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Altitude sickness

Altitude sickness, the mildest form being acute mountain sickness, is the negative health effect of high altitude, caused by rapid exposure to low amounts of oxygen at high elevation. Symptoms may include headaches, tiredness, trouble sleeping, dizziness. Acute mountain sickness can progress to high altitude pulmonary edema with associated shortness of breath or high altitude cerebral edema with associated confusion. Chronic mountain sickness may occur after long term exposure to high altitude. Altitude sickness occurs only above 2,500 metres, though some are affected at lower altitudes. Risk factors include a prior episode of altitude sickness, a high degree of activity, a rapid increase in elevation. Diagnosis is based on symptoms and is supported in those who have more than a minor reduction in activities, it is recommended that at high-altitude any symptoms of headache, shortness of breath, or vomiting be assumed to be altitude sickness. Prevention is by increasing elevation by no more than 300 metres per day.

Being physically fit does not decrease the risk. Treatment is by descending to a lower altitude and sufficient fluids. Mild cases may be helped by acetazolamide, or dexamethasone. Severe cases may benefit from oxygen therapy and a portable hyperbaric bag may be used if descent is not possible. Treatment efforts, have not been well studied. AMS occurs in about 20% of people after going to 2,500 metres and 40% of people going to 3,000 metres. While AMS and HACE occurs frequently in males and females, HAPE occurs more in males; the earliest description of altitude sickness is attributed to a Chinese text from around 30 BCE which describes "Big Headache Mountains" referring to the Karakoram Mountains around Kilik Pass. People have different susceptibilities to altitude sickness; this is the most frequent type of altitude sickness encountered. Symptoms manifest themselves six to ten hours after ascent and subside in one to two days, but they develop into the more serious conditions. Symptoms include headache, stomach illness and sleep disturbance.

Exertion aggravates the symptoms. Those individuals with the lowest initial partial pressure of end-tidal pCO2 and corresponding high oxygen saturation levels tend to have a lower incidence of acute mountain sickness than those with high end-tidal pCO2 and low oxygen saturation levels. Headaches are the primary symptom used to diagnose altitude sickness, although a headache is a symptom of dehydration. A headache occurring at an altitude above 2,400 metres – a pressure of 76 kilopascals – combined with any one or more of the following symptoms, may indicate altitude sickness: Symptoms that may indicate life-threatening altitude sickness include: Pulmonary edema Symptoms similar to bronchitis Persistent dry cough Fever Shortness of breath when restingCerebral edema Headache that does not respond to analgesics Unsteady gait Gradual loss of consciousness Increased nausea and vomiting Retinal hemorrhageThe most serious symptoms of altitude sickness arise from edema. At high altitude, humans can get either high altitude pulmonary edema, or high altitude cerebral edema.

The physiological cause of altitude-induced edema is not conclusively established. It is believed, that HACE is caused by local vasodilation of cerebral blood vessels in response to hypoxia, resulting in greater blood flow and greater capillary pressures. On the other hand, HAPE may be due to general vasoconstriction in the pulmonary circulation which, with constant or increased cardiac output leads to increases in capillary pressures. For those suffering HACE, dexamethasone may provide temporary relief from symptoms in order to keep descending under their own power. HAPE can progress and is fatal. Symptoms include fatigue, severe dyspnea at rest, cough, dry but may progress to produce pink, frothy sputum. Descent to lower altitudes alleviates the symptoms of HAPE. HACE is a life-threatening condition that can lead to death. Symptoms include headache, visual impairment, bladder dysfunction, bowel dysfunction, loss of coordination, paralysis on one side of the body, confusion. Descent to lower altitudes may save those afflicted with HACE.

Altitude sickness can first occur at 1,500 metres, with the effects becoming severe at extreme altitudes. Only brief trips above 6,000 metres are possible and supplemental oxygen is needed to avert sickness; as altitude increases, the available amount of oxygen to sustain mental and physical alertness decreases with the overall air pressure, though the relative percentage of oxygen in air, at about 21%, remains unchanged up to 21,000 metres. The RMS velocities of diatomic nitrogen and oxygen are similar and thus no change occurs in the ratio of oxygen to nitrogen until stratospheric heights. Dehydration due to the higher rate of water vapor lost from the lungs at higher altitudes may contribute to the symptoms of altitude sickness; the rate of ascent, altitude attained, amount of physical activity at high altitude, as well as individu

