The Haçienda was a nightclub and music venue in Manchester, which became famous in the Madchester years of the 1980s and early 1990s. The Haçienda opened in 1982, despite considerable and persistent financial troubles survived until 1997—the club was supported by record sales from New Order; the Haçienda is associated with the rise of acid rave music. The former warehouse occupied by the club was at 11-13, Whitworth Street West on the south side of the Rochdale Canal: the frontage was curved and built of red brick. Before it was turned into a club, The Haçienda was a yacht builder's warehouse. Conceived by Rob Gretton, it was financed by the record label Factory Records and the band New Order along with label boss Tony Wilson, it was on the corner of Whitworth Street West and Albion Street, close to Castlefield, in the centre of the city. FAC 51 was its official designation in the Factory catalogue. New Order and Tony Wilson were directors of the club. Designed by Ben Kelly, upon recommendation by Factory graphic designer Peter Saville, upstairs consisted of a stage, dance area, cloakroom, cafeteria area and balcony with a DJ booth.
Downstairs was a cocktail bar called The Gay Traitor, which referred to Anthony Blunt, a British art historian who spied for the Soviet Union. The two other bars, The Kim Philby and Hicks, were named after Blunt's fellow spies. From 1995 onwards, the lower cellar areas of the venue were converted to create the 5th Man, a smaller music venue; the name comes from a slogan of the radical group Situationist International: "The Hacienda Must Be Built", from Formulary for a New Urbanism by Ivan Chtcheglov. A hacienda is a large homestead in a ranch or estate in places where Colonial Spanish culture has had architectural influence. Though the cedilla is not used in Spanish, the spelling "Haçienda" was decided on for the club because the cedilla makes the "çi" resemble "51", the club's catalogue number; the Haçienda was opened on 21 May 1982, when the comedian Bernard Manning remarked to the audience, "I've played some shit-holes during my time, but this is something." His jokes did not go down well with the crowd and he returned his fee.
A wide range of musical acts appeared at the club. One of the earliest was the German EBM band Liaisons Dangereuses, which played there on 7 July 1982; the Smiths performed there three times in 1983. It served as a venue for Madonna on her first performance in the United Kingdom, on 27 January 1984, she was invited to appear as part of a one-off, live television broadcast by Channel 4 music programme The Tube. Madonna performed "Holiday" whilst at The Haçienda and the performance was described by Norman Cook as one that "mesmerised the crowd". At one time, the venue included a hairdressing salon; as well as club nights there were regular concerts, including one in which Einstürzende Neubauten drilled into the walls that surrounded the stage. In 1986, it became one of the first British clubs to start playing house music, with DJs Mike Pickering and Little Martin hosting the visionary "Nude" night on Fridays; this night became legendary, helped to turn around the reputation and fortunes of The Haçienda, which went from making a consistent loss to being full every night of the week by early 1987.
The growth of the'Madchester' scene had little to do with the healthy house music scene in Manchester at the time but it was boosted by the success of The Haçienda's pioneering Ibiza night, "Hot", an acid house night hosted by Pickering and Jon DaSilva in July 1988. However, drug use became a problem. On 14 July 1989, the UK's first ecstasy-related death occurred at the club; the police clampdown that followed was opposed by Manchester City Council, which argued that the club contributed to an "active use of the city centre core" in line with the government's policy of regenerating urban areas. The resulting problems caused the club to close for a short period in early 1991, before reopening with increased security the same year. Haçienda DJs made regular and guest appearances on radio and TV shows like Granada TV's Juice, Sunset 102 and BBC Radio 1. Between 1994 and 1997 Hacienda FM was a weekly show on Manchester dance station Kiss 102. Security was a problem in the club's latter years. There were several shootings inside and outside the club, relations with the police and licensing authorities became troubled.
