Port of Hamburg
The Port of Hamburg is a sea port on the river Elbe in Hamburg, Germany,110 kilometres from its mouth on the North Sea. It is Germanys largest port and is named the countrys Gateway to the World, in terms of TEU throughput, Hamburg is the second-busiest port in Europe and 15th-largest worldwide. In 2014,9.73 million TEUs were handled in Hamburg, the harbour covers an area of 73.99 km², of which 43.31 km² are land areas. The location is naturally advantaged by a branching Elbe, creating a place for a port complex with warehousing. The extensive free port enabled toll-free storing, but this was abandoned in 2013, the port is almost as old as the history of Hamburg itself. With discovery of the Americas and the transatlantic trade, Hamburg exceeded all other German ports. During the second half of the 19th century, Hamburg became Central Europes main hub for passenger and freight travel. In her time the Hamburg America Line was the largest shipping company in the world, since 1888, the HADAG runs a scheduled ferry service across various parts of the port and the Elbe.
The Free Port, established on 15 October 1888, enabled traders to ship and store goods without going through customs, the Moldauhafen has a similar arrangement, though related to the Czech Republic exclusively. Deepening of the river Elbe for large vessels is controversial for ecological reasons, Hamburg is a major cruise destination and one of Europes largest ports of call for cruise passengers traveling the Atlantic, or the Norwegian and Baltic Seas. The port is a location for shipbuilder and shipyards, designing and reconditioning yachts. The Port of Hamburg is one of Hamburgs largest attractions, both as a living and logistic center but as a backdrop for modern culture and the ports history. Among these are museum ships, musical theaters, bars and hotels -. The annual celebration of the harbours birthday during the first weekend of May is one of Hamburgs biggest public events and international visitors come to experience the festivities. Tugboats perform ballets, old galleons and new ships are open for tours.
Tour guides on boat tours in the harbour are called he lüchts after an often used call of dock workers when they overheard the stories told to tourists
Flag of Hamburg
There are three flags of Hamburg, Germany. The Landesflagge, the State flag of Hamburg and the admiralty flag consist of the Coat of arms of Hamburg on a red flag. The civil flag shows a castle with three towers on red background, which is used as a civil flag as a state flag for most purposes. The oldest seal with the castle is thought to date from 1241, the first flag featuring the current form was in the mid-16th century, although this was most probably a red field, a white escutcheon and red castle. After about 1623, the escutcheon began to be omitted, leaving a red castle on white or a castle on red. It was only in 1751 that the castle on red was decreed as the flag of Hamburg. The civil flag is free for use to everybody, the state flag of Hamburg is only used by the Senate of Hamburg as the head of state. This flag was created in 1897 on the occasion of the opening of the new town hall and it portrays the admiralty coat of arms which have existed since 1642. Coat of arms of Hamburg Media related to Flags of Hamburg at Wikimedia Commons Hamburg at Flags of the World
Government of Hamburg
The government of Hamburg is divided into executive and judicial branches. Due to the characteristic that Hamburg is a city-state and a municipality in Germany and it takes place in two ranks – a city-wide and state administration, and a local rank for the boroughs. The head of the government is the First Mayor and President of the Senate. A ministry is called Behörde and a minister is a Senator in Hamburg. The legislature is the parliament, called Hamburgische Bürgerschaft. The seat of the government is Hamburg Rathaus, the President of the Hamburg Parliament is the highest official person of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg. This is a difference to the other German states. The president is not allowed to exert anny occupation of the executive, prior to 1871, Hamburg was a fully sovereign country, and its government a sovereign government. Upon joining the German Empire, the city-state retained partial sovereignty as a federal state and it was one of three republics within the German Empire until 1919, which meant that its First Mayor enjoyed the same rank in the Empire as the federal princes.
