Bayview Correctional Facility
Bayview Correctional Facility was a medium-security women's prison located at the south corner of West 20th Street and 11th Avenue in Manhattan, directly across the avenue from the Chelsea Piers sports complex. It is unusual to find a state penitentiary in the middle of a major city. Bayview did not have grounds and a fenced perimeter. Covering the entire south wall of Bayview is the "Venus", a mural painted by New York artist Knox Martin in 1970. Venus was commissioned by Doris Freedman of CityWalls. Today, Venus is entirely obscured by the neighboring building 100 Eleventh Avenue, completed in 2010. Featured on the New York State Correction Officer Informational Page's "History of Bayview" is the following statement: In 1970, prior to the rejuvenation of the district, Bayview's entire south wall was decorated with a red and pink abstract painting, called "Venus" by artist Knox Martin; the mural, conspicuous for its size and beauty, has been used on post cards. It is conspicuous—in a culture that regards large, exposed surface as prime advertising space—for not being a billboard.
Not advertisers call from time to time with proposals to lease the wall for commercial messages, but Bayview doesn't want its beautiful Venus covered over with a beer or jeans ad. Besides, it's state property. Before Superstorm Sandy hit in October 2012, Bayview's 153 prisoners were evacuated and sent to other facilities; the building sustained $600,000 as a result of storm damage and remained closed due to NYS Budgetary reasons. The building will be sold. Mindlin, Alex. "After a 37-Year Run, a Roadside Venus to Be Veiled". The New York Times. Knox Martin Website CBS Report on the mural Prisoner advocates foresee problems after shuttering Bayview and Beacon, April 8, 2013
Auburn Correctional Facility
Auburn Correctional Facility is a state prison on State Street in Auburn, New York, United States. It was built on land, once a Cayuga village, it is classified as a maximum security facility. Constructed in 1817 as Auburn Prison, it was the second state prison in New York, the site of the first execution by electric chair in 1890, the namesake of the "Auburn system," a correctional system in which prisoners were housed in solitary confinement in large rectangular buildings, performed penal labor under silence, enforced at all times; the prison was renamed the Auburn Correctional Facility in 1970. The prison is among the oldest functional prisons in the United States. In its early years, the prison charged a fee to tourists. To discourage most visitors, the fee was increased. In contrast with the purely reformatory type prison instituted in Pennsylvania, the Philadelphia System introduced by the Quakers, the "Auburn System" modified the schedule of prayer and humane conditions with hard labor.
Prisoners were compelled to work during the day, the profit of their labor helped to support the prison. Prisoners were segregated by offense; the traditional American prison uniform, consisting of horizontal black and white stripes, originated at the Auburn prison. The prisoners had their heads cropped and walked in lockstep, keeping step with their heads bowed; each prisoner placed a hand on the shoulder of the man in front of him to maintain a rigid separation. There was a communal dining room so that the prisoners could gather together for meals, but a code of silence was enforced harshly at all times by the guards, thus the inmates ate together, but in complete silence. At night the prisoners were kept in individual cells. For several decades, this system was adopted by other jurisdictions; this system was called the "Congregate System." The Sing Sing Correctional Facility in New York, was built using this system under the supervision of the former warden of the Auburn prison, Elam Lynds. As of 2010, Auburn Correctional Facility is responsible for the manufacturing of New York State's license plates.
Copper John is a statue of an American Revolutionary War soldier that stands atop the Auburn Correctional Facility. It has entered the local lexicon as a reference to the prison and aspects of it, for example, getting sent to Auburn Prison is "going to work for Copper John." "John" was a wooden statue, erected atop the administration office of the prison in 1821. In 1848, the statue had weathered so much that it was taken down and a new statue was made out of copper by the prisoners in the prison foundry. In 2004, the New York state government became aware that the statue was fashioned to be "anatomically correct" and ordered the statue to be "incorrected"; some correctional officers made an impromptu protest by passing out T-shirts showing the iconic statue and reading "Save Copper John's Johnson". The warden was an administrative position appointed by the New York State Commissioner of Correction; the heads of all New York State correctional facilities are termed "superintendent". William Britten 1816 - 1821.