When local magistrates and police visited the club in 1997, they witnessed a near-fatal assault on a man in the streets outside when 18-year-old Andrew Delahunty was hit over the head from behind with what looked like a metal bar before being pushed into the path of an on-coming car. Although security failures at the club were one of the contributing factors to the club closing, the most cause was its finances; the club did not make enough money from the sale of alcohol, this was because many patrons instead turned to drug use. As a result, the club broke as alcohol sales are the main source of income for nightclubs; the club's long-term future was crippled and, with spiralling debts, The Haçienda closed definitively in the summer of 1997. Peter Hook stated in 2009; the Haçienda lost its entertainments licence in June 1997. The last night of the club was 28 June 1997, a club night called "Freak" featuring DJs Elliot Eastwick and Dave Haslam; the club remained open for a short period as an art gallery before going bankrupt and
Chillwave is a music microgenre that emerged in the late 2000s. It is characterized by a faded or dreamy retro pop sound, escapist lyrics about the beach or summer, psychedelic or lo-fi aesthetics, mellow vocals, low-to-moderate tempos, effects processing, vintage synthesizers; the term was synonymous with "glo-fi" or "hypnagogic pop". Chillwave loosely engages with notions of memory and nostalgia, it was one of the first music genres to develop through the Internet. The term was coined in 2009 by the satirical blog Hipster Runoff to describe indie acts whose sounds resembled incidental music from 1980s VHS tapes, its most prominent artists were the acts Neon Indian, Washed Out, Toro y Moi, who gained attention during 2009's "Summer of Chillwave". Washed Out's 2009 track "Feel It All Around"; the term was criticized for being nebulous and contrived by various media publications, while the music was derided for its reliance on nostalgia. Some artists rejected the tag, while many exploited the style's low-budget simplicity, which led to an oversaturation of acts.
Another Internet-based microgenre, evolved from chillwave. Most accounts attribute "chillwave" to a July 2009 post written by "Carles", the anonymous manager of the blog Hipster Runoff; the site, active between 2008 and 2013, was known for its ironic posts on "alt" trends. Carles used the term to describe a host of similar rising bands. A July 27 post titled "Is WASHED OUT the next Neon Indian/Memory Cassette?" Ruminated on a nascent trend involving the "musicsphere" searching for a "new'authentic, undergroundish product' that isn't a huge brand like AnCo/GrizzBear/etc.... It seems easiest to have a chill project, somewhat'conceptual' but demonstrates that ur band has'pop sensibilities' or something." He proposed a list of genre names, including "Chill Bro Core", "post-AnCo rock", "Conceptual Blog Core", "post-electro". The post concludes: Feel like I might call it'chill wave' music in the future. Feels like'chill wave' is dominated by'thick/chill synths' while conceptual core is still trying to'use real instruments/sound like it was recorded in nature.'
Feel like chillwave is supposed to sound like something, playing in the background of'an old VHS cassette that u found in ur attic from the late 80s/early 90s.' Carles explained that he was " a bunch of pretty silly names on a blog post and saw which one stuck." Neon Indian's Alan Palomo surmised that the name stuck "because it was the most dismissive and sarcastic... the term chillwave came when the era of blog-mediated music was at its height at that time." The term did not gain mainstream currency until early 2010, when it was the subject of articles by The Wall Street Journal and The New York Times. Chillwave was one of the first genres to acquire an identity online. According to writer Garin Pirnia, it is an example of linking musical trends by Internet outlets rather than geographic location. Pirnia wrote in 2010, "Whereas musical movements were once determined by a city or venue where the bands congregated,'now it's just a blogger or some journalist that can find three or four random bands around the country and tie together a few commonalities between them and call it a genre.'"
Chillwave has been classified as bedroom pop, or electropop. Before the term was invented, chillwave music was described as shoegaze, dream pop, ambient, or indietronica. Pitchfork's Nitsuh Abebe writes that, since at least 1992, the style has existed for the same principal reason: "stoned, happy college kids listening to records while they fall asleep." Abebe cites Slowdive, Darla Records' Blissed Out ambient compilations, Casino Versus Japan's eponymous 1998 album as examples. One of the earliest manifestations of the genre is the Beach Boys' song "All I Wanna Do" from their 1970 album Sunflower. Boards of Canada, whom Abebe says pre-chillwave music was compared to, were influential. Ariel Pink is described as "the godfather of chillwave", he gained recognition in the mid 2000s through a string of self-produced albums, inventing a sound that critic Simon Reynolds called "'70s radio-rock and'80s new wave as if heard through a defective transistor radio, glimmers of melody flickering in and out of the fog".