Prior to the reforms in 1919, the hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten, had a legally privileged position and were the only ones eligible for being elected to the senate. The local rank is organised in the 7 boroughs of Hamburg, the bases of the political system are the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany and the Constitution of the Free and Hanseatic city of Hamburg. The Free and Hanseatic city of Hamburg is its own state in the Federal Republic of Germany, Hamburg is a republic, democratic welfare state and a constitutional state. At the same time Hamburg is a municipality, there is no separation between two administrative tasks. The power to create a law is restricted by federal law, there is a clear separation of powers. The power to create and ratify laws is given to the parliament, a plebiscite and a referendum is possible due to the Constitution of Hamburg. In other German states the parliament is called Landtag, the President of the Hamburg Parliament is the highest official person of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg.
The parliament is among other things responsible for the law, the election of the Erster Bürgermeister for the election period, the parliament is a unicameral parliament and the 121 deputies are elected in universal, free and secret elections every five years. Since 2013, minors who are 16 or older are allowed to vote for any elections in hamburg, the executive is the Senat der Freien und Hansestadt Hamburg
The Hanseatic League was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and their market towns. Growing from a few North German towns in the late 1100s and it stretched from the Baltic to the North Sea and inland during the Late Middle Ages and early modern period. Hanse, spelled as Hansa, was the Middle Low German word for a convoy, the League was created to protect the guilds economic interests and diplomatic privileges in their affiliated cities and countries, as well as along the trade routes the merchants visited. The Hanseatic cities had their own system and furnished their own armies for mutual protection. The hegemony of Lübeck peaked during the 15th century, Lübeck became a base for merchants from Saxony and Westphalia trading eastward and northward. This area was a source of timber, amber, the towns raised their own armies, with each guild required to provide levies when needed. The Hanseatic cities came to the aid of one another, and commercial ships often had to be used to carry soldiers, Visby functioned as the leading centre in the Baltic before the Hansa.
Sailing east, Visby merchants established a trading post at Novgorod called Gutagard in 1080, Merchants from northern Germany stayed in the early period of the Gotlander settlement. Later they established their own trading station in Novgorod, known as Peterhof, in 1229, German merchants at Novgorod were granted certain privileges that made their position more secure. Hansa societies worked to remove restrictions to trade for their members, before the official foundation of the League in 1356, the word Hanse did not occur in the Baltic language. The earliest remaining documentary mention, although without a name, of a specific German commercial federation is from London 1157. That year, the merchants of the Hansa in Cologne convinced Henry II, King of England, to them from all tolls in London. The allied cities gained control over most of the trade, especially the Scania Market. In 1266, Henry III of England granted the Lübeck and Hamburg Hansa a charter for operations in England, much of the drive for this co-operation came from the fragmented nature of existing territorial government, which failed to provide security for trade.
Over the next 50 years the Hansa itself emerged with formal agreements for confederation and co-operation covering the west and east trade routes. The principal city and linchpin remained Lübeck, with the first general Diet of the Hansa held there in 1356, other such alliances formed throughout the Holy Roman Empire. Yet the League never became a closely managed formal organisation, over the period, a network of alliances grew to include a flexible roster of 70 to 170 cities. The league succeeded in establishing additional Kontors in Bruges and these trading posts became significant enclaves
Demographics of Hamburg
The German city of Hamburg is the most populous city in the European Union which is not a national capital. The city contains an approximate 1.8 million people, the figures since 1970 are published by the Statistical Office for Hamburg and Schleswig Holstein, based on the information of several state authorities. Hamburg was by far the most populated German City after the Thirty Years War, due to its fortifications, which had been finished 1625, the city was never conquered and many people fled into it. On December 31,2006 there were 1,754,182 registered people living in Hamburg, there were 856,132 males and 898,050 females in Hamburg. For every 1,000 males there were 1,049 females, in 2006 there were 16,089 births in Hamburg, of which 33. 1% were given by unmarried women,6,921 marriages and 4,583 divorces. In 2006,198 registered partnerships took place at the registration office. 40 partnerships were dissolved by court order since 2001, in the city the population was spread out with 15. 7% under the age of 18, and 18. 8% were 65 years of age or older.
