Adin is a census-designated place in Modoc County, California. It is located 29 miles southwest of Alturas, at an elevation of 4203 feet; the population was 272 at the 2010 census. Adin, the first town in Modoc County west of the Warner Mountains, was founded in 1869 by Adin McDowell as the supply point for the mining town of Hayden in northern Lassen County, was named for him in 1870; the Aidenville post office opened in 1871, changed its name to Adin in 1876. A 1913 book described Adin as having a population of 200, as the chief town of the Big Valley, it became a sawmill town in the mid-1930s when the Edgerton Brothers Mill moved into town, from the Adin Mountains. The town suffered devastating fires in 1904, 1915, 1931, in 1939. Following the 1939 fire, the town organized a volunteer fire brigade. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP covers an area of 3.4 square miles, 99.82% of it land, 0.18% of it water. This region experiences warm and dry summers, with no average monthly temperatures above 71.6 °F.
According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Adin has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csb" on climate maps. The 2010 United States Census reported that Adin had a population of 272; the population density was 79.0 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Adin was 240 White, 2 African American, 8 Native American, 0 Asian, 0 Pacific Islander, 9 from other races, 13 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 32 persons; the Census reported that 269 people lived in households, 3 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 124 households, out of which 28 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 49 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 14 had a female householder with no husband present, 8 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 10 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 0 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 45 households were made up of individuals and 19 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.17. There were 71 families; the population was spread out with 57 people under the age of 18, 19 people aged 18 to 24, 52 people aged 25 to 44, 93 people aged 45 to 64, 51 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 47.3 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.3 males. There were 144 housing units at an average density of 41.8 per square mile, of which 77 were owner-occupied, 47 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.3%. 163 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 106 people lived in rental housing units. In the 2000 census, the United States did not define a census-designated place called Adin, but it did define a Zip Code Tabulation Area, 96006; because Adin is contained within this ZCTA, it is possible to obtain Census data from the United States 2000 Census for the area though data for "Adin" is unavailable. Adin is located within area code 530; as of the census of 2000, there were 599 people, 257 households, 178 families residing in the ZCTA of 96006.
The racial makeup of the town was 93.7% White, 0.3% Black or African American, 1.5% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 2.7% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races. 5.7 % of the population were Latino of any race. There are 257 households out of which 26.8% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.5% are married couples living together, 6.6% have a female householder with no husband present, 30.7% are non-families. 24.9% of all households are made up of individuals and 8.6% have someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.33 and the average family size is 2.79. Adin has a general store; the median income for a household in the town is $32,250, the median income for a family is $34,063. Males have a median income of $36,250 versus $30,000 for females; the per capita income for the town is $20,642. 17.2% of the population and 11.3% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 27.7% of those under the age of 18 and 7.5% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.
In the state legislature, Adin is in the 1st Senate District, seat vacant, the 1st Assembly District, represented by Republican Brian Dahle. Federally, Adin is in California's 1st congressional district, represented by Republican Doug LaMalfa
Department of Motor Vehicles
In the United States, a department of motor vehicles is a state-level government agency that administers vehicle registration and driver licensing. Similar departments exist in Canada under different names; the name "DMV" is not used in every state or area, nor are the traditional DMV functions handled by a single agency in every state, but the generic term is universally understood in the context of driver's license issuance and renewal. Driver licensing and vehicle registration in the United States are handled by the state government in all states but Hawaii, where local governments perform DMV functions. In Canada, driver licensing and vehicle registration are handled at the provincial government level; the Uniform Vehicle Code prefers the name "Department of Motor Vehicles". The acronym "DMV" is most used to describe the agency. Unless otherwise indicated below, one agency or division regulates driver licensing, vehicle registration, vehicle titles; the location of a department or division of motor vehicles within the structure of a state's government tends to vary widely.