The Paw Tracks record label, which distributed Pink's albums, was run by Animal Collective, who signed Pink after being impressed by a CD of his home recordings, starting with The Doldrums. In 2010, Uncut's Sam Richard profiled Pink as "a lo-fi legend" whose "ghostly pop sound" proved influential to chillwave acts such as Ducktails and Toro y Moi. Discussing chillwave's bedroom pop precursors, Allene Norton of Cellars believes that Pink is "definitely not chillwave but that kind of stuff influenced a lot of the artists making it, like Washed Out." Dummy Mag's Adam Harper disputed Pink's "godfather of chillwave" status, writing that his influence on lo-fi scenes has been somewhat overstated:, that his music lacks "the mirror-shades-cool synth groove of chillwave... Pink's albums are zany, personal rock-based and dressed in awkward glam"; the genre's flourishing between 2008 and 2009 was prefigured by the 2007 album Person Pitch by Animal Collective's Noah Lennox, credited with launching the style.
The album influenced a wide range of subsequent indie music, with its sound serving as the major inspiration for chillwave and a number of soundalikes. Animal Collective's music contributed to the movement, their album Merriweather Post Pavilion, released in January 2009, was influential for its ambient sounds and repetitive melodies, but was not as associated with the "hazy" psychedelia that chill
Post-disco is a term to describe an aftermath in popular music history circa 1979–1986, imprecisely beginning with an unprecedented backlash against disco music in the United States, leading to civil unrest and a riot in Chicago known as the Disco Demolition Night on July 12, 1979, indistinctly ending with the mainstream appearance of house music in the late 1980s. Disco during its dying stage displayed an electronic character that soon served as a stepping stone to new wave, old-school hip hop, euro disco and was succeeded by an underground club music called hi-NRG, its direct continuation. An underground movement of disco music, "stripped-down", featuring "radically different sounds" took place on the East Coast that "was neither disco and neither R&B", This scene known as post-disco catering to New York metropolitan area, was led by urban contemporary artists in response to the over-commercialization and artistic downfall of disco culture. Developed from the rhythm and blues sound as perfected by Parliament-Funkadelic, the electronic side of disco, dub music techniques, other genres.
Post-disco was typified by New York City music groups like "D" Train and Unlimited Touch who followed a more urban approach while others, like Material and ESG, a more experimental one. Post-disco was, like disco, singles-driven market controlled by independent record companies that generated a cross-over chart success all through the early-to-mid 1980s. Most creative control was in the hands of record producers and club DJs, a trend that outlived the dance-pop era. Other musical styles that emerged in the post-disco era include dance-pop and Italo disco and led to the development of the early alternative dance, club-centered house and techno music. Drum machines, sequencers were either or dominant in a composition or mixed up with various acoustic instruments, depending on the artist and on the year. Electronic instruments became more and more prevalent for each year during the period and dominated the genre by the mid 1980s. Darryl Payne arguing about the minimal approach of post-disco Producers are using a lot more sounds and a lot less instruments: the'Forget Me Nots' and'Don't Make Me Wait tracks' are empty, but there's a sophistication people can get into.
The main force in post-disco was the 12" single format and short-lived collaborations while indie record producers were instrumental in the musical direction of what the scene was headed to. The music that catered to dance and urban audiences managed to influence more popular and mainstream acts like Madonna, New Order or Pet Shop Boys; the music tended to be technology-centric, keyboard-laden, with funk-oriented bass lines, synth riffs, dub music aesthetics, background jazzy or blues-y piano layers. For strings and brass sections, synthesizer sounds were preferred to the lush orchestration heard on many disco tracks, although such arrangements would resurface in some house music. Soulful female vocals, remained an essence of post-disco. Bridging the so-called death of disco and the birth of house, all this early-to-mid-'80s music lacks a name beyond drably functional and neutral terms like "dance" or "club music." The term "post-disco" was used as early as 1984 by Cadence magazine when defining post-disco soul as "disco without the loud bass-drum thump."
