The haute-contre is a rare type of high tenor voice, predominant in French Baroque and Classical opera until the latter part of the eighteenth century. The voice was predominantly used in male solo roles heroic and amatory ones, but in comic parts en travesti. Lully wrote 8 out of 14 leading male roles for the voice; the leading hautes-contre of the Académie Royale de Musique that created the main roles of Lully's operas, at the end of the seventeenth century, were Bernard Clédière and Louis Gaulard Dumesny. Notable hautes-contre of the eighteenth century’s first half included firstly Jean-François Tribou, who revived Lully style and operas in the twenties and in the thirties the mentioned Pierre Jélyotte and his substitutes, François Poirier et La Tour, all of whom sang Rameau's operas and Lully's revivals for the Académie Royale de Musique, Marc-François Bêche, engaged in performances at court. After these came Joseph Legros, for whom Gluck wrote his main haute-contre roles, which included the title role in the 1774 version of Orphée et Eurydice, Achilles in Iphigénie en Aulide.
There is an extensive repertoire of music for this voice in French airs de cour and in French solo cantatas of the Baroque period. The nature of the haute-contre voice has been the subject of much debate, the fact that English writers have translated the term as "countertenor" is not helpful, since the meaning of that latter term has been the subject of considerable musicological controversy, it is now accepted that the hautes-contre sang in what voice scientists term "modal" using falsetto for their highest notes. A typical solo range for this voice was C3 to D5, considering that French eighteenth-century pitch was as much as a whole tone lower than that of today. Though this high-pitched range might lead one to think of the haute-contre as a light voice, historical evidence does not bear this out: Jélyotte was much praised for the strength of his high register, the astronomer and traveller Joseph Jérôme Lefrançois de Lalande commenting that "one takes more pleasure in hearing a large voice than a small one".
Lalande stated. The haute-contre is regarded by some authorities as similar to, or indeed identical with, the voice-type described in Italian as tenore contraltino. Although not unknown at an earlier date, roles for this voice were numerous at the beginning of the nineteenth century: for example Lindoro in Rossini's L'italiana in Algeri or Rodrigo in Otello. Rossini wrote roles in French for this type of voice, which may thus be regarded as a direct continuation of the earlier haute-contre tradition; these include the protagonist of Le Comte Ory, Néocles in Le siège de Corinthe and Arnold in Guillaume Tell, all of which were written for the great French tenor Adolphe Nourrit. With a revival of interest in and the performance of French baroque repertoire, several high tenors have come to prominence in haute-contre repertoire; these include Mark Padmore,Anders J. Dahlin, Rogers Covey-Crump, Jean-Paul Fouchécourt, Paul Agnew and Cyril Auvity. None of these sing the French Baroque repertoire to the exclusion of all others, all are involved, to a greater or lesser extent, in the performance of mainstream tenor repertoire.
See List of French haute-contre roles Cyr, M: "On performing 18th-century Haute-Contre Roles", Musical Times, vol 118, 1997, pp 291–5 reproduced in Cyr, M. Essays on the Performance of Baroque Music. Opera and Chamber Music in France and England, Ashgate Variorum, Aldeshot /Burlington, VT, 2008, ISBN 978-0-7546-5926-6 Lionel Sawkins. "Haute-contre". In Deane L. Root. Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. Philip Weller, "Tribou, Denis-François", in Sadie, The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, New York, 1997, ISBN 978-0-19-522186-2
In Western musical notation, the staff or stave is a set of five horizontal lines and four spaces that each represent a different musical pitch or in the case of a percussion staff, different percussion instruments. Appropriate music symbols, depending on the intended effect, are placed on the staff according to their corresponding pitch or function. Musical notes are placed by pitch, percussion notes are placed by instrument, rests and other symbols are placed by convention; the absolute pitch of each line of a non-percussive staff is indicated by the placement of a clef symbol at the appropriate vertical position on the left-hand side of the staff. For example, the treble clef known as the G clef, is placed on the second line, fixing that line as the pitch first G above "middle C"; the lines and spaces are numbered from bottom to top. The musical staff is analogous to a mathematical graph of pitch with respect to time. Pitches of notes are given by their vertical position on the staff and notes are played from left to right.
