Columbus is the state capital of and the most populous city in the U. S. state of Ohio. With a population of 879,170 as of 2017 estimates, it is the 14th-most populous city in the United States and one of the fastest growing large cities in the nation; this makes Columbus the third-most populous state capital in the US and the second-most populous city in the Midwest. It is the core city of the Columbus, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area, which encompasses ten counties. With a population of 2,078,725, it is Ohio's second-largest metropolitan area. Columbus is the county seat of Franklin County; the municipality has annexed portions of adjoining Delaware and Fairfield counties. Named for explorer Christopher Columbus, the city was founded in 1812 at the confluence of the Scioto and Olentangy rivers, assumed the functions of state capital in 1816; the city has a diverse economy based on education, insurance, defense, food, logistics, energy, medical research, health care, hospitality and technology.
Columbus Region is home to the Battelle Memorial Institute, the world's largest private research and development foundation. As of 2018 the city has the headquarters of four corporations in the U. S. Fortune 500: American Electric Power, Cardinal Health, L Brands and Big Lots, just out of the top 500. In 2016, Money Magazine ranked Columbus as one of "The 6 Best Big Cities", calling it the best in the Midwest, citing a educated workforce and excellent wage growth. In 2012, Columbus was ranked in BusinessWeek's 50 best cities in the United States. In 2013, Forbes gave Columbus an "A" grade as one of the top cities for business in the U. S. and that year included the city on its list of Best Places for Business and Careers. Columbus was ranked as the No. 1 up-and-coming tech city in the nation by Forbes in 2008, the city was ranked a top-ten city by Relocate America in 2010. In 2007, fDi Magazine ranked the city no. 3 in the U. S. for cities of the future, the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium was rated no. 1 in 2009 by USA Travel Guide.
The area including modern-day Columbus once comprised the Ohio Country, under the nominal control of the French colonial empire through the Viceroyalty of New France from 1663 until 1763. In the 18th century, European traders flocked to the area, attracted by the fur trade; the area found itself caught between warring factions, including American Indian and European interests. In the 1740s, Pennsylvania traders overran the territory. In the early 1750s, the Ohio Company sent George Washington to the Ohio Country to survey. Fighting for control of the territory in the French and Indian War became part of the international Seven Years' War. During this period, the region suffered turmoil and battles; the 1763 Treaty of Paris ceded the Ohio Country to the British Empire. After the American Revolution, the Virginia Military District became part of Ohio Country as a territory of Virginia. Colonists from the East Coast moved in, but rather than finding an empty frontier, they encountered people of the Miami, Wyandot and Mingo nations, as well as European traders.
The tribes resisted expansion by the fledgling United States. The decisive Battle of Fallen Timbers resulted in the Treaty of Greenville, which opened the way for new settlements. By 1797, a young surveyor from Virginia named Lucas Sullivant had founded a permanent settlement on the west bank of the forks of the Scioto River and Olentangy River. An admirer of Benjamin Franklin, Sullivant chose to name his frontier village "Franklinton"; the location was desirable for its proximity to navigable rivers—but Sullivant was foiled when, in 1798, a large flood wiped out the new settlement. He persevered, the village was rebuilt. After Ohio achieved statehood in 1803, political infighting among prominent Ohio leaders led to the state capital moving from Chillicothe to Zanesville and back again. Desiring to settle on a location, the state legislature considered Franklinton, Dublin and Delaware before compromising on a plan to build a new city in the state's center, near major transportation routes rivers.