New York Magazine used the word in an article appearing in the December 1985 issue. AllMusic states that the term denotes a music genre in the era between the indistinct "end" of disco music and the indistinct emergence of house music. In other historical instances the term had been used in a derisive manner. Spy implicitly mocked the usage of both the terms "post-punk" and "post-disco" in their Spy's Rock Critic-o-Matic article, whereas spoofing various music reviews published by Rolling Stone, The Village Voice and Spin. Cuban-American writer Elías Miguel Muñoz in his 1989 novel Crazy Love, in a passage where musicians after moving to America discuss what their "style" may be, used the term in a satirical manner. Midwesterners didn't want that intimidating style shoved down their throats Shortly after the "Disco Sucks" movement of disco bashing throughout the United States, American radio stations began to pay attention to other popular formats of music such as reggae, punk rock or new wave while top mainstream labels and record companies like Casablanca, TK Records or RSO went bankrupt.
Since disco music had been on the way of electronic progression, it split itself into subscenes and styles like Hi-NRG, Italo disco and boogie. The last one is associated with post-disco more than any other offshoots of post-disco. Brazilian record producer and fusion jazz pioneer Eumir Deodato, well aware of current trends in American underground music, turned around the career of a failing funk music group Kool & the Gang by adopting and pursuing a light pop–post-disco sound that not only revitalized the band's image but turned out to be the most successful hits in their entire career. B. B. & Q. Band and Change acts' creator Jacques Fred Petrus, a French-Italian hi-NRG Italo disco music record producer, reflects on his decision to shift from conventional disco music to post-disco " sound changed to more of a funky dance/R&B style to reflect the times." French-born songwriting duo Henri Belolo and Jacques Morali, creators of the successful Village People act, moved their former disco act Ritchie Family to RCA Victor to release their
Dance music is music composed to facilitate or accompany dancing. It can be either part of a larger musical arrangement. In terms of performance, the major categories are recorded dance music. While there exist attestations of the combination of dance and music in ancient times, the earliest Western dance music that we can still reproduce with a degree of certainty are the surviving medieval dances. In the Baroque period, the major dance styles were noble court dances. In the classical music era, the minuet was used as a third movement, although in this context it would not accompany any dancing; the waltz arose in the classical era. Both remained part of the romantic music period, which saw the rise of various other nationalistic dance forms like the barcarolle, ecossaise and polonaise. Modern popular dance music emerged from late 19th century's Western ballroom and social dance music. During the early 20th century, ballroom dancing gained popularity among the working class who attended public dance halls.
Dance music became enormously popular during the 1920s. In the 1930s, called the Swing era, Swing music was the popular dance music in America. In the 1950s, rock and roll became the popular dance music; the late 1960s saw the rise of R&B music. The rise of disco in the early 1970s led to dance music becoming popular with the public. By the late 1970s, electronic dance music was developing; this music, made using electronics, is a style of popular music played in nightclubs, radio stations and raves. Many subgenres of electronic dance music have evolved. Folk dance music is music accompanying traditional dance and may be contrasted with historical/classical, popular/commercial dance music. An example of folk dance music in the United States is the old-time music played at square dances and contra dances. While there exist attestations of the combination of dance and music in ancient times, the earliest Western dance music that we can still reproduce with a degree of certainty are the surviving medieval dances such as carols and the Estampie.
The earliest of these surviving dances are as old as Western staff-based music notation. The Renaissance dance music was written for instruments such as the lute, tabor and the sackbut. In the Baroque period, the major dance styles were noble court dances. Examples of dances include the French courante, sarabande and gigue. Collections of dances were collected together as dance suites. In the classical music era, the minuet was used as a third movement in four-movement non-vocal works such as sonatas, string quartets, symphonies, although in this context it would not accompany any dancing; the waltz arose in the classical era, as the minuet evolved into the scherzo. Both remained part of the romantic music period, which saw the rise of various other nationalistic dance forms like the barcarolle and polonaise. In the romantic music era, the growth and development of ballet extended the composition of dance music to a new height. Dance music was a part of opera. Modern popular dance music emerged from late 19th century's Western ballroom and social dance music.
Dance music works bear the name of the corresponding dance, e.g. waltzes, the tango, the bolero, the can-can, salsa, various kinds of jigs and the breakdown. Other dance forms include contradance, the merengue, the cha-cha-cha, it is difficult to know whether the name of the music came first or the name of the dance. Ballads are chosen for slow-dance routines; however ballads have been deemed as the opposite of dance music in terms of their tempo. The ballad was a type of dance as well. Ballads are still danced on the Faeroe Islands. "Dansband" is a term in Swedish for bands who play a kind of popular music, "dansbandsmusik", to partner dance to. These terms came into use around 1970, before that, many of the bands were classified as "pop groups"; this type of music is popular in the Nordic countries. Disco is a genre of dance music containing elements of funk, soul and salsa, it was most popular during the mid to late 1970s. It inspired the electronic dance music genre. By 1981, a new form of dance music was developing.