Unlike a graph, the number of semitones represented by a vertical step from a line to an adjacent space depends on the key, the exact timing of the beginning of each note is not directly proportional to its horizontal position. A time signature to the right of the clef indicates the relationship between timing counts and note symbols, while bar lines group notes on the staff into measures. Staff is more common in American English; the plural is staves in either case. The vertical position of the notehead on the staff indicates which note to play: higher-pitched notes are marked higher on the staff; the notehead can be placed with its center intersecting a line or in between the lines touching the lines above and below. Notes outside the range of the staff are placed on or between ledger lines—lines the width of the note they need to hold—added above or below the staff. Which staff positions represent which notes is determined by a clef placed at the beginning of the staff; the clef identifies a particular line as a specific note, all other notes are determined relative to that line.
For example, the treble clef puts the G above middle C on the second line. The interval between adjacent staff positions is one step in the diatonic scale. Once fixed by a clef, the notes represented by the positions on the staff can be modified by the key signature or accidentals on individual notes. A clefless staff may be used to represent a set of percussion sounds. A vertical line drawn to the left of multiple staves creates a system, indicating that the music on all the staves is to be played simultaneously. A bracket is an additional vertical line joining staves to show groupings of instruments that function as a unit, such as the string section of an orchestra. A brace is used to join multiple staves that represent an instrument, such as a piano, harp, or marimba. Sometimes a second bracket is used to show instruments grouped in pairs, such as the first and second oboes or first and second violins in an orchestra. In some cases, a brace is used for this purpose; when more than one system appears on a page two parallel diagonal strokes are placed on the left side of the score to separate them.
Four-part SATB vocal settings in hymnals, use a divisi notation on a two-staff system with soprano and alto voices sharing the upper staff and tenor and bass voices on the lower staff. Confusingly, the German System may refer to a single staff as well as to the Akkolade or system in the English sense; when music on two staves is joined by a brace, or is intended to be played at once by a single performer, a grand staff or great stave is created. The upper staff uses a treble clef and the lower staff has a bass clef. In this instance, middle C is centered between the two staves, it can be written on the first ledger line below the upper staff or the first ledger line above the lower staff. A centered line with a small alto clef is written, used to indicate that B, C, or D on the line can be played with either hand; when playing the piano or harp, the upper staff is played with the right hand and the lower staff with the left hand. In music intended for organ with pedalboard, a grand staff comprises three staves, one for each hand on the manuals and one for the feet on the pedalboard.
Early Western medieval notation was written with neumes, which did not specify exact pitches but only the shape of the melodies, i.e. indicating when the musical line went up or down. During the 9th through 11th centuries a number of systems were developed to specify pitch more including diastematic neumes whose height on the page corresponded with their absolute pitch level. Digraphic notation, using letter names similar to modern note names in conjunction with the neumes, made a brief appearance in a few manuscripts, but a number of manuscripts used one or more horizontal lines to indicate particular pitches; the treatise Musica
Types of trombone
There are many different types of trombone. The most encountered trombones today are the tenor and bass, though as with other Renaissance instruments such as the recorder, the trombone has been built in every size from piccolo to contrabass; the cimbasso is a brass instrument in the trombone family, with a sound ranging from warm and mellow to bright and menacing. It has three to six piston or rotary valves, a predominantly cylindrical bore, in its modern incarnation is most pitched in F, though models are available in E♭, C, B♭, it is in the same range as a contrabass trombone. Technique on the cimbasso can be much quicker; the modern cimbasso is most used in opera scores by Giuseppe Verdi from Oberto to Aida, by Giacomo Puccini, though only in Le Villi, though the word appears in the score of Vincenzo Bellini's Norma, which premiered in 1831. Outside of the operatic context, the Italian composer Ottorino Respighi included the instrument in his scoring of the symphonic poem Pines of Rome, the British composer Brian Ferneyhough has used it in his large orchestral work Plötzlichkeit.