Named in honor of Christopher Columbus, the city was founded on February 14, 1812, on the "High Banks opposite Franklinton at the Forks of the Scioto most known as Wolf's Ridge." At the time, this area was a dense forestland, used only as a hunting ground. The "Burough of Columbus" was established on February 10, 1816. Nine people were elected to fill the various positions of Mayor and several others. In 1816-1817, Jarvis W. Pike would serve as the 1st Mayor. Although the recent War of 1812 had brought prosperity to the area, the subsequent recession and conflicting claims to the land threatened the new town's success. Early conditions were abysmal with frequent bouts of fevers and an outbreak of cholera in 1833; the National Road reached Columbus from Baltimore in 1831, which complemented the city's new link to the Ohio and Erie Canal and facilitated a population boom. A wave of European immigrants led to the creation of two ethnic enclaves on the city's outskirts. A large Irish population settled in the north along Naghten Street, while the Germans took advantage of the cheap land to the south, creating a community that came to be known as t
Hustler is a monthly pornographic magazine published by Larry Flynt in the United States. Introduced in 1974, it was a step forward from the Hustler Newsletter conceived as cheap advertising for his strip club businesses at the time; the magazine grew from a shaky start to a peak circulation of around 3 million. It shows explicit views of the female genitalia, becoming one of the first major US-based magazines to do so, in contrast with modest publications like Playboy. Today, Hustler is still considered more explicit than such well-known competitors as Playboy and Penthouse, it depicts hardcore themes, such as the use of sex toys and group sex. Larry Flynt Publications licenses the Hustler brand to the Hustler Casino in Gardena, California, owned directly by Flynt as an individual through his holding company El Dorado Enterprises. Other enterprises include the Hustler Club chain of bars and clubs, the Hustler store chain that sells adult-oriented videos, clothing and sex toys; the chain's flagship store is on Sunset Boulevard in West Hollywood.
The business first began in Cincinnati. Here, Larry Flynt and his brother, Jimmy Flynt, opened up a store in 1969. Jimmy wrote the check for $5,000 to pay for the club in Cincinnati, he was listed on the masthead for volume 1, number 1 of the magazine in July, 1974. However, Larry fired his brother in 2009, since he has been developing his own business, Jimmy Flynt's Sexy Gifts Stand. An old member of Hustler magazine has described the relationship, saying, "Larry is the show, Jimmy makes it go". Hustler is published by LFP, which produces pornographic films; the abbreviation "L. F. P." Originally stood for "Larry Flynt Publications." A Canadian version of Hustler is published by a Quebec-based firm. This magazine is not owned by Larry Flynt, but is licensed to publish material from the American version. In general, Canadian Hustler imitates the appearance and tone of its American counterpart, with Canadian content added. In 1999, the magazine created a minor controversy in Canada by inviting readers to submit sexually explicit stories about Sheila Copps, a left-leaning member of the Liberal cabinet.
There have been Australian and South African versions of the magazine. During a bookstore signing in July 2011, Flynt stated that less than five percent of his income comes from the print magazine. One feature of Hustler is a column called "Asshole of the Month". In every monthly issue of the magazine, a public figure is selected for severe criticism as that month's "asshole". An illustration depicting the criticized person's head emerging from the anus of a cartoon donkey is shown alongside the article. After Flynt's imprisonment in 1977 and his alleged conversion to evangelical Christianity, he promised to reform "Asshole of the Month". However, as of 2016, reform in the feature has yet to be seen. In the 1970s, Hustler ran a comic strip feature entitled "Honey Hooker". In each installment, Honey would have graphic sexual encounters with any male, she might be in a Super Bowl locker room the next. This feature was designed to compete against Playboy's Little Annie Fanny and Penthouse's Wicked Wanda.
In keeping with Hustler's focus on the seamier and less romantic aspects of sexuality, Honey Hooker, unlike Fanny and Wanda, was explicitly portrayed as being a prostitute. The Beaver Hunt section of the magazine contains explicit nudes of amateur models submitted by readers. Another Hustler feature, criticized was the "Chester the Molester" cartoon; each month's issue depicted a cartoon middle-aged pedophile, joyfully raping girls. Following Flynt's alleged religious conversion, he introduced "Chester the Protector", a reincarnation of the molester character who served as a hero to protect young girls from rape and seduction. A regular feature entitled "Ads We'd Like to See" recreates advertisements of everyday products in a sexualized or violent way. For example, an advertisement in the 1980 issue called'Doer's Lite Label', a parody of Dewar's Lite Label Whiskey, featured Kenneth Bianchi, the Hillside Strangler. Listed as his greatest accomplishment was Cindy Lee Hudspeth, whom he strangled in 1978.
He is quoted as saying "You gotta treat'em rough…". This section was criticized for admiring men who had committed sexualized crimes against women. In addition to its regular features, Hustler published special features and issues. Examples include the "All Meat" issue from 1978, where the cover spread depicted a naked woman being fed into a meat grinder upside down. In 1977, the magazine's front page read "First-Time Ever Scratch'N' Sniff Centerfold". In 1984, conservative academic Judith Reisman received a grant from the Department of Justice to complete a study at American University concerning the cartoons of Playboy and Hustler the sexual depictions of minors in these cartoons, she finished the study in 1986, found that on average, the number of times per issue that Hustler referred to children and violence was 46. Reisman published a nearly 1,600-page report of her findings, condemning the sexual depictions of children in pornographic magazines, but her work was met with criticism from her peers.