Grosnez Castle

Grosnez Castle is a ruined 14th-century castle in Saint Ouen, situated in Grosnez in the north-west corner of the island of Jersey in the Channel Islands. Philippe de Carteret held it against the French when they held half of Jersey between 1461 and 1467, but it has been a ruin since the mid-16th century. Today, the ruins are open to the public. Furthermore, there are concrete steps that lead from the rear of Grosnez Castle to a small automated signal station; the name comes from the old Norse words for "grey headland" - grar nes - an accurate description of the site when seen from the sea. In time the spelling evolved to resemble the French for big nose. A nearby headland to the west has Rouge Nez. Sir John des Roches ordered the castle built around 1330, about the time of the start of the Hundred Years' War; the castle's purpose was to provide local farmers with a place of refugee from French attacks. The walls are thickest on the landward side; the castle's position on a clifftop 200 ft above the sea means that the natural features of the site protect it on three sides.

A ditch dug into the rock provides protection on the fourth side. The remains of ruined walls footings, are still present. A drawbridge and portcullis protected the gatehouse, the only substantial surviving remnant, would have made it difficult to capture. There are traces of six simple buildings; the castle, had a number of weaknesses: There were no sally ports for counter-attacks. The French captured the castle in 1373 and 1381; the castle was last used militarily during the time of the French occupation of Jersey. In 1483, after several years of petitioning King Edward IV, the Seigneur of St Ouen - recommended to the King's Grace by his father-in-law the governor, was granted a ″License to Crenelate″ -, allowed to fortify his manor house. Governor Harliston approved the dismantling of the ″fort of refuge″ at Grosnez so that the already-worked stone could be re-used in fortifying St. Ouen's Manor; the financial savings were important to Seigneur De Carteret, as - when he came into his majority - ″trees grew in the Hall of the Manor because his Guardians had wasted the substance of the Rentes″ i.e. - embezzled the income - and he was investing in renovating the dilapidated manor buildings.

His shortage of money was both what influenced him to marry the daughter of the Plantagenet Governor Harliston, what led him into conflict with the second governor of the island after 1486. When Matthew Baker was sent to take Harliston's place in 1486, the Seigneur had not paid his taxes to the Exchequer for three years - since the death of Edward IV. De Carteret was under some suspicion as a Plantagenet supporter - after all - the rebel Governor Harliston was his father-in-law; when King Henry VII ordered a general examination of outstanding accounts by the Exchequer clerks, it was inevitable that De Carteret would be required to pay the back taxes he owed the Crown. This is the background to the dismantling of Grosnez Castle - and of the friction between De Carteret and Matthew Baker. In 1806, a naval signal station was established at Grosnez to send messages to Guernsey. Grosnez Castle appears on the reverse of the Jersey 50 pence coin. Citations References Dillon, Paddy Walking on Jersey: 24 routes and the Jersey coastal walk..

ISBN 978-1-85284-288-8 King, David James Cathcart The Castle in England and Wales: An Interpretative History.. ISBN 978-0-918400-08-6 Hammond, Reginald J W, Channel Islands, p. 63, ISBN 0-7063-5414-1

Uli Trepte

Uli Trepte was a German musician best known for his collaborations with various influential Krautrock bands in the early 1970s. Uli Trepte began his musical career in 1966 on double bass as a free jazz player/founder member of the Irene Schweizer Trio, a formation that wrote avantgarde history. At about that time and he appeared with jazz musicians like Yusef Lateef, Gato Barbieri, Barney Wilen, John McLaughlin and Mal Waldron. In 1968 he changed to bass guitar and with drummer Mani Neumeier formed Guru Guru as part of the newly emerging psychedelic rock music, writing both lyrics and music for that group, it was a band which set a radical new playing standard and belonged to the few genuine pioneers of the so-called Krautrock. He left the group in 1972, to play with the Kraut Rock bands Neu!, Faust and Kickbit Information. During 1973 he toured the United Kingdom with them. In 1975 founded his own group, Spacebox, to realize his concept of an authentic European, cyclic structured, minor dominated, modal harmonic, collective improvised, organic-electric live music as a player and songwriter.