It can be heard in motion picture soundtracks. The early use of "cimbasso" referred to an upright serpent of a narrower bore than the "basson russe" made of wood with a brass bell; this term was extended to a range of instruments including the ophicleide. In general, after the advent of the more conical bass tuba, the term cimbasso was used to refer to a more blending voice than the "basso tuba" or "bombardone", began to imply the lowest trombone. Giuseppe Verdi, who at times specified a preference for the blending timbre of a low trombone over the heavier-sounding tuba, developed an instrument with the firm Pelliti, a contrabass trombone in BB♭ wrapped in tuba form and configured with 4 rotary valves. In most of Verdi's operas the cimbasso used nowadays are the common types of the'bucino' form: designed in the 1950s by Hans Kunitz, the mouthpipe and middle section are placed in front of the player, the bell section is forward pointed, in a downward angle; this causes a direct, concentrated sound to be projected towards conductor and audience.
The cimbasso in its original form had a bell pointed upwards like the wider-bored tuba, the FF, EE♭ and BB♭ basses. Verdi disliked the wide-bore "damned Bombardoni Austriche!", not only because of the hoarse, broad tone, but because of the Austrian origin of those wide-bore'Bombardone-tubas'. This attitude was inspired by the hated Austrian occupation of northern Italy in the years before the Risorgimento; these instruments were, well appreciated in the military brass and reed bands, playing the bass role of the string basses. It is a challenge for instrument builders and players of low-brass, to get copies of the cimbassi Verdi used. To begin with the'Bas-valve' horns were derived from'Basson Russe' until the tuba formed'Trombone Basso' as used after 1867 until Otello/Falstaff. Another challenge is, following the initiative of John Eliot Gardiner, to accompany 19th century operas, including Verdi's juvenilia and early period pieces until his mid-life period, to perform with a'Period' orchestra.
This includes the most discussed instruments of that era used by Verdi, the cimbasso / low brass instruments, the 3-string contrabasses described by musicologist Bonifazio Asioli in about 1820s. The cimbasso in its original form as developed by Verdi and atelier Pelitti, included the diapason A4 on 430 Hz instead of the norm around 1848, 435 Hz; the contrabass trombone is pitched in 12′ F a perfect fourth lower than the modern tenor or bass trombone and has been through a number of changes in its history. Its first incarnation during the Renaissance was in 18′ B♭ as the "Octav-Posaune", while it was the Bass Trombone, pitched in F, E♭, or D. During this period the Contrabass Trombone was built with a long slide and extension handle to reach the lower positions; this horn was unsatisfactory with players, being unwieldy and taxing to play. During this period it was built as an oversized bass trombone with a long slide and extension handle to reach the lower positions; the innovation of the double slide took place in 1816, proposed by Gottfried Weber in which he described its construction.
In 1830 the first double-slide trombone was produced by Halary in Paris. The slide was wound back on itself to produce four tubes, each of which moved in tandem with its partner and halved the usual length of the slide shifts. During this time, the contrabass trombone enjoyed a revival and it was constructed according to the double slide principle; as with developments in the other members of the Trombone family at the time, the bores were enlarged and bell flares were widened to give a more broad, darker tone. The application of valves was first applied to the Tenor and Bass Trombones, with the older bass in F being replaced by a horn pitched in B♭ with F and D triggers. At the turn of the 20th century, Conn manufactured a small number of contrabass trombones, of which three are known to survive. Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen employed the contrabass trombone for the first time in the opera house, he had a horn with double slides built in 18’ B♭ in Berlin, by C. A. Moritz; this horn had only 6 positions, the low E1 called for in Der Ring des Nibelungen was only possible by lipping down.