He was a master builder of the prison. He became the first warden. Elam Lynds 1821 - 1825, he was a principal keeper. Elam Lynds 1818 Gershom Powers 1825 -?. Levi Lewis 1834 - 1836. John Garrow 1836 - 1838. Elam Lynds 1838 - 1839. Noyes Palmer 1839 - 1840. Robert Cook 1840 - 1843. Matthew R. Bartlett 1867 - 1869, 1.5 executions. W. F. Doubleday 1843 - 1845. Hiram Rathbun 1845 - 1846. David Foot 1846 - 1848. Edward L. Porter 1848 - 1849. James E. Tyler 1849 - 1851. Thomas Kirkpatrick? - 1862. William Sunderlin 1851 - 1886. Charles F. Durston July 1887 to May 1893, 2 executions. James C. Stout May 1, 1893 - February 1, 1897, 5 executions. J. Warren Mead February 1, 1897 - February 1, 1905, 14 executions. Charles K. Baker Feb. 1, 1905 - Dec. 15, 1905, 1 execution. George W. Benham December 15, 1905 - May 26, 1913, 24 executions. Charles F. Rattigan May 1913, to May 1, 1916, 9 executions. Brigadier General Edgar S. Jennings 1929. Frank Lamar Christian 1929 following riots in December 1929. John L. Hoffman 1930, he retired.
Frank L. Heacox 1930. John F. Foster 1944 - 1950. Robert E. Murphy 1950 - 1963. John Deegan 1969 -?. Harry Fritz 1971 -?. Robert J. Henderson circa 1974. Harry Fritz 2012 - 2014. Harold D. Graham 2014 - 2018. Timothy McCarthy 2018 - current; the Principal Keeper operated the prison on a day-to-day basis. Many went on to become wardens. Elam Lynds circa 1825. Stephen S. Austin 1860 - 1863. George Durnford 1929. Killed during a riot by Max Becker. Edward L. Beckwith 1930. Abraham Greenthal, notorious pickpocket. William Kemmler, first person executed in the electric chair. Robert Chambers, the "preppy murderer." Leon Czolgosz, the assassin of President William McKinley, electrocuted in Auburn on October 29, 1901. Lucchese crime family mob associate Jimmy Burke. Colombo crime family caporegime Joe Gallo. Contract killer Donald Frankos. Chester Gillette, convicted for murder of Grace Brown, electrocuted in 1908. Craig G
Adirondack Correctional Facility
The Adirondack Correctional Facility is a medium-security prison in Ray Brook, New York in the Adirondack Mountains between Saranac Lake and Lake Placid. Adirondack Correctional Facility started as the Ray Brook Sanatorium, the first state-operated tuberculosis sanatorium, starting in 1904. Although medical developments made sanitoria obsolete starting in the mid-1950s, the State Sanatorium at Ray Brook continued to operate until the mid-1960s; the property was transferred from the Department of Health to the new Drug Addiction Control Commission, combining enforcement and treatment. However, it was judged a failure, closed within five years, it was succeeded by a camp program for adult inmates, "Camp Adirondack". Working with the Department of Environmental Conservation, "campmen", as inmates were known, were employed in logging, wildlife preservation, construction of campsites and snowmobile and cross-country ski trails, construction of a toboggan run at the Mount Pisgah ski area; the camp constructed the Ice Palace each winter for the Saranac Lake Winter Carnival.
With the selection of Lake Placid for the 1980 Winter Olympics the inmates worked on the Olympic trails at Mount Van Hoevenburg. The camp facilities were used for Olympic staff housing, which led to renovation of the water treatment plant, sewage system and food service areas. During the games, the inmates were relocated to other prison facilities in the state, were replaced by 900 State Police and 300 U. S. Customs Bureau personnel, National Guard and security forces of foreign governments who provided security for the Games. An area of 200 acres of the facility was used as the site for the Olympic Village; the newly improved facilities allowed a substantial increase in the prison population, which led to the erection of the first security fence around the perimeter of the complex. In 1981, Camp Adirondack was designated a medium-security facility and renamed the Adirondack Correctional Facility; as of 2010 Adirondack had a working capacity of 566. Sylvia Plath's college boyfriend, Dick Norton contracted tuberculosis while at Harvard University, was sent to Ray Brook for treatment.
Plath visited him in 1952, broke her leg while skiing on Mount Pisgah in nearby Saranac Lake. Andrea Barrett's 2007 novel The Air We Breathe is based on a fictionalized Ray Brook Sanatorium. History of the Adirondack Correctional Facility NY prison information New York Times, "New Mountain Hospital: Institution for treatment of Tuberculosis Almost Ready", October 18, 1903
Clinton Correctional Facility
Clinton Correctional Facility is a New York State Department of Corrections and Community Supervision maximum security state prison for men located in the Village of Dannemora, New York. The prison itself is sometimes colloquially referred to as Dannemora, although its actual name is derived from its location in Clinton County, New York; the southern perimeter wall of the prison borders New York State Route 374. Church of St. Dismas, the Good Thief, a church built by inmates, is located within the walls; the prison is sometimes referred to as New York's Little Siberia due to the cold climate in Dannemora and the isolation of the area. It is the third oldest prison in New York; the staff includes about a thousand guards. In the post-Furman v. Georgia period and prior to 2008, it housed the New York State death row for men. Built in 1844, it served as a site where prisoners were used to work in local mines in both Dannemora and nearby Lyon Mountain; this enterprise would not be profitable, by 1877, mining had ended, the prisoners were put to work on other trades.