257,060 resident aliens were living in Hamburg, the largest group are with only Turkish citizenship with 58,154, followed by 20,743 with only Polish citizenship. 4,046 people were from the United Kingdom and 4,369 were from the United States, according to GTZ,22,000 immigrants living in Hamburg are from Afghanistan, thus forming the largest Afghan community in Germany and Europe. After a descent of the population in the 1970s, Hamburg has constantly grown since 1999, although the numbers of death are higher than the births given. However, Since 2010 the number of births have exceeded the number of deaths. In 1999 there were 910,304 households, out of which 18. 9% had children under the age of 18 living with them and 47. 9% of all households were made up of individuals, the average household size was 1.9. In 2008 Wandsbek was the most populous borough in Hamburg, until February 2008 the Harburg borough was the second-most. Through the change of the borders in Hamburg, the quarter Wilhelmsburg merged into Hamburg-Mitte, the Hamburg Institute for Sexual Research conducted a survey over the sexual behavior of young people in 1970, and repeated it in 1990.
Whereas in 1970 18% of the boys aged 16 and 17 reported to have had at least one same-sex sexual experience, Demographics of Berlin Demographics of Cologne Demographics of Munich
Altona-Nord located in the Altona borough in the city Hamburg, Germany, is one of 104 quarters of Hamburg. In 2014 the population was 21,766, according to the statistical office of Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein, the quarter has a total area of 2.2 square kilometres. In 2006 in the quarter Altona-Nord were living 21,406 people,15, 1% were children under the age of 18, and 9, 8% were 65 years of age or older. 1689 people were registered as unemployed, in 199955, 1% of all households were made up of individuals. Population by year In 2006 there were 3,314 criminal offences, in 2006 there were 2 elementary schools and 4 secondary schools in Altona-Nord. Holsten Brewery plc. is located in the quarter, Altona Nord is most famous in Hamburg for its musical theatre Neue Flora, which started by showing The Phantom of the Opera. 23 physicians in practice and 4 pharmacies were registered in 2006. Altona-Nord is serviced by the transit system of the city train with the stations Holstenstraße. According to the Department of Motor Vehicles, in Altona-Nord were 5,682 private cars registered, hamburg-Altona Local Newspaper, special Site of Altona-Nord
States of Germany
Germany is a federal republic consisting of sixteen federal states. Since todays Germany was formed from a collection of several states, it has a federal constitution. The remaining 13 states are called Flächenländer, the creation of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949 was through the unification of the western states created in the aftermath of World War II. West Berlin, while not part of the Federal Republic, was largely integrated and considered as a de facto state. In 1952, following a referendum, Baden, Württemberg-Baden, in 1957, the Saar Protectorate rejoined the Federal Republic as the Saarland. Federalism is one of the constitutional principles of Germany. After 1945, new states were constituted in all four zones of occupation, in 1949, the states in the three western zones formed the Federal Republic of Germany. This is in contrast to the development in Austria, where the Bund was constituted first. The use of the term Länder dates back to the Weimar Constitution of 1919, before this time, the constituent states of the German Empire were called Staaten.
Today, it is common to use the term Bundesland. However, this term is not used officially, neither by the constitution of 1919 nor by the Basic Law of 1949, three Länder call themselves Freistaaten, Bavaria and Thuringia. He summarizes the arguments for boundary reform in Germany. The German system of dual federalism requires strong Länder that have the administrative and fiscal capacity to implement legislation, too many Länder make coordination among them and with the federation more complicated. But several proposals have failed so far, territorial reform remains a topic in German politics. Federalism has a tradition in German history. The Holy Roman Empire comprised many petty states numbering more than 300 around 1796, the number of territories was greatly reduced during the Napoleonic Wars. After the Congress of Vienna,39 states formed the German Confederation, the new German Empire included 25 states and the imperial territory of Alsace-Lorraine. The empire was dominated by Prussia, which controlled 65% of the territory, after the territorial losses of the Treaty of Versailles, the remaining states continued as republics of a new German federation
St. Pauli, located in the Hamburg-Mitte borough, is one of the 105 quarters of the city of Hamburg, Germany. Situated on the bank of the Elbe river, the Landungsbrücken are a northern part of the port of Hamburg. St. Pauli contains a red light district around the street Reeperbahn. In 2006 the population was 27,612, at the beginning of the 17th century it developed as a suburb called Hamburger Berg outside the gates of the nearby city of Hamburg and close to the city of Altona. The name comes from a hill in that area that was planned by Hamburg in 1620 for defence reasons. Therefore, settlement was initially allowed there, but soon businesses, the rope makers went here because in the city it was hard to find enough space for their work. The name of St. Paulis most famous street Reeperbahn, or Rope Walk, St. Pauli was mainly used by sailors for entertainment during their stay in Hamburg and Altona. To this day it is known as the mile, combining the upper and common standards of entertainment, from musicals, theatres, to bars and clubs.