Hawaii is the only U. S. state. In Kentucky, the Transportation Cabinet sets the policies and designs for licenses and vehicle registration. In Tennessee, the Department of Revenue and the Driver License Services Division of the Department of Safety and Homeland Security establishes policies and designs for licenses and vehicle registration, but the actual registration and licensing are handled by county clerks. In the District of Columbia, not part of any state, the DMV is part of the city government. In Virginia, the Department of Motor Vehicles handles both driver licensing and vehicle registration, while the Virginia State Police and the Department of Environmental Quality administer safety inspection and emission inspection, respectively; the program is administered by the state. In some states, the DMV is not a separate cabinet-level department, but instead is a division or bureau within a larger department. Departments that perform DMV functions include the Department of Justice, the Department of Public Safety, the Department of Revenue, the Department of Transportation.
In New Hampshire and Tennessee, the Division of Motor Vehicles and the Driver License Services Division is a division of each state's Department of Safety. In Vermont, the Department of Motor Vehicles is a subunit of the state Agency of Transportation; some states do not separate DMV functions into distinct organizational entities at all, but bundle them into responsibilities assigned to an existing government agency. For example, in the state of Washington, the Department of Licensing is responsible for driver's licenses and vehicle and boat registrations in addition to most other business and occupational licensing. In Maine and Illinois, the Secretary of State's offices perform responsibilities that would be handled by the DMV in other states. All long-term residents of a state who wish to operate motor vehicles must possess a driver's license issued by their state DMV, their vehicles must show license plates issued by that agency. Armed Forces active duty service members are an exception to this general rule.
These individuals have the option of retaining the license and vehicle registration of their legal residence or obtaining a new license and registration locally. Some states let out-of-state college students maintain their existing license and/or registration. Vehicles owned by the federal government register with the General Services Administration, rather than a state. Drivers of these vehicles must still be licensed with their home state, however; the Office of Foreign Missions at the U. S. Department of State has a Diplomatic Motor Vehicles program that issues driver's licenses to foreign diplomats and their dependents, registers their vehicles, issues special diplomatic license plates. In countries with no national identification card, driver's licenses have become the de facto identification card for many purposes, DMV agencies have become the agency responsible for verifying identity in their respective states the identity of non-drivers; the REAL ID Act of 2005 is an attempt to provide a national standard for identification cards in the United States as identification cards are used in everyday life.
In some states, besides conducting the written and hands-on driving tests that are a prerequisite to earning a driver's license, DMVs regulate private driving schools and their instructors. All DMVs issue their state's Driver's manual, which all drivers are expected to abide by. Knowledge of the driver's manual is tested prior to issuing a license. DMVs are responsible for providing an identification number for vehicles, either with a permanent vehicle registration plate or temporary
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Pit River is a major river draining from northeastern California into the state's Central Valley. The Pit, the Klamath and the Columbia are the only three rivers in the U. S. that cross the Cascade Range. The longest tributary of the Sacramento River, it contributes as much as eighty percent of their combined water volume into the Shasta Lake reservoir; the main stem of the Pit River is 207 miles long, some water in the system flows 265 miles to the Sacramento River measuring from the Pit River's longest source. The Pit River drains a sparsely populated volcanic highlands area, passing through the south end of the Cascade Range in a deep canyon northeast of Redding; the river is so named because of the pits the Achumawi dug to trap game that came to water at the river. The river is a popular destination for fly fishing, rafting in its lower reaches, is used to generate hydroelectricity in the powerhouses below Fall River Mills where the Pit and Fall rivers join, at Shasta Dam, it is used extensively for irrigation and conservation purposes.
The Pit River rises in several forks in Modoc and Shasta counties in the northeastern corner of California. The 58-mile South Fork Pit River - West Valley Creek - Cedar Creek source originates just southeast of Buck Mountain in the Warner Mountains, in the extreme southeastern corner of the Modoc National Forest 9 miles west of the California–Nevada border; the South Fork is formed from the confluence of several creeks in Jess Valley 13 miles northeast of Madeline and flows west through a narrow canyon, past Likely generally north through a broad ranching valley where its waters are diverted for irrigation and waterfowl conservation via an extensive system of canals. The 30-mile long North Fork - Linnville Creek tributary begins 5 miles southeast of the town of Davis Creek, near Goose Lake, it flows south-southwest, joining the South Fork from the north near Alturas. Although Goose Lake is considered the terminal sink of an endorheic basin, it will overflow into the Pit River during floods.
