sneaker Pimps album SP4. 2008 US editions differ from the original 2006 version. Many of the songs were re-recorded or remixed, most noticeably "The Negative Sex" and "Spit It Out", as well as "The Alternative", "Nightlife" and "Song of Imaginary Beings". "This Will Make You Love Again" is among a handful of songs to have been edited to include vocals by Janine Gezang. The re-released versions include a string version of "Spit It Out" as a hidden track; the original album and the reissues carry alternate covers. The album features several songs with lyrics by Sneaker Pimps member Liam Howe and lyrical co-writer for the same band, Ian Pickering, as well as lyrical collaborations with Sue Denim and a musical collaboration with Russian musician Igor Vdovin.
The Alternative was released on 28 April 2006 in Germany, Poland and Benelux countries. It was released in the UK the following year through record label No Carbon, in the US in 2008 through Metropolis. "Nightlife" was used in the promotion for the vampire film We Are the Night. It is featured in a sequence in the film which features no dialogue but contains images set to the song. AllMusic's review was favourable, with reviewer Dave Shim describing it as "a stately blend of melancholic reverie and rugged post-industrial atmospheres"; the Skinny's Liam Arnold described it as "a raging piece of erotically charged, retro-futurist electro-pop. And it's bloody brilliant." All music composed except where noted. The Alternative at Discogs