From 1975 to the early 1980s, his main performance work was through his Spacebox project. With it he performed solo in Berlin und London where he stayed for about half a year each, enlarged it in 1978 to a quartet in Munich and gained an international reputation as an un-normed, uncommercial underground figure. In 1981 he spent six months in Tokyo, one year in New York City in 1982, after disbanding Spacebox, to live from 1985 in Berlin, where he reduced his original music to a instrumental one, realizing it with selected musicians on sound carriers, in the last years giving more priority to the playing of his Modal Minor Constant Structure Blues and working at the same time in cooperation with the Dutch multimedia artist Aja Waalwijk on the elaborate song project Takes on Words; as the quintessence of his musical concept he led 96-01 Move Groove, the Modal Groove Concept, with whom – including the involvement of musicians such as Hans Hartmann and Edgar Hofmann – he played live again. From 2002 he only performed as a solo act called "Bass+Lyrik", but releasing recordings of instrumental music resulting from different sessions with the participation of – besides the above-mentioned – Chris Karrer and Geoff Leigh.

Uli Trepte died on 21 May 2009 in Berlin after a "long bout with cancer". with Guru Guru: Ufo Hinten Kan-guru Der Elektrolurch Compilation The Story of Life Rock on Brain Comp. Spaceship 30 Jahre Live 3 CD-Box Very Best of Guru Guru Essen 1970 with Spacebox: Spacebox Kick Up Real time music Groove along with dong Yestermorrow Songs with Aja Waalwijk Staticsphere Rollomat Multiphonic music Incredible world with Aja Waalwijk Portrait Homepage Website with interview links

Myrna Bain

Myrna Bain born Myrna Delores Bain, was an activist, grass-roots organizer and writer. She was an influential member of several organizations founded by LGBTI women of color, most notably: The Kitchen Table: Women of Color Press. Bain was a renowned professor of Black Studies for the City University of New York for several decades; the Myrna Bain Scholarship at John Jay College is dedicated to her memory. Bain was influential as the teacher of many published feminist writers in the United States and internationally including Dorothea Smartt, Donna Aza-Weir Soley, Tracie Morris and Marianne Goodreax-Fielder. Bain was an active writer who associated with other luminaries such as Amiri Baraka, Quincy Troupe, Audre Lorde and most notably, James Baldwin. Bain was born in Florida and, along with many black families, moved north during the great African-American migration, her family settled in the Bronx borough of New York City. Her parents were active in her upbringing. Bain had Julian Bain. Myrna's early years were spent in one of the numerous wood frame homes owned by working class African Americans.

Upon the initiation of the Robert Moses public works project, Myrna's home was razed and her family relocated to a Bronx based housing project. This event would color Bain's work throughout her career. Bain was an initiated priestess in the Afro-Cuban religion known as Lukumí or Santería and presided as initiatory godmother or "iyalorisha" to many practitioners. Bain's tutelary orisha was Aganju and she was initiated in a process known as "Shango oro Aganju" and given the orisha name "Ilari Oba." Bain was a lifelong participant in the political process both as direct participant. Starting out in the 1960s, Bain was active in the black power movement at points being connected to the Black Panther Party and the Freedom Summer movement; the most mainstream political period for Bain involved a stint as a public relations operative for the Republican Party. Bain always maintained that she did this period of work to “know how the other side worked”. Upon having her fill of the bureaucratic process Bain would leave and carry on her political ideas within academia.

Https://www.pbs.org/outofthepast/past/p6/1981_1.html http://thefeministwire.com/2014/02/the-forging-of-a-caribbean-feminist-consciousness-laying-claim-to-audre-lordes-legacy/—in article on Audre Lorde

Churchill River (Hudson Bay)

The Churchill River is a major river in Alberta and Manitoba, Canada. From the head of the Churchill Lake it is 1,609 kilometres long, it was named after John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough and governor of the Hudson's Bay Company from 1685 to 1691. The Cree name for the river is Missinipi, meaning "big waters"; the river is located within the Canadian Shield. The drainage basin includes a number of lakes in Central-East Alberta which flow into a series of lakes in Saskatchewan and Manitoba; the main tributary, the Beaver River, joins at Lac Île-à-la-Crosse. Nistowiak Falls—the tallest falls in Saskatchewan—are on the Rapid River, which flows north, out of Lac la Ronge into Nistowiak Lake on the Churchill just north of La Ronge. A large amount of flow of the Churchill River after Manitoba–Saskatchewan border comes from the Reindeer River, which flows from Wollaston and Reindeer lakes. Flow from Reindeer Lake is regulated by the Whitesand Dam. From there, the Churchill River flows east through a series of lakes flows via a diversion for hydro-electric generation into the Nelson River, the rest flows as the Churchill River into Hudson Bay at Churchill, Manitoba.