This music, made using electronics, is a style of popular music played in dance music nightclubs, radio stations and raves. During its gradual decline in the late 1970s, disco became influenced by computerization. Looping and segueing as found in disco continued to be used as creative techniques within trance music, techno music and house music. Electronic dance music experienced a boom after the proliferation of personal computers in the 1980s, manifest in the dance element of Tony Wilson's Haçienda scene and London clubs like Delirium, The Trip, Shoom; the ongoing influence of Shoom can be seen in its 25th anniversary party, held at Cable Nightclub on 8 December 2012, which sold out in four days. The scene expanded to the Summer Of Love in Ibiza, which became the European capital of house and trance. Clubs like Sundissential and Manumission became househo
New rave is a genre of music described by The Guardian as "an in-yer-face, DIY disco riposte to the sensitive indie rock touted by bands like Bloc Party." It is most applied to a British-based music scene between 2005 and late 2008 of fast-paced electronica-influenced indie music that celebrated the late 1980s Madchester and rave scenes through the use of neon colours and using the term'raving' to refer to going nightclubbing. The British music magazine NME is responsible for popularising the term throughout 2006 and 2007, until claiming in mid-2008 reviews that "New Rave is over"; the genre has connotations of being a "new" version of music heard at raves, as well as being a play on the term "new wave". The aesthetics of the new rave scene are similar to those of the original rave scene, being centred on psychedelic visual effects. Glowsticks and other lights are common, followers of the scene dress in bright and fluorescent colored clothing. New Rave has been defined more by the image and aesthetic of its bands and supporters, than by its music.
Trash Fashion lead singer, Jet Storm, Electro heroine Uffie, have been described as the scene's own pin ups. The use of electronic instruments, a musical fusion of rock and dance styles, a particular anarchic, trashy energy are key elements. Klaxons, Trash Fashion, New Young Pony Club, Hadouken!, Late of the Pier and Shitdisco are accepted as the main exponents of the genre. The term was coined by Angular Records founder Joe Daniel and was featured on the "An Angular Disco" flyer used to advertise Klaxons's first gig. Klaxons declared they were not new rave, describing it as a "joke that's got out of hand" and that the term was ironic, not serious. In reaction to the media overkill of the "genre", Klaxons banned the use of glowsticks at their gigs in April 2007, saying that "We kept getting asked to explain it; the whole idea of new rave was to take the piss out of the media by making them talk about something that didn't exist, just for our own amusement. And they'd say, I appreciate that, but can you tell me more about new rave?"
Los Angeles Times critic Margaret Wappler comments that the "minimalist dance-punk of LCD Soundsystem, the analog classicism of Simian Mobile Disco, the fanatical electro-thrash of Justice, the international amalgam of M. I. A; the agitated funk of!!! and the art-schooled disco-sleaze of Cansei de Ser Sexy" contributed to the thriving'new rave' dance scene, which led to a rediscovery of indie rockers, a critical and intellectual revolution in dance music. The sound of the original rave style is discernible in the majority of bands referred to as new rave. Bands such as The Sunshine Underground, Cansei de Ser Sexy and Hot Chip are labeled as new rave due to their large following by fans of the genre. M. I. A. has been described as "a new raver before it was old." Several have publicly declared. Stylist Carri Mundane described saying New Rave was "Vacant in retro. It’s just a marketing machine.... I guess it was a fun time but I’m more excited about what happens now; the next level - the next generation.