This type of contrabass trombone has lasted into the 20th century, is complemented by a valve which changes the pitch of the horn to F1. The double-slide contrabass trombone has less resistanc
The alto clarinet is a woodwind instrument of the clarinet family. It is a transposing instrument pitched in the key of E ♭. In Europe it is sometimes called a tenor clarinet. In size it lies between the soprano clarinet and the bass clarinet, to which it bears a greater resemblance in that it has a straight body, but a curved neck and bell made of metal. All-metal alto clarinets exist. In appearance it resembles the basset horn, but differs in three respects: it is pitched a tone lower, it lacks an extended lower range, it has a wider bore than many basset horns; the range of the alto clarinet is from the concert G2 or G♭2 to E♭6, with the exact upper end of the range depending on the skill of the player. Despite the broad range, the instrument is always scored in the treble clef. Most modern alto clarinets, like other instruments in the clarinet family, have the Boehm system or Oehler system of keys and fingering, which means that this clarinet has identical fingering to the others; the alto clarinet, however has an extra key allowing it to play a low E♭, a half-hole key controlled by the left-hand index finger with a vent that may be uncovered to assist in playing the altissimo register.
The invention of the alto clarinet has been attributed to Iwan Müller and to Heinrich Grenser, to both working together. Müller was performing on an alto clarinet in F by 1809, one with sixteen keys at a time when soprano clarinets had no more than 10–12 keys; the alto clarinet may have been invented independently in America. This instrument bears a strong resemblance to the "patent clarions" made from about 1810 by George Catlin of Hartford and his apprentices. In Europe, Adolphe Sax made notable improvements to the alto clarinet. Albert Rice defines clarinets in G with flared bells, which were produced as early as 1740, as alto clarinets, but this use of the term is uncommon. Soon after its invention, Georg Abraham Schneider composed two concertos for Müller's instrument and orchestra. However, the alto clarinet has not been used in orchestral scoring, it is used in concert bands and plays an important role in clarinet choirs. A few jazz musicians, Hamiet Bluiett, Vinny Golia, J. D. Parran, Petr Kroutil, Joe Lovano and Gianluigi Trovesi among them, have played the alto clarinet.
In his Treatise on Orchestration and Instrumentation, Hector Berlioz said of the alto clarinet, "It is a beautiful instrument which ought to take its place in all well-established orchestras." The alto clarinet band part remains in 21st century wind band literature. Band directors looking to add color to a large clarinet section will move clarinet players to this instrument. Many times the alto clarinet serves an important role in the harmonic scoring of the clarinet section within the broader scope of the concert band. There is a notable alto clarinet solo in Percy Grainger's wind-band piece Lincolnshire Posy. An important orchestral example is Igor Stravinsky's Threni, which calls for an instrument in F instead of the usual E♭, with extension keys to fingered low C. Stravinsky calls for the usual alto clarinet in E♭ in the Elegy for J. F. K.. Joseph Holbrooke seems to have liked the instrument, he wrote an elaborate part for alto clarinet in the Seaman. In the wind band and clarinet choir the alto clarinet can add tonal strength to the ensemble, not only because it can play lower notes, but because some of the most beautiful notes in the upper register of the alto clarinet have the same pitch as the weaker-toned middle-register notes of the B♭ soprano clarinet.
The alto clarinet fell somewhat out of favor outside of marching bands, during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It has become mildly more popular with contemporary composers, those writing music for clarinet choir; the solo repertoire for alto clarinet is quite limited, with much of it consisting of transcriptions of works for basset horn. A number of compositions conceived for alto clarinet and piano include Franklin Stover's Pastorale & Passepied, Frank McCartey's Sonata, David Bennett's Dark Wood, William Presser's Arietta, Alfred Reed's Serenata and Sarabande, a Sonata by Norman Heim. Karlheinz Stockhausen has composed for the alto clarinet and basset horn. In contrast with more recent families of instruments such as for example the saxophone, the terms used for the different sized clarinets draw more on tradition and regionalism, are not without discrepancies; the familiar B♭ and A clarinets, while technically soprano instruments, not referred to as such outside of academic circles.
