Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Segorbe is a municipality in the mountainous coastal province of Castelló, autonomous community of Valencia, Spain. The former Palace of the Dukes of Medinaceli now houses the city's mayor. Segorbe's bull-running week in September attracts 200,000 visitors each year; the name in Valencian is Sogorb. The municipal district area is crossed by the Palancia River from north west to south east, it is located on the natural way from Aragón to Valencian Community, between the Serra d'Espadà on the north and Serra Calderona on the south. The urban area is located at 358 m height, placed over two hills emerging from the bank of the river; the area of Segorbe was inhabited as early as the mid-Palaeolithic Age, as testified by archaeological remains. Segorbe was once identified as the ancient Segobriga, described by Pliny the Elder as the capital of Celtiberia. However, archaeological excavations have uncovered an extensive Roman city in La Mancha, identified as Segobriga. During the Visigothic rule in Iberia, it became a diocese seat.
In the 8th century Segorbe was occupied by Moors from North Africa and its cathedral became a mosque. Segorbe was the residence of the last Almohad governor of Valencia. After his conversion to Christianism, Segorbe became a base for the conquest of Valencia in 1238. In 1435 it became part of the royal estates of the Kingdom of Aragon; the Cathedral of Segorbe, consecrated in 1534 and extended in 1795 is connected by a bridge with the old episcopal palace. Its tower and its cloister are built on a trapezoidal ground-plan. Segorbe's ancient castle was located over an Iberian acropolis, it originated as a Moorish alcazar, lived its period of highest splendor in the 15th century. After the administrative center was moved to the new ducal palace in the city, it declined, from the mid-18th century, its materials were used for the construction of the hospital and Casa de Misericordia. Other sights include: Church of St. Martin, built in Baroque style in 1612 Baroque church of San Joaquín y Santa Ana Medieval walls, dating to before the 13th century, including in their last stretch a 14th-century aqueduct.
Its features include the Arch of Veronica, the Botxi Tower and the Cárcel Tower Town Hall, begun in the 16th century. Cathedral Museum Archaeology and Ethnology MuseumAlso had former sights, now demolished, in which include: Castle Alcázar of Segorbe The ducal line, in Valencia kingdom, whose members bear the family name of Aragó, was founded by the king Ferdinand I of Aragon who made his eldest son, Enric I, the first lord of Segorbe, duke of Villena, count of Empúries and count of Alburquerque, his son Enric II was created duke of Segorbe and was count of Empúries, like his son Alfons I. The son of this last one, Francesc I, inherited from his father the duchy of Segorbe and county of Empúries, from his mother the duchy of Cardona, he had no sons and the succession passed through his sister Joana, married to Diego Fernández de Córdoba, marquis of Comares. His son Lluis Folc de Cardona-Aragó was count of Prades, but he predeceased his mother in 1596 and the heir was the son Enric III d'Aragó Folc de Cardona Córdoba.
His son Lluis I succeeded him and deceased in 1670 and his son and successor Joaquin I deceased in 1670. The heir was Pere Antoni, brother of Lluis I. After his death in 1690, the succession was claimed by Caterina, sister of Joaquin, married with Juan Francisco de la Cerda, duke of Medinaceli; the Medinaceli dukes received the duchy of Cardona and the county of Empúries. Lord: Enric I 1436-1445Dukes: Enric II 1455-1522 Alfons I 1522-1563 Francesc I 1563-1575 Joana 1575-1608 Enric III 1608-1640 Lluis I 1640-1670 Joaquin 1670 Pere Antoni 1670-1690 Caterina 1690To dukes of Medinaceli 1690; the present holder of the dukedom is don Ignacio de Medina y Fernández de Córdoba, Duke of Segorbe, married to Princess Maria da Gloria of Orléans-Braganza. Castle Alcázar of Segorbe Diocese of Segorbe-Castellón Official website Catholic Encyclopedia: Segorbe
Valencian referred to as Southern Catalan, is a dialect of the Catalan language spoken in the Valencian Community, where it is an official language, in the El Carche comarca in Murcia, where it has no official recognition. Besides, it is spoken in the south of the Terres de l'Ebre and in the south of La Franja in Aragon, in its transitional variety; the denominations "Valencian" or "Valencian language" are used traditionally and as a glottonym exclusively in the Valencian Community, to refer not only to the dialect spoken in the region, but to refer to the totality of the Catalan language. However, outside this territory the use of this denomination is null, it is considered the Valencian Community's own language according to the region's 1982 Statute of Autonomy and the Spanish Constitution. According to philological studies, the varieties of this language spoken in the Valencian Community and El Carxe cannot be considered a dialect restricted to these borders: the several dialects of Valencian belong to the Western group of Catalan dialects.