The combined river flows west-southwest in a winding course across Modoc County, past Canby and through the Modoc National Forest in the narrow Stonecoal Valley Gorge. It turns south to flow past Lookout and into northern Lassen County, past Bieber, to emerge into the ranching region of Big Valley. North of Little Valley it flows into the Shasta National Forest; the river reaches Fall River Valley, where it is joined by the Fall River, fed by one of the largest freshwater spring systems in the United States. After passing through the town of Fall River Mills, the river drops over Pit River Falls enters the head of a long serpentine canyon that cuts through the southern Cascade Range, it turns south to join the Sacramento River as the eastern arm of Shasta Lake reservoir 15 miles north of Redding. Potem Creek joins the river at Potem Falls. Two major tributaries, Squaw Creek and the McCloud River, join the Pit from the north within the lake; the lower 30 miles of the river forms the longest of the five arms of Shasta Lake, formed by Shasta Dam on the Sacramento downstream from the original confluence.
Fed by significant volcanic groundwater basins that produce some of the largest contiguous freshwater spring systems in the United States, the middle and lower reaches of the Pit River exhibit a strong year-round flow, in contrast to the seasonal nature of most northern California rivers. Before Shasta Dam was built, the Pit contributed as much as 85 percent of the Sacramento River's dry-season flow as measured at Red Bluff, nearly 100 miles downstream of their confluence – making the river an important resource for irrigation, hydroelectricity; the upper reaches of the Pit above Fall River Mills are a snow-fed high desert stream with a much more seasonal hydrograph. The lowermost part of the Pit River system receives heavy winter rainfall, which contributes to streamflow between November and April. Summer low water flows drop below 2,000 cu ft/s. While conducting surveys for irrigation projects in the early 1900s, the U. S. Reclamation Service noted that the spring-fed Fall River alone contributed a year-round flow of about 1,500 cubic feet per second, from an aquifer fed in part by Mount Shasta snowmelt.
Much of this water rises at what is called "Thousand Springs" a few miles above Fall River Mills, west of Ahjumawi Lava Springs State Park. Hat Creek and Burney Creek, spring-fed from the Lassen Peak area, supplied a further 900 cubic feet per second to the Pit River; the aquifers in the Pit River basin may hold as much as 16 million acre feet in storage and are replenished by winter precipitation seeping through the watershed's porous volcanic rocks and soils. The water emerges at points of lower elevation where the surface layers encounter harder metamorphic and sedimentary rock; the U. S. Geological Survey operates a stream gage on the Pit River at Montgomery Creek, directly below Pit 7 Dam and above Shasta Lake; this gage measures streamflow from an area of 4,952 square miles, or 70 percent of the total watershed. The average streamflow between 1966 and 2012 was 4,786 cu ft/s, with a maximum of 73,000 cu ft/s recorded on January 24, 1970, after heavy rainfall. A short minimum flow of 30 cu ft/s occurred on July 12, 1975 due to construction work at Pit 7 Powerhouse r
A wetland is a distinct ecosystem, inundated by water, either permanently or seasonally, where oxygen-free processes prevail. The primary factor that distinguishes wetlands from other land forms or water bodies is the characteristic vegetation of aquatic plants, adapted to the unique hydric soil. Wetlands play a number of functions, including water purification, water storage, processing of carbon and other nutrients, stabilization of shorelines, support of plants and animals. Wetlands are considered the most biologically diverse of all ecosystems, serving as home to a wide range of plant and animal life. Whether any individual wetland performs these functions, the degree to which it performs them, depends on characteristics of that wetland and the lands and waters near it. Methods for assessing these functions, wetland ecological health, general wetland condition have been developed in many regions and have contributed to wetland conservation by raising public awareness of the functions and the ecosystem services some wetlands provide.