With this change, the prison experienced growth, in 1887 it was given new concrete walls 60 feet tall that still stand. In 1892, the first prisoner was executed in the electric chair at the prison, beginning the use of capital punishment at Clinton Correctional. Twenty six men were executed between 1892 and 1913; this period saw many prisoners cured of tuberculosis due in part to the clean air in the Adirondacks, leading to the importation of prisoners with this disease from other prisons. In 1899, a mental health facility, the Dannemora State Hospital, was built on the grounds to house prisoners who became insane while serving their sentence; such prisoners were retained in the facility if they remained insane following the completion of their sentence. In 1929, Clinton Correctional witnessed a riot which, coupled with riots in other prisons in that year, led to prison reform in New York State; this led to the building of schools in the prison, the renovation or rebuilding of most of the structures within the prison walls, making the facility more modern.
The Church of St. Dismas, the Good Thief was built from 1939 to 1941. In the half of the 20th century, the prison's mental institutions closed and were converted into an annex to house more prisoners. On June 6, 2015, inmates Richard Matt and David Sweat, both serving sentences for murder, escaped from the facility. Two prison employees, Joyce Mitchell and Gene Palmer, were charged with aiding the escape. On June 26, Matt was shot and killed by a Vermont border patrol agent in the town of Malone, New York. Two days Sweat was shot by a New York State Trooper and subsequently captured. In the days after the escape some prisoners reported having been beaten by guards in an attempt to obtain information as to the whereabouts and plans of the escaped inmates. Michael Alig: 10 to 20-year sentence for the murder of his drug dealer in March 1996. George Appo: 19th century pickpocket and con artist, his biographer provides a description of 19th century prison conditions in New York State. Richard Bilello: Lucchese crime family associate and convicted murderer.
Robert Chambers: the "preppy murderer", who served much of his sentence at Clinton Correctional Facility for the manslaughter conviction of Jennifer Levin, as well as a sentence for drug possession after heroin was found in his cell and new criminal charges were brought. Gregory Corso: Italian-American poet, one of the inner circle of "The Beat Generation" along with Kerouac and Burroughs. Sentenced at 17, Corso served about three years for stealing a suit. Jesse Friedman: One of the subjects of the 2003 documentary film, Capturing the Friedmans. Robert F. Garrow: Serial rapist/murderer. Paul Geidel: Murderer. Maksim Gelman: Sentenced to 200 years for murdering four people and injuring another 5. David Gilbert: Serving life in prison. Arrested with members of the Black Liberation Army and other radicals following a botched Brinks armored car robbery in 1981. Julio Gonzalez: perpetrator of the 1990 Happy Land Fire in the Bronx which killed 87 people. Hell Rell: served nearly 28 months on a criminal sale of a controlled substance conviction from 2002 to 2004.
John Jamelske: Mass-kidnapper and serial rapist serving 18 years to life. Vincent Johnson, serial killer known as "Brooklyn Strangler": Serving a life sentence for the murders of five women in 1999 and 2000. John Katehis: Found guilty of 2nd degree murder for the brutal murder of ABC Radio personality, George Weber. Katehis is serving 25 years to life. Marlon Legere: Serving life without parole in connection with the shooting deaths of NYPD detectives Robert Parker and Patrick Rafferty in Brooklyn. Charles "Lucky" Luciano: One of the driving forces behind the development of Italian organized crime in the United States served 10 years of a 30- to 50-year sentence for running a prostitution ring before being deported to Italy after World War II. Maino: Rapper from Brooklyn, New York City, charged for numerous street and gunpoint crimes. Richard Matt: Murderer - Escaped with David Sweat. Shot dead by police in June 2015 while he was still at large. Winston Moseley: Murderer of Catherine Genovese on March 13, 1964, hostage taker in 1968 during that
Sing Sing Correctional Facility is a maximum security prison operated by the New York State Department of Corrections and Community Supervision in the village of Ossining, New York. It is located about 30 miles north of New York City on the east bank of the Hudson River. Sing Sing contains about 1,700 prisoners."Sing Sing" was derived from the "Sinck Sinck" Indian tribe from whom the land was purchased in 1685. In 1970, the name was changed to the "Ossining Correctional Facility," but it reverted to its original name in 1985. There are plans to convert the original 1825 cell block into a time-specific museum; the prison property is bisected by the Metro-North Railroad's four-track Hudson Line. Sing Sing was the fifth prison built by New York state; the first prison, Newgate Prison, was built in 1797 in Greenwich Village and a second one in 1816 called Auburn Prison. In 1824, the New York Legislature gave Elam Lynds, warden of Auburn Prison and a former Army captain, the task of constructing a new, more modern prison.