There have been social issues and conflicts during the last decades, including the Hafenstraße, Rote Flora. Hamburg has very close ties to China and Asia in general, since around 1890, it was home to the Chinesenviertel chinatown within its St. Pauli district, which was disintegrated by the National Socialists in the 1930s. The St. Pauli chinatown is re-establishing since the 2010s, a large contingent of Chinese and other Asian immigrants continue to live in the St. Pauli and Altona districts until today, while new arrivals gravitate to this part of the city. It is situated directly on the bank of the Elbe river close to the port of Hamburg. It is located south of Eimsbüttel, west of Hamburg-Neustadt and east of Altona, according to the statistical office of Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein, the quarter has a total area of 2.6 km2. St. Pauli has 27,612 inhabitants in more than 17,000 households, immigrants were 27. 9% of the population. There were 11. 9% with children under the age of 18 and 9. 3% of the inhabitants were 65 years of age or older,63. 4% of all households were made up of individuals.
The Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine is located in the Bernhard Nocht Straße 7 and it is a research center for tropical and infectious diseases and provides an information center about health risks and medical data about other countries for tourism and travel advice. The research facility located in the Bernhard Nocht Straße hospital is now in the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf. BNI website In 2006 there were two schools and a secondary school in St. Pauli
History of Hamburg
The history of Hamburg begins with its foundation in the 9th century as a mission settlement to convert the Saxons. Since the Middle Ages Hamburg was an important trading center in Europe, the convenient location of the port and its independence as a city and state for centuries strengthened this position. The city was member in the medieval Hanseatic trading league and an imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire. From 1815 until 1866 Hamburg was an independent and sovereign state of the German Confederation, the North German Confederation, in Nazi Germany Hamburg was a city-state and a Gau from 1934 until 1945. After the Second World War Hamburg was in the British Zone of Occupation, the first term for the present city was following the reports of Claudius Ptolemy “Treva”. Old High German includes both a hamma, angle and a hamme, the angle might refer to a spit of land or to the curvature of a river. However, the language spoken might not have been Old High German, other theories hold that the castle was named for the word of a surrounding vast forest, hammen.
Hamm as a place name occurs a number of times in Germany and it could be related to heim and Hamburg could have been placed in the territory of the ancient Chamavi. However, a derivation of home city is perhaps too direct, another theory is that Hamburg comes from ham which is Old Saxon for “ river bank” or “meadow/pasture ”. First settlers in the area would have been a hunting and gathering society in the late Upper Paleolithic and Neolithic, there are several archaeological documented records in the areas of Wellingsbüttel and Rahlstedt from 20,000 to 8000 BC. In 4000 BC first permanent settlements are recorded in the area of Fischbeker Heide, the culture of hunters is named Hamburg culture. In 808 AD a castle was ordered to be built by Emperor Charlemagne, as a defense against Slavic, Charlemagnes son Louis built this castle on the old trading path from Hedeby in the North to Magdeburg and Bardowick in 810. On 25 December 831 Ansgar was consecrated as the archbishop for the Hammaburg, Ansgar became known as the Apostle of the North.