The Churchill formed a major part of the "voyageur highway" in the 18th to 20th centuries after Dene people showed Peter Pond the Methye Portage which connects the Hudson Bay watershed with the ClearwaterAthabasca – MacKenzie rivers which flow to the Arctic Ocean. See Canadian Canoe Routes; the Churchill is home of several fish species including: walleye, yellow perch, northern pike, lake trout, lake whitefish, white sucker, shorthead redhorse, longnose sucker, lake sturgeon and burbot. List of longest rivers of Canada List of rivers of Manitoba List of rivers of Saskatchewan Saskatchewan's Churchill River, Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society Saskatchewan Documented Canoe Routes, Canoe Saskatchewan website Fish Species of Saskatchewan Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan

Ferdinand Rudow

Ferdinand Rudow was a German entomologist best known for the poor quality of his taxonomic work. He described over 200 species of wasps during his lifetime all of which have been revised as synonyms of other species. Rudow was born in what is now Germany, his father was a merchant. Rudow began working as a teacher in 1865, he was granted his doctorate in 1869 by Leipzig University with a thesis on mallophaga, or chewing lice. By 1876 he was a senior teacher a professor, at a Gymnasium in the German city of Perleberg, he retired from teaching in 1906. He died in Naumburg in 1920. Interested in studying lice and mites, Rudow began to focus on wasps in 1871. Over the course of his research, he described 234 species and varieties within the Ichneumonidae family of parasitoid wasps amassing a collection of close to 14,000 insect specimens. Rudow donated the collection to the Phyletisches Museum of Jena in 1919. Numerous specimens in the collection were improperly stored, poorly identified, or damaged, although due to poor documentation it is impossible to say how much was received in poor condition and how much damage was caused by poor storage.

His work was criticised as unscientific by his contemporaries. Richard Ritter von Stein denounced the poor quality of his publications as early as 1884. Rudow was aware of the criticism, may have begun to withdraw from the scientific community as a result, he refused to accept modern systems of nomenclature, wrote critically of them. In 1908, for example, he wrote that he was "disgusted by the activities of the so-called'systematics'," whose changes he felt were confusing and unhelpful, he was known for describing the same species more than once, or calling different species by the same name in a single paper. He described already-known species as new by accident, his early publications, until 1888, were comparatively detailed, but the descriptions in his work were so vague or inaccurate that comparisons of described species or identification by specimen was not possible. Basic information such as the location where specimens were found, their habitats, their preferred hosts was either full of errors or not included at all.

The species he described have been extensively revised by subsequent entomologists, including English entomologist John Frederick Perkins in the 1930s and J. Oehlke in the 1960s, most of them are now considered synonyms of other species. In a 1993 article which presented a revision of 167 species described by Rudow, German entomologist Klaus Horstmann described him as "undoubtedly the most incompetent" taxonomist of Ichneumonidae. Only eleven of the species names examined in the article were retained as valid names; that same year and Martin Schwarz published a revision of 67 species described by Rudow in the wasp genera Pezolochus and Pezomachus between 1914 and 1917. Horstmann, Klaus. "Revision der von Ferdinand Rudow beschriebenen Ichneumonidae I.". Beiträge zur Entomologie = Contributions to Entomology. 43: 3–38. Doi:10.21248/contrib.entomol.43.1.3-38. ISSN 2511-6428 – via Zobodat. Krogmann, Lars. "Die Chalcidoidea-Sammlung von Ferdinand Rudow im Phyletischen Museum". Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut: 129–140.

Retrieved 2019-01-14 – via ResearchGate. Schwarz, Martin. "Revision der von Ferdinand RUDOW beschriebenen Ichneumonidae II: Pezolochus FÖRSTER und Pezomachus GRAVENHORST". Beiträge zur Entomologie. 43: 417–430. Doi:10.21248/contrib.entomol.43.2.417-430. ISSN 0005-805X – via Zobodat. Vidal, Stefan. "The history of Hymenopteran parasitoid research in Germany". Biological Control. 32: 25–33. Doi:10.1016/j.biocontrol.2004.09.017. ISSN 1049-9644