Lynds spent months researching possible locations for the prison, considering Staten Island, The Bronx, Silver Mine Farm, an area in the town of Mount Pleasant, located on the banks of the Hudson River. By May, Lynds had decided to build a prison on Mount Pleasant, near a small village in Westchester County named Sing Sing, whose name came from the Native American words "Sinck Sinck" which translates to "stone upon stone." The legislature appropriated $20,100 to purchase the 130-acre site, the project received the official stamp of approval. Lynds hand-selected 100 inmates from the Auburn prison for transfer and had them transported by barge via the Erie Canal and down the Hudson River to freighters. On their arrival on May 14, the site was "without a place to receive them or a wall to enclose them"; when it was opened in 1826, Sing Sing was considered a model prison, because it turned a profit for the state, by October 1828 it was completed. Lynds employed the Auburn system, it was the Prison Chaplain John Luckey around 1843, who held the Principal Keeper of Sing Sing, Elam Lynds, accountable to New York Governor William H. Seward and to President of the Board of Inspectors, John Edmonds, to have Lynds removed.
Chaplain Luckey proceeded to create a great religious library. His purpose was to teach correct moral principles, his religious library was challenged in 1844 when John Edmonds placed Eliza Farnham in charge of the women's ward at Sing Sing. 1844 was the year the New York Prison Association was inaugurated to monitor state prison administration. The NY Prison Association was made up of reformists interested in the rehabilitation and humane treatment of prisoners. Eliza Farnham was able to obtain the job on the recommendation of these reformists. Eliza Farnham overturned the silent practice in prison and introduced social engagement to shift concern more toward the future instead of dwelling on the criminal past, she included novels by Charles Dickens in Chaplain Luckey's religious library, novels the chaplain did not approve. This was the first documented expansion of the prison library to include emotional lessons from secular literature. Thomas Mott Osborne's tenure as warden of Sing Sing prison was dramatic.
Osborne arrived in 1914 with a reputation as a radical prison reformer. His report of a week-long incognito stay inside New York's Auburn Prison indicted traditional prison administration in merciless detail. Prisoners who had bribed officers and intimidated other inmates lost their privileges under Osborne's regime. One of them conspired with powerful political allies to destroy Osborne's reputation succeeding in getting him indicted for a variety of crimes and maladministration. After Osborne triumphed in court, his return to Sing Sing was a cause for wild celebration by the inmates. Another notable warden was Lewis Lawes, he was offered the position of warden in 1919, accepted in January 1920, remained for 20 years as Sing Sing's warden. While warden, Lawes brought about reforms and turned what was described as an "old hellhole" into a modern prison with sports teams, educational programs, new methods of discipline and more. Several new buildings were constructed during the years Lawes was warden.
Lawes died six years later. In 1943, the old cellblock was closed and the metal bars and doors were donated to the war effort. In 1989, the institution was accredited for the first time by the American Correctional Association, which established a set of national standards by which it judged every correctional facility. Today, Sing Sing houses more than 2,000 inmates, with about 1,000 people working there and 5,000 visitors per month; the original 1825 cellblock is no longer used and in 2002 plans were announced to turn this into a museum. In April 2011 there were talks of closing the prison in favor of real estate. In total, 614 men and women—including four inmates under federal death sentences—were executed by electric chair in the death row house with "Old Sparky," at Sing Sing until the abolition of the death penalty in 1972. High-profile executions include Julius and Ethel Rosenberg on June 19, 1953, for espionage for the Soviet Union on nuclear weapon research. Puff on August 12, 1954, for murder of an FBI agent.