Ebbo, Archbishop of Reims claimed to have built a baptistery in a village in this area. In 845 Vikings came up the River Elbe and destroyed Hamburg, two years later, Hamburg was united with Bremen as the Bishopric of Hamburg-Bremen. In 880 Hamburg was destroyed again this time by Slavic and Danish soldiers, pope Benedict V was deposed and carried off to Hamburg in 964. He died in 965 and was buried in the St. Marys Cathedral, in 983, the town was destroyed by King Mstivoj of the Obodrites. In 1050 Hamburg consisted of four castles, the castle known as Bischofsturm was built around 1037 by Bezelin
Cuisine of Hamburg
Due to its centuries-old history as a major port town the cuisine of Hamburg is very diversified and sapid as ingredients’ supply was safe. Until the 20th century the cuisine of Hamburg was predominantly characterized by the choice of different kinds of fish from the river Elbe. International trade in the Port of Hamburg made spices and exotic items from India. On this basis the cuisine of Hamburg developed which regrettably lost some of its characteristics due to the supraregional harmonization of the North German cuisine. But due to its economic importance Hamburg does feature many internationally recognized gourmet restaurants from which 11 were repeatedly awarded with a Michelin star in 2010. For much of its history Hamburg has been a trading hub. In the homes of residents, the kitchens were located in the back of the house. One part was the ‘splendor kitchen’, in which the tin and copper tableware was exhibited, since the 18th century there were kitchens that were built into the cellars in the homes of tradesmen.
However many of the dishes have their origins in the lower-class households of Hamburgs population. There were no separated kitchens in the domiciles and booths of the impecunious and poor and, as firewood was quite expensive and this means that warm dishes were rare and if there was any cooking the dish was most commonly prepared as a stew. A famous legend of the ‚Lachsessen‘ hints to the differences between social classes. According to it, Hamburg had such an abundant amount of salmon so even the poor did not want to eat it anymore. The council of Hamburg enacted an edict saying that masters were not allowed to give salmon to their maidservants, though this is only a legend it is indeed true that salmon were widely available since the 19th century. Due to its location on the Elbe river and its proximity to the sea the regional cuisine does feature a lot of fish dishes, beside of different herring dishes like Matjes or Bismarckhering, Green Herring is very common. A fried herring becomes a Brathering if it is marinated in vinegar after frying, another famous fish dish is Räucheraal, which is a smoked eel and was already featured by street vendors since the early 19th century and could be found on the dinner menus of many local restaurants.
Carp is traditionally served for Christmas dinner or on New Year’s Eve, one of the most popular soups in Hamburg, is the creamy lobster soup called Hamburger Hummersuppe which is served with a small amount of whipped cream and garnished with dill. A variation of this soup is the small shrimp soup Hamburg style, adding a dash of Cognac to both variations is optional but very common. The Hamburg variation on the Steckrübeneintopf which is all over North Germany is called ‘Hamburger National’
Ottensen located in Hamburg, Germany in the Altona borough on the right bank of the Elbe river, is a former town. It is a now one of the 104 quarters of Hamburg, the first record of Ottensen dates from 1310. In 1390, it became the seat of the bailiff of the county of Holstein-Pinneberg, the settlement was mostly composed of farmers and craftsmen. During the 1640s, it surpassed nearby Altona in size and it was annexed to Prussia in 1867, and the population rose rapidly, from 2,411 in 1840 to 37,738 in 1900. It was annexed to the city Altona, which in turn was due to the Greater Hamburg Act annexed to Hamburg in 1937, according to the statistical office of Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein, the quarter has a total area of 2.9 square kilometres. The southern border to the quarter Waltershof is the river Elbe, the railway tracks of the city train is the north border to Bahrenfeld and the eastern border to the Altona-Altstadt quarter. In the West is the quarter Othmarschen, in 2006 in the quarter Ottensen were living 32,757 people.