Valencian, as a variety of the Catalan language, displays transitional features between Ibero-Romance languages and Gallo-Romance languages. Its similarity with Occitan has led many authors to group it under the Occitano-Romance languages. There is some controversy within the Valencian Community regarding its status as a glottonym or as a language on its own among certain political sectors such as blaverism and Spanish nationalism. According to a study carried out by the Generalitat Valenciana in 2014, scarcely more than a half people in the Valencian Community consider it as a separate language, different from Catalan. However, according to the same study, most of Valencians with higher studies say that it is the same language. According to the 2006 Statute of Autonomy Valencian is regulated by the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua, by means of the Normes de Castelló. Due to not having been recognized for a long time and the considerable immigration coming from Andalusia but from other areas of Spain where Spanish is spoken, the number of speakers has decreased, the influence of Spanish has led to the adoption of a huge amount of loanwords.
Some of the most important works of Catalan literature in Valencia experienced a golden age during the Late Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Important works include Joanot Martorell's chivalric romance Tirant lo Blanch, Ausiàs March's poetry; the first book produced with movable type in the Iberian Peninsula was printed in the Valencian variety. The earliest recorded chess game with modern rules for moves of the queen and bishop was in the Valencian poem Scachs d'amor; the official status of Valencian is regulated by the Spanish Constitution and the Valencian Statute of Autonomy, together with the Law of Use and Education of Valencian. Article 6 of the Valencian Statute of Autonomy sets the legal status of Valencian, providing that: The official language of the Valencian Community is Valencian. Valencian is official within the Valencian Community, along with Spanish, the official language nationwide. Everyone shall have the right to know it and use it, receive education in Valencian. No one can be discriminated against by reason of their language.
Special protection and respect shall be given to the recuperation of Valencian. The Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua shall be the normative institution of the Valencian language; the Law of Use and Education of Valencian develops this framework, providing for implementation of a bilingual educational system, regulating the use of Valencian in the public administration and judiciary system, where citizens can use it when acting before both. Valencian is recognized under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages as "Valencian". Valencian is not spoken all over the Valencian Community. A quarter of its territory, equivalent to 10% of the population, is traditionally Castilian-speaking only, whereas Valencian is spoken to varying degrees elsewhere. Additionally, it is spoken by a reduced number of people in Carche, a rural area in the Region of Murcia adjoining the Valencian Community. Although the Valencian language was an important part of the history of this zone, nowadays only about 600 people are able to speak Valencian in the area of Carche.
In 2010 the Generalitat Valenciana published a study and Social use of Valencian, which included a survey sampling more than 6,600 people in the provinces of Castellón, Alicante. The survey collected the answers of respondents and did not include any testing or verification; the results were: Valencian was the language "always or most used": at home: 31.6% with friends: 28.0% in internal business relations: 24.7%For ability: 48.5% answered they speak Valencian "perfectly" or "quite well" 26.2% answered they write Valencian "perfectly" or "quite well" The survey shows that, although Valencian is still the common language in many areas in the Valencian Community, where more than half of the Valencian population are able to speak it, most Valencians do not speak in Valencian in their
Jérica is a town in the Castellón province of Valencian Community, Spain. It is in the comarca of Alto Palancia, its population was 1,703 at the end of 2009. The town's name is based in Arabic شارقة. In Arabian documents the settlement has been referred to as قلعة الاشراق, "Castle of the Sheriffs". Jérica lies on the natural pathway between Aragón and the Comunidad Valenciana in the southern part of the provincia de Castellón; the municipality has an area of 78.30 km². It is crossed by the river Palancia, an area in the south is part of the Calderona mountain range. However, no part of the municipality is in the Sierra Calderona National Park; the town centre is located at a height of 523 m, on a rocky promontory along the Palancia river channel. The precipice is difficult to access and therefore, the population has settled in the opposite direction, staggered along the slope of the hill; the town may be accessed via Highway A-23, utilizing exit 42, or via N-234. The town lies 67 km from Valencia, 74 km from Castellón de la Plana, 40 km from Sagunto, 78 km from Teruel.