Wetlands occur on every continent. The main wetland types are swamp, marsh and fen. Many peatlands are wetlands; the water in wetlands is either brackish, or saltwater. Wetlands can be non-tidal; the largest wetlands include the Amazon River basin, the West Siberian Plain, the Pantanal in South America, the Sundarbans in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta. The UN Millennium Ecosystem Assessment determined that environmental degradation is more prominent within wetland systems than any other ecosystem on Earth. Constructed wetlands are used to treat municipal and industrial wastewater as well as stormwater runoff, they may play a role in water-sensitive urban design. A patch of land that develops pools of water after a rain storm would not be considered a "wetland" though the land is wet. Wetlands have unique characteristics: they are distinguished from other water bodies or landforms based on their water level and on the types of plants that live within them. Wetlands are characterized as having a water table that stands at or near the land surface for a long enough period each year to support aquatic plants.
A more concise definition is a community composed of hydric soil and hydrophytes. Wetlands have been described as ecotones, providing a transition between dry land and water bodies. Mitsch and Gosselink write that wetlands exist "...at the interface between terrestrial ecosystems and aquatic systems, making them inherently different from each other, yet dependent on both."In environmental decision-making, there are subsets of definitions that are agreed upon to make regulatory and policy decisions. A wetland is "an ecosystem that arises when inundation by water produces soils dominated by anaerobic and aerobic processes, which, in turn, forces the biota rooted plants, to adapt to flooding." There are four main kinds of wetlands – marsh, swamp and fen. Some experts recognize wet meadows and aquatic ecosystems as additional wetland types; the largest wetlands in the world include the swamp forests of the Amazon and the peatlands of Siberia. Under the Ramsar international wetland conservation treaty, wetlands are defined as follows: Article 1.1: "...wetlands are areas of marsh, peatland or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water, static or flowing, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six metres."
Article 2.1: " may incorporate riparian and coastal zones adjacent to the wetlands, islands or bodies of marine water deeper than six metres at low tide lying within the wetlands." Although the general definition given above applies around the world, each county and region tends to have its own definition for legal purposes. In the United States, wetlands are defined as "those areas that are inundated or saturated by surface or groundwater at a frequency and duration sufficient to support, that under normal circumstances do support, a prevalence of vegetation adapted for life in saturated soil conditions. Wetlands include swamps, marshes and similar areas"; this definition has been used in the enforcement of the Clean Water Act. Some US states, such as Massachusetts and New York, have separate definitions that may differ from the federal government's. In the United States Code, the term wetland is defined "as land that has a predominance of hydric soils, is inundated or saturated by surface or groundwater at a frequency and duration sufficient to support a prevalence of hydrophytic vegetation adapted for life in saturated soil conditions and under normal circumstances supports a prevalence of such vegetation."
Related to this legal definitions, the term "normal circumstances" are conditions expected to occur during the wet portion of the growing season under normal climatic conditions, in the absence of significant disturbance. It is not uncommon for a wetland to be dry for long portions of the growing season. Wetlands can be dry during the dry season and abnormally dry periods during the wet season, but under normal environmental conditions the soils in a wetland will be saturated to the surface or inundated such that the soils become anaerobic, those conditions will persist through the wet portion of the growing season; the most important factor producing wetlands is flooding. The duration of flooding or prolonged soil saturation by groundwater determines whether the resulting wetland has aquatic, marsh or swamp vegetation
Modoc County, California
Modoc County is a county in the far northeast corner of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 9,686. Making it the third-least populous county in California; the county seat and only incorporated city is Alturas. Previous county seats include Lake Centerville; the county borders Oregon. A large portion of Modoc County is federal land. Several federal agencies, including the United States Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, National Park Service, Bureau of Indian Affairs, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, have employees assigned to the area, their operations are a significant part of the area's economy and services; the county's official slogans include "The last best place" and "Where the West still lives". Prior to the arrival of Europeans in the region, varying cultures of Native Americans inhabited the county for thousands of years. At the time of European encounter, the Modoc people lived in what is now northern California, near Lost River and Tule Lake.