The population density was 11,445 inhabitants per square kilometre,14. 3% were children under the age of 18, and 12. 7% were 65 years of age or older. 1,863 people were registered as unemployed, in 1999 there were 18,959 households out of which 16. 6% had children under the age of 18 living with them and 55. 9% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 1.72, in 2006 there were 3,558 criminal offences. There were 4 primary schools and 2 secondary schools in Ottensen, the Altonaer Museum Norddeutsches Landesmuseum is museum dedicated among other things to the history and culture of the coastal area of northern Germany. Founded in 1863 it is located in the street Museumsstrasse near to the Hamburg-Altona railway station. The museum has 4 branches, the Altonaer Museum itself, the Jenisch Haus for art and culture in the Othmarschen quarter, the Rieck Haus in the quarter Curslack, the Altonaer Theater is located in the street Museumsstrasse 17. It was founded 1876 as Altonaer Stadttheater at the street Königstrasse, in 1943 destroyed, a new location was found in the school Museumsstrasse.
In 1954 the Altonaer Theater was reopened there with Hans Fitze as the theatre manager, in 1994 the theatre closed due to financial problems. In 1995 the theatre was reopened and play until today, the smaller stage Thalia an der Gaußstraße of the Hamburg Thalia Theater is located in Ottensen. In Ottensen are two small areas and Rathenaupark. The football club FC Teutonia Ottensen is one of sports associations using the facilities in Ottensen
Transport in Hamburg
Since the Middle Ages, as a Hanseatic City one part of Hamburgs transport was the economic trade with other cities or regions. In 2008, the port of Hamburg was the second-largest port in Europe, Hamburg is connected to four motorways and in Hamburg proper are two airports. The Hamburg traffic group Hamburger Verkehrsverbund was the first organisation of its kind in the world, in 2007, more than 618 million passengers used bus, rapid transit, ferries or light rail. The charter was given orally for Hamburgs backing of Fredericks crusades, in 1241, the two contracts between Hamburg and Lübeck marked the beginning of the Hanseatic League, a trade union in Northern Europe. And in 1264 the Steinstraße was the third cobbled road in Europe, in 1800 Hamburg has 1,473 street-lamps and on the Hamburg hill in St. Pauli several new streets were given Christian names e. g. Davidstraße, Erichstraße or Herbertstraße. On 31 October 1839, the first horse-drawn bus line served a route from Hamburg to the Danish Altona.
In 1866, the Hamburg tramway network was opened, initially, it was operated with horsecar trams. In 1894, Hamburgs first electric tram served Meßberg – Lombardsbrücke – Landungsbrücken – Zollkanal – Meßberg,1911, the first tunnel under a river in continental Europe was finished, and Benzindroschken were allowed on Hamburgs streets. In 1912, the port of Hamburg provided 64 km moorings for more than 15,000 seagoing vessels, the Hamburger Hochbahn was founded in 1911, and the first metro trains ran on the circle line in 1912. On 30 September 1978, after 84 years of service, the last tram served line no.2 from Rathausmarkt to Schnelsen, in 2008, Hamburg had an area of 755.2 km2, 92% was land and 8% water areas. Area for the infrastructure was 12%. Opened in 1911, Hamburg Airport, is situated in Fuhlsbüttel in the north of the city, in 2008, the airport had an area of 5.7 km2, and handled 152.271 take-offs and landings and 12,690,114 passengers in total. 33,108 t of cargo were transported, Hamburg Finkenwerder Airport is a private airport for EADS plant, situated in Finkenwerder, on the left bank of the Elbe river.
In 2008, Hamburg had more than 1,700 km cycle paths, but—according to the ADFC —in a devastated condition, which repairs would cost the city Euro 10 million. The Behörde für Stadtentwicklung und Umwelt designated 14 major cycle ways to improve the use of bicycles in Hamburg. The project StadtRAD Hamburg was started in July 2009 and is one of the most successful system of its kind in Germany. Hamburg has several zones, streets renovated into car free zones. The first street transformed was in Essen in 1926, like many West Germany cities Hamburg renovated several streets in the centre in the 1970s