An American University professor, Dr. Myra Sadker, said that she was "very dismayed about the quality of office management and the nature of the research, going on." Many fellow academics have disputed the neutrality of the research. Avedon Carol, a sex crime researcher and author, said that Reisman's study was a "s
Courtney Michelle Love is an American singer, songwriter and visual artist. A notable figure in the punk and grunge scenes of the 1990s, Love's career has spanned four decades, she rose to prominence as the lead vocalist of the alternative rock band Hole, which she formed in 1989. Love has drawn public attention for her uninhibited live performances and confrontational lyrics, as well as her publicized personal life following her marriage to Nirvana frontman Kurt Cobain. Born to countercultural parents in San Francisco, Love had an itinerant childhood, but was raised in Portland, where she played in a series of short-lived bands and was active in the local punk scene. After being interned in a juvenile hall, she spent a year abroad living in Dublin and Liverpool before returning to the United States and being cast in the Alex Cox films Sid and Nancy and Straight to Hell, she formed Hole in Los Angeles, receiving attention from underground rock press for the group's 1991 debut album, produced by Kim Gordon.
Hole's second release, Live Through This, was met with multi-platinum sales. In 1995, Love returned to acting, earning a Golden Globe Award nomination for her performance as Althea Leasure in Miloš Forman's The People vs. Larry Flynt, which established her as a mainstream actress; the following year, Celebrity Skin, was nominated for three Grammy Awards. Love continued to work as an actress into the early 2000s, appearing in big-budget pictures such as Man on the Moon and Trapped, before releasing her first solo album, America's Sweetheart, in 2004; the next years were marked by publicity surrounding Love's legal troubles and drug addiction, which resulted in a mandatory lockdown rehabilitation sentence in 2005 while she was writing a second solo album. That project became Nobody's Daughter, released in 2010 as a Hole album but without the former Hole lineup. Between 2014 and 2015, Love released two solo singles and returned to acting in the network series Sons of Anarchy and Empire. Love has been active as a writer.
In 2012, she premiered an exhibit of mixed media visual art. Love was born Courtney Michelle Harrison on July 9, 1964, at Saint Francis Memorial Hospital in San Francisco, the first child of psychotherapist Linda Carroll and Hank Harrison, a publisher and road manager for the Grateful Dead. Love's godfather is the founding Grateful Dead bassist Phil Lesh, her mother, adopted at birth and raised by a prominent Italian-Catholic family in San Francisco, was revealed to be the biological daughter of novelist Paula Fox. According to Love, she was named after Courtney Farrell, the protagonist of Pamela Moore's 1956 novel Chocolates for Breakfast, she is of Cuban, German and Welsh descent. Love spent her early years in the Haight-Ashbury district of San Francisco until her parents' 1969 divorce, spurred by her mother's allegations that her father had fed Courtney LSD when she was a toddler. Though he denied the claim, full custody of Love was awarded to her mother. In 1970, Carroll relocated with Love to the rural community of Marcola, Oregon where they lived along the Mohawk River while she completed her psychology degree at the University of Oregon.
There, Love was adopted by Frank Rodriguez. He and her mother had two daughters and a son who died in infancy of a heart defect when Love was ten. Love attended a Montessori school in Eugene, where she struggled academically and had trouble making friends. At age nine, a psychologist noted. In 1972, Love's mother divorced Rodriguez and moved the family to Nelson, New Zealand. There, she enrolled Love from which she was soon expelled. In 1973, she was sent back to live in the United States, where she was raised in Portland, Oregon by her former stepfather and other family friends. During this time, her mother gave birth to two of Love's other half-brothers. At age fourteen, she was arrested for shoplifting a T-shirt from a Woolworth's, was sent to Hillcrest Correctional Facility, a juvenile hall in Salem, Oregon, she was subsequently placed in foster care until she became emancipated at age 16. She supported herself by working illegally as a topless dancer at Mary's Club in downtown Portland adopting the last name "Love" to conceal her identity.