There is no "tenor" clarinet as such, while the term "bass clarinet" seems clear enough, its relation to the alto clarinet places it in the position of the tenor instrument of the clarinet family. Some writers have considered that the alto clarinet might be better referred to as a "tenor". Add to this the fact that the contrabass clarinet in Eb, though pitched below the bass clarinet, is sometimes referred to as a "contralto clarinet", there is ample ground for confusion in clarinet no
Johannes Ockeghem was the most famous composer of the Franco-Flemish School in the last half of the 15th century, is considered the most influential composer between Guillaume Dufay and Josquin des Prez. In addition to being a renowned composer, he was an honored singer and teacher; the spelling of Ockeghem's name comes from a supposed autograph of his which survived as late as 1885, was reproduced by Eugène Giraudet, a historian in Tours. In 15th-century sources, the spelling "Okeghem" predominates. Ockeghem is believed to have been born in Netherlands, his birthdate is unknown. The earlier date is based on the possibility that he knew Binchois in Hainaut before the older composer moved from Mons to Lille in 1423. Ockeghem would have to have been younger than 15 at the time; this particular speculation derives from Ockeghem's reference, in the lament he wrote on the death of Binchois in 1460, to a chanson by Binchois dated to that time. In this lament Ockeghem not only honored the older composer by imitating his style, but revealed some useful biographical information about him.
The comment by the poet Guillaume Crétin, in the lament he wrote on Ockeghem's death in 1497, "it was a great shame that a composer of his talents should die before 100 years old", is often taken as evidence for the earlier birthdate for Ockeghem. In 1993, documents dating from 1607 were found stating that "Jan Hocquegam" was a native of Saint-Ghislain in the County of Hainaut, confirmed by references in 16th century documents; this suggests that, though he first appears in records in Flanders, he was a native speaker of Picard. Most biographies surmised that he was born in East Flanders, either in the town after which he was named or in the neighboring town of Dendermonde, where the surname Ockeghem occurred in the 14th and 15th century. Bavay, now in the Nord department in France, was suggested as his birthplace as well. Details of his early life are lacking. Like many composers in this period, he started his musical career as a chorister, although the exact location of his education is unknown: Mons, a town near Saint-Ghislain that had at least two churches with competent music schools, has been suggested.
The first actual documented record of Ockeghem is from the Onze-Lieve-Vrouwe cathedral in Antwerp, where he was employed in June 1443 as a "left-hand choir singer". He sang under the direction of Johannes Pullois, whose employment dates from that year; this church was a distinguished establishment, it was here that Ockeghem became familiar with the English compositional style, which influenced late 15th-century musical practice on the continent. Between 1446 and 1448 Ockeghem served, along with singer and composer Jean Cousin, at the court of Charles I, Duke of Bourbon in Moulins, now in central France. During this service he became the first among the singing chaplains to appear in the court records. Around 1452 he moved to Paris where he served as maestro di cappella to the French court, as well as treasurer of the collegiate church of St. Martin, at Tours. In addition to serving at the French court – both for Charles VII and Louis XI – he held posts at Notre Dame de Paris and at St. Benoît.
He is known to have traveled to Spain in 1470, as part of a diplomatic mission for the King, a complex affair attempting both to dissuade Spain from joining an alliance with England and Burgundy against France, to arrange a marriage between Isabella I of Castile and Charles, Duke of Guyenne. After the death of Louis XI, not much is known for certain about Ockeghem's whereabouts, though it is known that he went to Bruges and Tours, he died in the latter town since he left a will there. An indication of the renown in which Ockeghem was held is the number of laments written on his death in 1497. Ockeghem studied with Gilles Binchois, at least was associated with him at the Burgundian court. Since Antoine Busnois wrote a motet in honor of Ockeghem sometime before 1467, it is probable that those two were acquainted as well. Although Ockeghem's musical style differs from that of the older generation, it is probable that he acquired his basic technique from them, as such can be seen as a direct link from the Burgundian style to the next generation of Netherlanders, such as Obrecht and Josquin.