Train service to the town is available. A station in the northern part of the town serves the C-5 Line, which connects with Valencia and Castellón de la Plana. In the municipality of Jérica there are two population centres: Los Ángeles Novaliches Altura, Caudiel, Navajas, Sacañet, Teresa, Vall de Almonacid and Viver in the province of Castellón and Alcublas in the province of Valencia; the first evidence of human settlement is from the Neolithic period, from human remains found in the Herreros Cave. Several settlements from the Iberian period exist within the castle grounds; the municipality has the highest number of Roman artifacts discovered in the comarca the large quantity of gravestones, including the unique gravestone of Quintia Prova of Hispania on which the cost of a Roman arch with two statues is mentioned. The first references to the present nucleus of the settlement are in the period of Muslims' presence in the area, including the Taifa of Valencia and following the disintegration of the Caliph of Córdoba in 1027 and the subsequent capture of the area by El Cid in 1098.
The first stages of the towers and the oldest parts of the castle are from this time. On 5 February 1235, the area was captured by the Christian army in order to control the sacristan of Girona, Gillém de Montgriu, although the Muslim population were not expelled. In 1249 the Carta Puebla was issued, which authorized the occupation of Jérica, since it was evident by that the local population were moving into the area. In 1255 King James I of Aragon transferred authority over the villa of Jérica to Teresa Gil de Vidaurre and to the son, born from their relationship, their son was James Baron of Jérica. On 29 November 1255, in Calatayud, King James I granted the privilege that the Camino Real from Aragón to Valencia pass through Jérica, abandoning the previous road, which lay far from the villa. In 1261 King James I granted temporal authority over the castle and the villa of Jérica to his son, James I of Jérica. In 1272 he confirmed this power in his will. In 1284 James II of Jérica succeeded him, in 1286, King Alfonso IV of Aragon confirmed James' control of the villa.
It was governed by James II until 1321. James III received permission of King Alfonso IV to fortify the existing walls. Don Pedro of Jérica controlled the villa until 1361, when he willed it to his sons Pedro. During this period, intermittent war occurred between the kings of Aragón and Castilla, in 1363 the Castilian army entered the villa utilising the castle and the church, being erected. Juan Alfonso died without issue in 1369; the villa was ceded back to Peter IV of Aragon as an estate. The King decided in 1372 to make a condado and give it to the Infante Don Martin as a Fiefdom, with the stipulation that it return to The Crown when Martin would marry María de Luna, señora de Segorbe; the villa's direct attachment to the Royal Crown did not last long. The señorío only lasted a few years; this caused years of misery for the people of Jérica, who suffered with the tyrannous government of a family who cared nothing for them. This continued until 1479 when negotiations between the town's leaders and King Ferdinand el Católico resulted in the villa's being returned to control of The Crown.
In 1537, Carlos I of Spain gave the señorío to the Duque de Calabria. On his death the estate was willed to the monks of the Monastery of San Miguel of the Kings of Valencia. A litigation between the governors of the villa and Emperor Carlos I occurred, as they wished to be returned to governance under The Crown; this occurred in 1564, during the reign of Felipe I. In 1565 it abandoned the legislative control of Aragon, of which it had been a part, taking in its place that of Valencia. Since that time the villa has had its own shield. In the second decade of the eighteenth century, after the close of the War of the Spanish Succession, King Felipe V, desiring to reward the loyalty and services of the Duke of Berwick, created the Duchy of Liria and Jérica, granted it to the Duke; this first Duke of the newly created Duchy was James FitzJames (known locally a
Autonomous communities of Spain
In Spain, an autonomous community is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain. Spain is not a federation, but a decentralized unitary state. While sovereignty is vested in the nation as a whole, represented in the central institutions of government, the nation has, in variable degrees, devolved power to the communities, which, in turn, exercise their right to self-government within the limits set forth in the constitution and their autonomous statutes; each community has its own set of devolved powers. Some scholars have referred to the resulting system as a federal system in all but name, or a "federation without federalism". There are 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities that are collectively known as "autonomies"; the two autonomous cities have the right to become autonomous communities, but neither has yet exercised it.