She worked various odd jobs, including picking berries at a farm in Troutdale, as a disc jockey at a gay disco. During this time, she enrolled at Portland State University, studying philosophy. Love has said that she "didn't have a lot of social skills," and that she learned them while frequenting gay clubs and spending time with drag queens. In 1981, she was granted a small trust fund, left by her adoptive grandparents, which she used to travel to Dublin, where her biological father was living. While there, she enrolled in courses at Trinity College, she would receive honorary patronage from Trinity's University Philosophical Society in 2010. After leaving Trinity, Love relocated to Liverpool, where she became acquainted with musician Julian Cope and his band, The Teardrop Explodes, lived in his house. "They kind of took me in", she recalled. "I was sort of a mascot. In Cope's autobiography Head-On, Love is
Larry Claxton Flynt Jr. is an American publisher and the president of Larry Flynt Publications. LFP produces magazines, such as Hustler, sexually graphic videos. Flynt has fought several high profile legal battles involving the First Amendment, has unsuccessfully run for public office, he is paralyzed from the waist down due to injuries sustained in a 1978 murder attempt by serial killer Joseph Paul Franklin. In 2003, Arena magazine listed him at No. 1 on the "50 Powerful People in Porn" list. Flynt was born in Lakeville, Magoffin County, the first of three children to 23-year-old Larry Claxton Flynt Sr. a sharecropper and a World War II veteran, 17-year-old Edith, a homemaker. He had two younger siblings: brother Jimmy Ray Flynt, his father served in the United States Army in the European Theatre of World War II. Due to his father's absence, Flynt was raised by his mother and maternal grandmother for the first three years of his life. Flynt was raised in poverty, claimed Magoffin County was the poorest county in the nation during the Great Depression.
In 1951, Flynt's sister, died of leukemia at age four. The death provoked his parents' divorce one year later. Two years Flynt returned to live in Magoffin County with his father because he disliked his mother's new boyfriend. Flynt attended Salyersville High School in the ninth grade. However, he ran away from home and, despite being only 15 years old, joined the United States Army using a counterfeit birth certificate, it was around that time. After being honorably discharged, Flynt returned to his mother in Indiana and found employment at the Inland Manufacturing Company, an affiliate of General Motors. However, there was a union-led slowdown and he was laid off after only three months, he returned to his father in Kentucky. For a brief period, he became a bootlegger but stopped when he learned that county deputies were searching for him. After living on his savings for two months, he enlisted in the United States Navy in July 1960, he became a radar operator on USS Enterprise. He was the operator on duty.
He was honorably discharged in July 1964. In early 1965, Flynt took $1,800 from his savings and bought his mother's Dayton, bar, the Keewee, he was soon making $1,000 a week. He worked as many as 20 hours a day, he had to break up fistfights between drunken customers. Flynt decided to open a new, higher-class bar, which would be the first in the area to feature nude hostess dancers. From 1968 onward, with the help of his brother Jimmy and his girlfriend Althea Leasure, he opened Hustler Clubs in Akron, Columbus and Toledo, Ohio. Soon each club grossed between $260,000 and $520,000 a year, he acquired the Dayton franchise of a small newspaper called Bachelor's Beat, which he published for two years before selling it. At the same time, he closed a money-losing vending-machine business. In January 1972, Flynt created the Hustler Newsletter, a two-page, black-and-white publication about his clubs; this item became so popular with his customers that by May 1972, he expanded the Hustler Newsletter to 16 pages to 32 pages in August 1973.
As a result of the 1973 oil crisis, the American economy entered recession. Revenues of Hustler Clubs declined, Flynt had to refinance his debts or declare bankruptcy, he decided to turn the Hustler Newsletter into a sexually explicit magazine with national distribution. He paid the start-up costs of the new magazine by deferring payment of sales taxes his clubs owed on their activities. In July 1974, the first issue of Hustler was published. Although the first few issues were unnoticed, within a year the magazine became lucrative and Flynt was able to pay his tax debts. Flynt's friend Al Goldstein said that Hustler took its inspiration from his own tabloid SCREW, but credited him with accomplishing what he had not: creating a national publication. In November 1974, Hustler showed photos of open vulvas. Flynt had to fight to publish each issue, as many people, including some at his distribution company, found the magazine too explicit and threatened to remove it from the market. Shortly thereafter, Flynt was approached by a paparazzo who had taken pictures of former First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis while she was sunbathing nude on vacation in 1971.