The last person executed in New York state was Eddie Lee Mays, for murder, on August 15, 1963. In 1972, the United States Supreme Court ruled in Furman v. Georgia that the death penalty was unconstitutional if application was inconsistent and arbitrary; this led to a
A prison known as a correctional facility, gaol, detention center, remand center, or internment facility, is a facility in which inmates are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the state. Prisons are most used within a criminal justice system: people charged with crimes may be imprisoned until their trial. In simplest terms, a prison can be described as a building in which people are held as a punishment for a crime they have committed. Prisons can be used as a tool of political repression by authoritarian regimes, their perceived opponents may be imprisoned for political crimes without trial or other legal due process. In times of war, prisoners of war or detainees may be detained in military prisons or prisoner of war camps, large groups of civilians might be imprisoned in internment camps. In American English and jail are treated as having separate definitions; the term prison or penitentiary tends to describe institutions that incarcerate people for longer periods of time, such as many years, are operated by the state or federal governments.
The term jail tends to describe institutions for confining people for shorter periods of time and are operated by local governments. Outside of North America and jail have the same meaning. Common slang terms for a prison include: "the pokey", "the slammer", "the can", "the clink", "the joint", "the calaboose", "the hoosegow" and "the big house". Slang terms for imprisonment include: "behind bars", "in stir" and "up the river"; the use of prisons can be traced back to the rise of the state as a form of social organization. Corresponding with the advent of the state was the development of written language, which enabled the creation of formalized legal codes as official guidelines for society; the best known of these early legal codes is the Code of Hammurabi, written in Babylon around 1750 BC. The penalties for violations of the laws in Hammurabi's Code were exclusively centered on the concept of lex talionis, whereby people were punished as a form of vengeance by the victims themselves; this notion of punishment as vengeance or retaliation can be found in many other legal codes from early civilizations, including the ancient Sumerian codes, the Indian Manusmriti, the Hermes Trismegistus of Egypt, the Israelite Mosaic Law.
Some Ancient Greek philosophers, such as Plato, began to develop ideas of using punishment to reform offenders instead of using it as retribution. Imprisonment as a penalty was used for those who could not afford to pay their fines. Since impoverished Athenians could not pay their fines, leading to indefinite periods of imprisonment, time limits were set instead; the prison in Ancient Athens was known as the desmoterion. The Romans were among the first to use prisons as a form of punishment, rather than for detention. A variety of existing structures were used to house prisoners, such as metal cages, basements of public buildings, quarries. One of the most notable Roman prisons was the Mamertine Prison, established around 640 B. C. by Ancus Marcius. The Mamertine Prison was located within a sewer system beneath ancient Rome and contained a large network of dungeons where prisoners were held in squalid conditions, contaminated with human waste. Forced labor on public works projects was a common form of punishment.
In many cases, citizens were sentenced to slavery in ergastula. During the Middle Ages in Europe, castles and the basements of public buildings were used as makeshift prisons; the possession of the right and the capability to imprison citizens, granted an air of legitimacy to officials at all levels of government, from kings to regional courts to city councils. Another common punishment was sentencing people to galley slavery, which involved chaining prisoners together in the bottoms of ships and forcing them to row on naval or merchant vessels. From the late 17th century and during the 18th century, popular resistance to public execution and torture became more widespread both in Europe and in the United States. Under the Bloody Code, with few sentencing alternatives, imposition of the death penalty for petty crimes, such as theft, was proving unpopular with the public. Rulers began looking for means to punish and control their subjects in a way that did not cause people to associate them with spectacles of tyrannical and sadistic violence.
They developed systems of mass incarceration with hard labor, as a solution. The prison reform movement that arose at this time was influenced by two somewhat contradictory philosophies; the first was based in Enlightenment ideas of utilitarianism and rationalism, suggested that prisons should be used as a more effective substitute for public corporal punishments such as whipping, etc. This theory, referred to as deterrence, claims tha
Eastern Correctional Facility
The Eastern Correctional Facility is a state prison for men in Napanoch, Ulster County, New York. Eastern is one of the oldest prison facilities in the state, it has been a maximum security prison for men since 1973. The site opened as the "Eastern New York Reformatory", its imposing main building, with medieval-style turrets and long green copper roof, was designed by architect John Rochester Thomas, who had designed Elmira. The site was chosen for its available stone, the transport provided by the adjacent Delaware and Hudson Canal. In 1906 the adult prisoners were returned, replaced with juvenile offenders, the reformatory began operation. Years it achieved its capacity of 500 beds. In 1921 Eastern became the first of the institutions for defective delinquents in the United States. At various times the facility was designated as the "Institute for Defective and Delinquent Men at Napanoch", "State Institution for Male Defective Delinquents", the "Catskill Reformatory"; the state's Ulster Correctional Facility was built on Eastern's grounds in 1990.
Description of the 1902 Ontario and Western Railway Station and Museum