There’s a mood of neo-spiritualism and futurism that excites me."The new rave scene can be viewed as a media construct propounded by the NME and TRAX, with other publications treating the subject as a joke. The belief that many of the bands associated with new rave can more appropriately be associated with the genre of dance-punk has given credence to such suggestions, although differences between both genres are said to be minor and more down to aesthetics. Critic John Harris has stated in The Guardian newspaper that the genre is nothing more than a "piss-poor supposed'youthquake'" that will soon go out of fashion in the same way as rave. "Rave Dog" - a documentary about Trash Fashion and new rave on the Channel 4 programme FourDocs
Liquid Soul is a jazz, hip-hop, freestyle fusion ensemble formed in 1993 from Chicago, Illinois which helped pioneer the acid jazz movement in the United States in the 90s. Coined "Beyond Acid Jazz" by founder Mars Williams who plays with The Psychedelic Furs and with The Waitresses and Billy Idol, co-founded by guitarist Tommy Klein, from the Spies Who Surf, the band's 2000 album Here's the Deal was nominated for a Grammy in the Best Contemporary Jazz Album category, their first regular venue was at Chicago's Elbo Room, where their quickly-growing popularity led to the release of their self-titled, debut album Liquid Soul by Ark 21 Records. A well-popularized appearance at Dennis Rodman's birthday party added to their notoriety, they were the main feature at Double Door in Wicker Park for four years. Subsequent tours took them across the United States and Canada, plus performances in Germany and Japan, they have opened for Sting and Isaac Hayes, played at Bill Clinton's second Inaugural Parade and 21st Century Ball, were the first acid jazz band to play at the Newport Jazz Festival.
They appeared twice at the South By Southwest Music Festival where the Austin American-Statesman referred to them as "the single hottest showcase of the festival." They have recorded four more CDs: Make Some Noise, Grammy-nominated Here's the Deal and most One-Two Punch. Double Door Liquid Soul 20th Anniversary Show, Jan 20 2013 Niwot Jazz on 2nd Avenue, Niwot, CO Aug 19 2012 Double Door Liquid Soul 15th Anniversary Show, Jan 18 2009 Sting opening shows, Sept. 2000 Chicago Jazz Festival, Sept. 2000 Jazz Wind 2000 Festival in Furano, Aug. 2000 Newport Jazz Festival in Madarao, Aug. 2000 Sioux Falls Jazz and Blues Festival, July 2000 Ravinia Festival with Isaac Hayes, July 2000 Cancun Jazz Festival, Mexico Music Midtown Festival, Atlanta, Ga. New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival Babylon Club, Turkey Jacksonville Jazz Festival, Fla. Aspen Jazz Festival, Snowmass Village, Colo. Sweet Pea Festival, Mont. Kansas City Blues & Jazz Festival, Kansas City, Mo. Lodo Music Festival, Colo. Black & White Ball, San Francisco Indianapolis Jazz Festival Canadian Jazz Festival Tour: Winnipeg, Vancouver, Edmonton, Calgary Moers Festival, Germany Festival International de Jazz de Montreal Montreux-Detroit Jazz Festival, Detroit The Cubby Bear, Chicago U.
S. President Bill Clinton's Inaugural Parade and 21st Century Ball, Washington, D. C; the Theater at Madison Square Garden, New York City A Taste of Chicago, Petrillo Music Shell, Grant Park, Chicago JVC Jazz Festival, Newport, R. I. Dennis Rodman's birthday party, Chicago Nationwide club and festival touring with well over 100 performances per year. Rick Showalter – Bass Brian "MCB" Quarles – MC Dirty MF – MC Tommy Klein – Guitar My Boy Elroy – Beatbox/DJ Doug Corcoran – Trumpet/Keyboards Ron Haynes – original Trumpet John Janowiak – Trombone Devin Staples - Drums Mars Williams – Saxophone Past members include... Simone – Vocals Race – MC Mr. Greenweedz – MC Dan Leali – Drums Jonathan Marks – Drums Bret Zwier – Drums Hugh Ragin – Trumpet Andrew Distel - Trumpet Omega - Vocals Andy Baker – Trombone Tony Taylor – Drums Tom Sanchez – Guitar Eddie Mills – DJ DJ Logic – DJ Ajax – DJ Jesse De La Pena – original DJ Josh Ramos – Bass Phil Ajjarapu – Bass Newt Cole – Percussion Frankie Hill – Keyboards Liquid Soul Make Some Noise Here's the Deal Evolution One-Two Punch Official website One-Two Punch Review on TomorrowJazz One-Two Punch Review on Jazz Police Youtube Show Me What You Got Youtube Sure Fire One, No Cents & More Youtube Stop By Monies Youtube Salt Peanuts Youtube Sure Fire One
A rave is an organized dance party at a nightclub, outdoor festival, warehouse, or other private property featuring performances by DJs, playing a seamless flow of electronic dance music. DJs at rave events play electronic dance music on vinyl, CDs and digital audio from a wide range of genres, including techno, house, drum & bass and post-industrial. Live performers have been known to perform, in addition to other types of performance artists such as go-go dancers and fire dancers; the music is amplified with a large, powerful sound reinforcement system with large subwoofers to produce a deep bass sound. The music is accompanied by laser light shows, projected coloured images, visual effects and fog machines. While some raves may be small parties held at nightclubs or private homes, some raves have grown to immense size, such as the large festivals and events featuring multiple DJs and dance areas; some electronic dance music festivals have features of raves, but on a larger commercial scale.