Ockeghem was not a prolific composer, given the length of his career and extent of his reputation, some of his work was lost. Many works attributed to him are now presumed to be by other composers. Surviving reliably attributed works include some 14 masses, an isolated Credo, five motets, a motet-chanson, 21 chansons. Thirteen of Ockeghem's masses are preserved in the Chigi codex, a Flemish manuscript dating to around 1500, his Missa pro Defunctis is the earliest surviving polyphonic Requiem mass. Some of his works, alongside compositions by his co
Recorder (musical instrument)
The recorder is a woodwind musical instrument in the group known as internal duct flutes—flutes with a whistle mouthpiece. A recorder can be distinguished from other duct flutes by the presence of a thumb-hole for the upper hand and seven finger-holes: three for the upper hand and four for the lower, it is the most prominent duct flute in the western classical tradition. Recorders are made in different sizes with names and compasses corresponding to different vocal ranges; the sizes most in use today are the soprano, alto and bass. Recorders are traditionally constructed from wood and ivory, while most recorders made in recent years are constructed from molded plastic; the recorders' internal and external proportions vary, but the bore is reverse conical to cylindrical, all recorder fingering systems make extensive use of forked fingerings. The recorder is first documented in Europe in the Middle Ages, continued to enjoy wide popularity in the Renaissance and Baroque periods, but was little used in the Classical and Romantic periods.
It was revived in the 20th century as part of the informed performance movement, became a popular amateur and educational instrument. Composers who have written for the recorder include Monteverdi, Purcell, Vivaldi, Johann Sebastian Bach, Paul Hindemith, Benjamin Britten, Leonard Bernstein, Luciano Berio, Arvo Pärt. Today, there are many professional recorder players who demonstrate the instrument's full solo range and a large community of amateurs; the sound of the recorder is described as clear and sweet, has been associated with birds and shepherds. It is notable for its quick response and its corresponding ability to produce a wide variety of articulations; this ability, coupled with its open finger holes, allow it to produce a wide variety of tone colors and special effects. Acoustically, its tone is pure and odd harmonics predominate in its sound; the instrument has been known by its modern English name at least since the 14th century. David Lasocki reports the earliest use of "recorder" in the household accounts of the Earl of Derby in 1388, which register i. fistula nomine Recordour.
By the 15th century, the name had appeared in English literature. The earliest references are in John Lydgate's Temple of Glas: These lytylle herdegromys Floutyn al the longe day.. In here smale recorderys, In floutys. and in Lydgate's Fall of Princes: Pan, god off Kynde, with his pipes seuene, / Off recorderis fond first the melodies. The instrument name "recorder" derives from the Latin recordārī, by way of Middle French recorder and its derivative MFr recordeur; the association between the various disparate, meanings of recorder can be attributed to the role of the medieval jongleur in learning poems by heart and reciting them, sometimes with musical accompaniment. The English verb "record" meant "to learn by heart, to commit to memory, to go over in one's mind, to recite" but it was not used in English to refer to playing music until the 16th century, when it gained the meaning "silently practicing a tune" or "sing or render in song", long after the recorder had been named. Thus, the recorder cannot have been named after the sound of birds.
The name of the instrument is uniquely English: in Middle French there is no equivalent noun sense of recorder referring to a musical instrument. Partridge indicates that the use of the instrument by jongleurs led to its association with the verb: recorder the minstrel's action, a "recorder" the minstrel's tool; the reason we know this instrument as the recorder and not one of the other instruments played by the jongleurs is uncertain. The introduction of the Baroque recorder to England by a group of French professionals in 1673 popularized the French name for the instrument, "flute douce", or "flute", a name reserved for the transverse instrument; until about 1695, the names "recorder" and "flute" overlapped, but from 1673 to the late 1720s in England, the word "flute" always meant recorder. In the 1720s, as the transverse flute overtook the recorder in popularity, English adopted the convention present in other European languages of qualifying the word "flute", calling the recorder variously the "common flute", "common English-flute", or "English flute" while the transverse instrument was distinguished as the "German flute" or "flute."