The county was named after them. The Achumawi, the Paiute lived in the area. To the north were the Klamath in present-day Oregon; the first European explorers to visit Modoc County were the American John C. Frémont and his traveling party in 1846, who had departed from Sutter's Fort near the confluence of the American and Sacramento Rivers; the northern boundary of California, Modoc County, had been established as the 42nd parallel since the time of Mexican possession. In the absence of a reliable survey of the 120th meridian, the eastern boundary of northern California was a subject of contention before Modoc County formed; the Territory of Utah requested jurisdiction to the summit of the Sierra Nevada. At the time, the Warner Mountains were believed to be a part of the Sierra Nevada, so this would have included Surprise Valley, but California denied the request. In 1856, the residents of Honey Lake Valley reckoned the 120th meridian to be west of their valley, placing them in Utah territory, attempted to secede and form a territory they called Nataqua.
Nataqua would have included Modoc County. In 1858, the Territory of Nevada, with its capital now in Carson City seceded from Utah, assumed jurisdiction to the summit of the Sierra Nevada until the 120th meridian was surveyed in 1863. After Nevada was granted statehood in 1864, the region of current Modoc County was placed within jurisdiction of Shasta County and Siskiyou County was, in turn, generated from Shasta County in 1852. Increasing traffic on the emigrant trail, unprovoked militia raids on innocent Modoc, a cycle of retaliatory raids increased a cycle of violence between settlers and the tribes in the area. In 1864, the Klamath and Yahooskin band of the Shoshone signed a treaty ceding lands in both Oregon and California, the tribes were colocated on the Klamath Reservation. Harassed by the Klamath, traditional competitors, a band of Modoc led by Captain Jack returned to California and the Tule Lake area; the Modoc War of 1872-73 brought nationwide attention to the Modoc during the protracted battles.
From strong defensive positions in the lava tubes, 52 Modoc warriors held off hundreds of US Army forces, who called in artillery to help. Peace talks in 1873 stalled. Warriors urged killing the peace commissioners, thinking that the Americans would leave, Captain Jack and others shot and killed General Edward Canby and Rev. Eleazer Thomas, wounded others. More Army troops were called in to lay siege to Captain Jack's Stronghold. Dissension arose, some Modoc surrendered. Most were captured, those responsible for the assassinations were tried and executed. More than 150 Modoc were transported to Indian Territory as prisoners of war; the area has since been designated the Lava Beds National Monument. Settlement of the county began in earnest in the 1870s, with the timber, gold and railroad industries bringing most of the settlers into the area; the county was a crossroads for the Lassen Applegate Trail, which brought settlers north from Nevada to the Oregon Trail and south to trails leading into California's central valley.
Early settlers included the Dorris, Essex, Trumbo, Polander and Campbell families. Modoc County was formed when Governor Newton Booth signed an Act of the California Legislature on February 17, 1874 after residents of the Surprise Valley region lobbied for the creation of a new county from eastern Siskiyou County land; the county residents considered naming the newly formed county after General Edward Canby, killed the year before at peace talks in an ambush by Modoc. The idea of naming the county "Summit" was considered, but the populace settled on "Modoc"; the Dorris Bridge post office opened in 1871, was renamed Dorrisville in 1874. In 1876, it was renamed Alturas; the census of 1880 showed a population of 148. Settlement continued over the next two decades, until the city was incorporated on September 16, 1901. During World War II, the US government developed several thousand acres just south of Newell as a Japanese American internment camp. Tule Lake War Relocation Center was the site of temporary exile for thousands of Japa