This unique framework of territorial administration is known as the "State of Autonomies". The autonomous communities are governed according to the constitution and their own organic laws known as Statutes of Autonomy, which contain all the competences that they assume. Since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical in nature, the scope of competences vary for each community, but all have the same parliamentary structure. Spain is a diverse country made up of several different regions with varying economic and social structures, as well as different languages and historical and cultural traditions. While the entire Spanish territory was united under one crown in 1479 this was not a process of national homogenization or amalgamation; the constituent territories—be it crowns, principalities or dominions—retained much of their former institutional existence, including limited legislative, judicial or fiscal autonomy. These territories exhibited a variety of local customs, laws and currencies until the mid nineteenth century.
From the 18th century onwards, the Bourbon kings and the government tried to establish a more centralized regime. Leading figures of the Spanish Enlightenment advocated for the building of a Spanish nation beyond the internal territorial boundaries; this culminated in 1833, when Spain was divided into 49 provinces, which served as transmission belts for policies developed in Madrid. However, unlike in other European countries such as France, where regional languages were spoken in rural areas or less developed regions, two important regional languages of Spain were spoken in some of the most industrialized areas, moreover, enjoyed higher levels of prosperity, in addition to having their own cultures and historical consciousness; these were Catalonia. This gave rise to peripheral nationalisms along with Spanish nationalism; therefore and social changes that had produced a national cultural unification in France had the opposite effect in Spain. As such, Spanish history since the late 19th century has been shaped by a dialectical struggle between Spanish nationalism and peripheral nationalisms in Catalonia and the Basque Country, to a lesser degree in Galicia.
In a response to Catalan demands, limited autonomy was granted to Catalonia in 1914, only to be abolished in 1923. It was granted again in 1932 during the Second Spanish Republic, when the Generalitat, Catalonia's mediaeval institution of government, was restored; the constitution of 1931 envisaged a territorial division for all Spain in "autonomous regions", never attained—only Catalonia, the Basque Country and Galicia had approved "Statutes of Autonomy"—the process being thwarted by the Spanish Civil War that broke out in 1936, the victory of the rebel Nationalist forces under Francisco Franco. During General Franco's dictatorial regime, centralism was most forcefully enforced as a way of preserving the "unity of the Spanish nation". Peripheral nationalism, along with communism and atheism were regarded by his regime as the main threats, his attempts to fight separatism with heavy-handed but sporadic repression, his severe suppression of language and regional identities backfired: the demands for democracy became intertwined with demands for the recognition of a pluralistic vision of the Spanish nationhood.
When Franco died in 1975, Spain entered into a phase of transition towards democracy. The most difficult task of the newly democratically elected Cortes Generales in 1977 acting as a Constituent Assembly was to transition from a unitary centralized state into a decentralized state in a way that would satisfy the demands of the peripheral nationalists; the Prime Minister of Spain, Adolfo Suárez, met with Josep Tarradellas, president of the Generalitat of Catalonia in exile. An agreement was made so that the Generalitat would be restored and limited competencies would be transferred while the constitution was still being written. Shortly after, the government allowed the creation of "assemblies of members of parliament" integrated by deputies and senators of the different territories of Spain, so that they could constitute "pre-autonomic regimes" for their regions as well; the Fathers of the Constitution had to strike a balance between the opposing views of Spain—on the one hand, the centralist view inherited from Franco's regime, on the other hand federalism and a pluralistic view of Spain as a "nation of nations".
Pina de Montalgrao
Pina de Montalgrao, or Pina, is a municipality in the comarca of Alto Palancia, Castellón, Spain. According to the 2010 census the municipality has a population of 148 inhabitants; this town is located in the mountainous Sistema Ibérico area. Bertolí, former footballer Sierra de Javalambre Alto Palancia Pina official site
Benafer is a municipality in the comarca of Alto Palancia, Castellón, Spain