Until at least 1765, some writers still used "flute" to mean recorder. Until the mid 18th century, musical scores written in Italian refer to the instrument as flauto, whereas the transverse instrument was called flauto traverso; this distinction, like the English switch from "recorder" to "flute," has caused confusion among modern editors and performers. Indeed, in most European languages, the first term for the recorder was the word for flute alone. In the present day, cognates of the word "flute," when used without qualifiers, remain ambiguous and may refer to either the recorder, the modern concert flute, or other non-western flutes. Starting the 1530s, these languages began to add qualifiers to specify this particular flute. In the case of the recorder, these describe variously Since the
The alto flute is a type of Western concert flute, a musical instrument in the woodwind family. It is the next extension downward of the C flute after the flûte d'amour, it is characterized by its mellow tone in the lower portion of its range. It is a transposing instrument in G, uses the same fingerings as the C flute; the tube of the alto flute is thicker and longer than a C flute and requires more breath from the player. This gives it a half of its range, it was the favourite flute variety of Theobald Boehm, who perfected its design, is pitched in the key of G. Its range is from G3 to G6 plus an altissimo register stretching to D♭7; the headjoint may be curved. British music that uses this instrument refers to it as a bass flute, which can be confusing since there is a distinct instrument known by that name; this naming confusion originated in the fact that the modern flute in C is pitched in the same range as the Renaissance tenor flute. Alto flute headjoints are built in'curved' and'straight' versions.
The curved headjoint is preferred by smaller players because it requires less of a stretch for the arms, makes the instrument feel lighter by moving the center of gravity nearer to the player. However, the straight version is more used for better overall intonation; the embouchure for alto flute is similar to that for C flute, but in proportion to the size of the instrument. Hence the embouchure-hole sits lower on the lower lip, the lip-aperture is wider; the following lists are not intended to be complete, but rather to present a representative sampling of the most played and well-known works in the genre. The lists do not include works written for other instruments and subsequently transcribed, adapted, or arranged for alto flute, unless such piece is common in the repertory, in which case it is listed with its original instrumentation noted. Bruno Bartolozzi: Cantilena Garth Baxter: Variations on the Willow Tree Jonathan Bayley: Music for Pan Michael Csany-Wills: Trystyng Charles Delaney: Variations on the'Seeds of Love' Jon Gibson: Untitled Alexander Goehr: Ariel Sing Philippe Hersant: Cinq Miniatures Daniel Kessner: A Serene Music Coreen Morsink: Andromache Patrick Nunn: Maqamat Michael Oliva: Les Heures Bleues Edwin Roxburgh: The Curlew Kaija Saariaho: Couleurs du vent Harvey Sollberger: Hara Karlheinz Stockhausen: Susani's Echo, 3.
Ex Nr. 58 1⁄2 Xi, 3. Ex Nr. 55 David Bennett Thomas: Carla Tom Febonio: Sonata for Alto Flute and Piano Daniel Kessner: Simple Motion Melvin Lauf: Passing Thoughts Phyllis Louke: As The Clouds Parted Andrew McBirnie: The Moon by Night Mike Mower: Sonnets Laura Pettigrew: Offertoire John Palmer: Afterglow In the classical literature, the alto flute is associated with the scores of Igor Stravinsky and Maurice Ravel, both of whom used the instrument's distinctive tone color in a variety of scores. It is featured in Ravel's Daphnis et Chloé, Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring, Franco Alfano's opera Cyrano de Bergerac, Sergei Prokofiev's Scythian Suite. Shostakovich used it in his operas The Gamblers, Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District, as well as in his Symphony No. 7. It figures prominently in several movements of Gustav Holst's The Planets, it appears in Howard Shore's music for The Lord of the Rings among many other contemporary film scores. Before 1940 it had been used in Hollywood. A number of specialist alto flute players have emerged in recent years.
These include French improvisor/composer Christian Le Delezir, American Chris Potter, British Kingma System alto flute player Carla Rees, jazz players Ali Ryerson and Brian Landrus, American Peter Sheridan who resides in Australia, Swiss composers/performers Matthias Ziegler and Stefan Keller and Dutch composer/performer Anne La Berge