He published them in the August 1975 issue. That issue attracted widespread attention, 1 million copies were sold within a few days. Now a millionaire, Flynt bought a $375,000 mansion. On March 6, 1978, during a legal battle related to obscenity in Gwinnett County, Georgia and his local lawyer, Gene Reeves Jr. were returning to the Gwinnett County Courthouse when they were shot on the sidewalk in front of 136 South Perry Street in Lawrenceville by a gunman standing near an alley across the street. The shooting left Flynt paralyzed with permanent spinal cord damage, in need of a wheelchair. Flynt's injuries caused him constant, excruciating pain and he was addicted to painkillers until multiple surgeries deadened the affected nerves, he suffered a stroke caused by one of several overdoses on his analgesic medication. He has had pronunciation difficulties since. Joseph Paul Franklin, a white supremacist and s
The punk subculture includes a diverse array of ideologies and other forms of expression, visual art, dance and film. It is characterised by anti-establishment views and the promotion of individual freedom, is centred on a loud, aggressive genre of rock music called punk rock, its adherents are referred to as "punks" spelled "punx" in the modern day. Punk politics cover the entire political spectrum. Common punk ethos includes non-conformity, anti-authoritarianism, anti-corporatism, a do-it-yourself ethic, anti-consumerist, anti-conservative, anti-corporate greed, direct action and not "selling out". There is a wide range of punk fashion, including deliberately offensive T-shirts, leather jackets, Dr. Martens boots, etc. hairstyles such as brightly coloured hair and spiked mohawks, etc. cosmetics, tattoos and body modification. Women in the hardcore scene wore masculine clothing. An important aspect of punk was creating explicitly outward identities of sexuality. Everything, supposed to be hidden was brought to the front.
Punk aesthetics determine the type of art punks enjoy, which has underground, minimalist and satirical sensibilities. Punk has generated a considerable amount of poetry and prose, has its own underground press in the form of zines. Many punk-themed films and videos have been made; the punk subculture emerged in the United Kingdom and the United States in the mid-1970s. Which region originated punk has long been a matter of controversy within the movement. Early punk had an abundance of antecedents and influences, Jon Savage describes the subculture as a "bricolage" of every previous youth culture in the Western world since World War II, "stuck together with safety pins". Various musical, political and artistic movements influenced the subculture. In the late 1970s, the subculture began to diversify, which led to the proliferation of factions such as new wave, post-punk, 2 Tone, pop punk, hardcore punk, no wave, street punk and Oi!. Hardcore punk, street punk and Oi! Sought to do away with the frivolities introduced in the years of the original punk movement.
The punk subculture influenced other underground music scenes such as alternative rock, indie music, crossover thrash and the extreme subgenres of heavy metal. A new movement in the United States became visible in the early and mid-1990s that sought to revive the punk movement, doing away with some of the trappings of hardcore; the punk subculture is centered on a loud, aggressive genre of rock music called punk rock played by bands consisting of a vocalist, one or two electric guitarists, an electric bassist and a drummer. In some bands, the musicians contribute backup vocals, which consist of shouted slogans, choruses or football-style chants. While most punk rock uses the distorted guitars and noisy drumming sounds derived from 1960s garage rock and 1970s pub rock, some punk bands incorporate elements from other subgenres, such as surf rock, rockabilly or reggae. Most punk rock songs are short, have simple and somewhat basic arrangements using few chords, they have lyrics that express punk ideologies and values, although some punk lyrics are about lighter topics such as partying or romantic relationships.
Different punk subcultures distinguish themselves by having a unique style of punk rock, although not every style of punk rock has its own associated subculture. The earliest form of music to be called "punk rock" was 1960s garage rock, the term was applied to the genre retroactively by influential rock critics in the early 1970s. In the late 1960s, music now referred to as protopunk originated as a garage rock revival in the northeastern United States; the first distinct music scene to claim the punk label appeared in New York City between 1974 and 1976. Around the same time or soon afterward, a punk scene developed in London. Los Angeles subsequently became home to the third major punk scene; these three cities formed the backbone of the burgeoning movement, but there were other punk scenes in cities such as Brisbane and Sydney in Australia and Montreal in Canada, Boston and San Francisco in the United States. The punk subculture advocates a do-it-yourself ethic. During the subculture's infancy members were all from a lower economic class, had become tired of the affluence, associated with popular rock music at the time.