Raves may last for a long time, with some events continuing for twenty-four hours, lasting all through the night. Law enforcement raids and anti-rave laws have presented a challenge to the rave scene in many countries; this is due to the association of illegal drugs such as MDMA, LSD, GHB, methamphetamine and cannabis. In addition to drugs, raves make use of non-authorized, secret venues, such as squat parties at unoccupied homes, unused warehouses, or aircraft hangars; these concerns are attributed to a type of moral panic surrounding rave culture. In the late 1950s in London, England the term "rave" was used to describe the "wild bohemian parties" of the Soho beatnik set. Jazz musician Mick Mulligan, known for indulging in such excesses, had the nickname "king of the ravers". In 1958, Buddy Holly recorded the hit "Rave On", citing the madness and frenzy of a feeling and the desire for it never to end; the word "rave" was used in the burgeoning mod youth culture of the early 1960s as the way to describe any wild party in general.
People who were gregarious party animals were described as "ravers". Pop musicians such as Steve Marriott of The Small Faces and Keith Moon of The Who were self-described "ravers". Presaging the word's subsequent 1980s association with electronic music, the word "rave" was a common term used regarding the music of mid-1960s garage rock and psychedelia bands. Along with being an alternative term for partying at such garage events in general, the "rave-up" referred to a specific crescendo moment near the end of a song where the music was played faster and with intense soloing or elements of controlled feedback, it was part of the title of an electronic music performance event held on 28 January 1967 at London's Roundhouse titled the "Million Volt Light and Sound Rave". The event featured the only known public airing of an experimental sound collage created for the occasion by Paul McCartney of The Beatles – the legendary Carnival of Light recording. With the rapid change of British pop culture from the mod era of 1963–1966 to the hippie era of 1967 and beyond, the term fell out of popular usage.
During the 1970s and early 1980s until its resurrection, the term was not in vogue, one notable exception being in the lyrics of the song "Drive-In Saturday" by David Bowie which includes the line, "It's a crash course for the ravers." Its use during that era would have been perceived as a quaint or ironic use of bygone slang: part of the dated 1960s lexicon along with words such as "groovy". The perception of the word "rave" changed again in the late 1980s when the term was revived and adopted by a new youth culture inspired by the use of the term in Jamaica. In the mid to late 1980s, a wave of psychedelic and other electronic dance music, most notably acid house music, emerged from acid house music parties in the mid-to-late 1980s in the Chicago area in the United States. After Chicago acid house artists began experiencing overseas success, acid house spread and caught on in the United Kingdom within clubs and free-parties, first in Manchester in the mid-1980s and later in London. In the late 1980s, the word "rave" was adopted to describe the subculture that grew out of the acid house movement.
Activities were related to the party atmosphere of Ibiza, a Mediterranean island in Spain, frequented by British, Greek and German youth on vacation, who would hold raves and dance parties. By the 1990s, genres such as acid, breakbeat hardcore, happy hardcore, post-industrial and electronica were all being featured at raves, both large and small. There were mainstream events. Acid house music parties were first re-branded "rave parties" in the media, during the summer of 1989 by Genesis P-Orridge during a television interview. In 1990, raves were held "underground" in several cities, such as Berlin and Patras, in basements and forests. British politicians responded with hostility to the emerging rave party trend. Politicians began to fine promoters who held unauthorized parties. Police crackdowns on these unauthorized parties drove the rave scene into the countryside; the word "rave" somehow caught on in the UK to describe common semi-spontaneous weekend parties occurring at vario