Punks would publish their own music or sign with small independent labels, in hopes to combat what they saw as a money hungry music industry. The DIY ethic is still popular with punks; the New York City punk rock scene arose from a subcultural underground promoted by artists, musicians and a wide variety of non-mainstream enthusiasts. The Velvet Underground's harsh and experimental yet melodic sound in the mid to late-1960s, much of it relating to transgressive media work by visual artist Andy Warhol, is credited for influencing 1970s bands such as the New York Dolls, The Stooges and the Ramones. Early New York City punk bands were short-lived, in part due to widespread use of recreational drugs, promiscuous sex, sometimes violent power struggles, but the relative popularity of the music led to the evolution of punk into a movement and lifestyle. Although punks are categorised as having left-wing, anarchist or progressive views, punk political ideology covers the entire political spectrum. Punk-related ideologies are concerned with individual freedom and anti-establishment views.
Common punk viewpoints include individual liberty, anti-authoritarianism, a DIY ethic, non-conformity, anti-collectivis
1984 United States presidential election
The 1984 United States presidential election was the 50th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 6, 1984. Incumbent Republican President Ronald Reagan defeated former Vice President Walter Mondale, the Democratic candidate. Reagan faced only token opposition in his bid for re-nomination by the Republicans, he and Vice President George H. W. Bush were re-nominated. Mondale defeated several other candidates in the 1984 Democratic primaries. Mondale chose Congresswoman Geraldine Ferraro of New York as his running mate, making Ferraro the first woman to serve on either major party's national ticket. Reagan touted a strong economic recovery from the 1970s stagflation and the 1981–82 recession, as well as the widespread perception that his presidency had overseen a revival of national confidence and prestige; the Reagan campaign produced effective television advertising and deftly neutralized concerns regarding Reagan's age. Mondale criticized Reagan's supply-side economic policies and budget deficits, he called for a nuclear freeze and ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment.
Reagan won 58.8% of the popular vote and carried 49 of the 50 states, becoming the oldest person, at the time, to win a presidential election. Reagan's showing ranks fifth in the share of electoral votes received and fifth in the share of the popular vote won. No candidate since 1984 has equaled Reagan's share of the popular vote. Mondale received 40.6% of the popular vote, but carried only the District of Columbia and his home state of Minnesota. Reagan won the highest number of electoral votes of any president thus far. Ben Fernandez, former Special Ambassador to Paraguay, from California Ronald Reagan, President of the United States Harold Stassen, former Governor of Minnesota Ronald Reagan—the incumbent president—was the assured nominee for the Republican Party, with only token opposition; the popular vote from the Republican primaries was as follows: Ronald Reagan: 6,484,987 Unpledged delegates: 55,458 Harold Stassen: 12,749 Benjamin Fernandez: 202 Reagan was renominated by a vote of 2,233 delegates.
For the only time in American history, the vice presidential roll call was taken concurrently with the presidential roll call. Vice President George H. W. Bush was overwhelmingly renominated; this was the last time in the 20th century that the vice presidential candidate of either major party was nominated by roll call vote. Reubin Askew, former Governor of Florida Alan Cranston, U. S. senator from California John Glenn, U. S. senator from Ohio Gary Hart, U. S. senator from Colorado Ernest Hollings, U. S. senator from South Carolina Jesse Jackson and civil rights activist from Illinois George McGovern, former U. S. senator and 1972 Democratic nominee from South Dakota Walter Mondale, former Vice President and former U. S. senator from Minnesota Only three Democratic candidates won any state primaries: Mondale and Jackson. Massachusetts Senator Ted Kennedy, after a failed bid to win the 1980 Democratic nomination for president, was considered the de facto front-runner of the 1984 primary. However, Kennedy announced in December 1982.
Former Vice-President Mondale was viewed as the favorite to win the Democratic nomination. Mondale had the largest number of party leaders supporting him, he had raised more money than any other candidate. However, both Jackson and Hart emerged as surprising, troublesome, opponents. South Carolina Senator Ernest Hollings's wit and experience, as well as his call for a budget freeze, won him some positive attention, but his conservative record alienated liberal Democrats, he was never noticed in a field dominated by Walter Mondale, John Glenn, Gary Hart. Hollings dropped out two days after losing badly in New Hampshire, endorsed Hart a week later, his disdain for his competitors was at times showcased in his comments. He notably referred to Mondale as a "lapdog," and to former astronaut Glenn as "Sky King", "confused in his capsule."California Senator Alan Cranston hoped to galvanize supporters of the nuclear freeze movement that had called on the United States to halt the deployment of existing nuclear weapons and the development of new ones.
Glenn and Askew hoped to capture the support of conservative Democrats. None of them possessed the fundraising ability of Mondale nor the grassroots support of Hart and Jackson, none won any contests. Jackson was the second African-American to mount a nationwide campaign for the presidency, he was the first African-American candidate to be a serious contender, he got 3.5 million votes during the primaries, third behind Mondale. He won the primaries in Virginia, South Carolina, Louisiana, split Mississippi, where there were two separate contests for Democratic delegates. Through the primaries, Jackson helped confirm the black electorate's importance to the Democratic Party in the South at the time. During the campaign, Jackson made an off-the-cuff reference to Jews as "Hymies" and New York City as "Hymietown," for which he apologized. Nonetheless, the remark was publicized, derailed his campaign for the nomination. Jackson ended up winning 21% of the national primary vote but received only 8% of the delegates to the national convention, he charged that his campaign was hurt by the same party rules that allowed Mondale to win.
He poured scorn on Mondale, saying that Hubert Humphrey was the "last significant politician out of the St. Paul-Minneapolis" area. Hart, from Colorado, was a more serious threat to Mondale, after winning several early primaries it looked as if he might take the
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Of the fifty states, it is the 34th largest by area, the seventh most populous, the tenth most densely populated; the state's capital and largest city is Columbus. The state takes its name from the Ohio River, whose name in turn originated from the Seneca word ohiːyo', meaning "good river", "great river" or "large creek". Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, Ohio was the 17th state admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803, the first under the Northwest Ordinance. Ohio is known as the "Buckeye State" after its Ohio buckeye trees, Ohioans are known as "Buckeyes". Ohio rose from the wilderness of Ohio Country west of Appalachia in colonial times through the Northwest Indian Wars as part of the Northwest Territory in the early frontier, to become the first non-colonial free state admitted to the union, to an industrial powerhouse in the 20th century before transmogrifying to a more information and service based economy in the 21st.
The government of Ohio is composed of the executive branch, led by the Governor. Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives. Ohio is known for its status as both a bellwether in national elections. Six Presidents of the United States have been elected. Ohio is an industrial state, ranking 8th out of 50 states in GDP, is the second largest producer of automobiles behind Michigan. Ohio's geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic expansion; because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo and business traffic passes through its borders along its well-developed highways. Ohio has the nation's 10th largest highway network and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North America's population and 70% of North America's manufacturing capacity. To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles of coastline. Ohio's southern border is defined by the Ohio River, much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohio's neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Lake Erie to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, West Virginia on the southeast.
Ohio's borders were defined by metes and bounds in the Enabling Act of 1802 as follows: Bounded on the east by the Pennsylvania line, on the south by the Ohio River, to the mouth of the Great Miami River, on the west by the line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami aforesaid, on the north by an east and west line drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, running east after intersecting the due north line aforesaid, from the mouth of the Great Miami until it shall intersect Lake Erie or the territorial line, thence with the same through Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line aforesaid. Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. In 1980, the U. S. Supreme Court held that, based on the wording of the cessation of territory by Virginia, the boundary between Ohio and Kentucky is the northern low-water mark of the river as it existed in 1792. Ohio has only that portion of the river between the river's 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark.
The border with Michigan has changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River. Much of Ohio features glaciated till plains, with an exceptionally flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp; this glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills and forests; the rugged southeastern quadrant of Ohio, stretching in an outward bow-like arc along the Ohio River from the West Virginia Panhandle to the outskirts of Cincinnati, forms a distinct socio-economic unit. Geologically similar to parts of West Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania, this area's coal mining legacy, dependence on small pockets of old manufacturing establishments, distinctive regional dialect set this section off from the rest of the state.
In 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, an attempt to "address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region." This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia. While 1/3 of Ohio's land mass is part of the federally defined Appalachian region, only 12.8% of Ohioans live there Significant rivers within the state include the Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River, Muskingum River, Scioto River. The rivers in the northern part of the state drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean via Lake Erie and the St. Lawrence River, the rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio River and the Mississippi; the worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, including the downtown business district of Dayton; as a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States.
Grand Lake St. Marys in the west-central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for ca