Box wine is wine packaged in a bag-in-box. Wine is contained in a plastic bladder typically with an air-tight valve emerging from a corrugated fiberboard box. It serves as an alternative to traditional wine bottling in glass with a cork or synthetic seal and it is sometimes called goon, and goon bag in Australia. The process for packaging cask wine was invented by Thomas Angove of Angoves, a winemaker from Renmark, South Australia, polyethylene bladders of 1 gallon were placed in corrugated boxes for retail sale. The original design required that the cut the corner off the bladder, pour out the serving of wine. In 1967, Australian inventor Charles Malpas and Penfolds Wines patented a plastic, air-tight tap welded to a metallised bladder, all modern wine casks now use some sort of plastic tap, which is exposed by tearing away a perforated panel on the box. For the next bag in a box packaging was primarily preferred by producers of less expensive wines as it is cheaper to fabricate and distribute than glass bottles.
Within the decade premium wineries and bottlers began packaging their own high-quality boxed wine, including French rabbit, Bandit Wines, Octavin and this coupled with an increased cultural interest in environmentally sustainable packaging has cultivated growing popularity with affluent wine consumers. Bag-in-box packaging is less expensive and more friendly than glass-bottled wine, as well as being easier to transport. Typical bag-in-box containers hold 1. 5–4750 ml bottles of wine per box, the tap utilised by bag-in-box packaging greatly reduces oxidation of the wine during dispensing. Wine contained in plastic bladders are not intended for cellaring and should be consumed within the manufacturer printed shelf life, deterioration may be noticeable by 12 months after filling. Manufacturers of higher class bottled wines have complained about the cheapness of cask wines, in particular, the lower level of alcohol excise levied on cask wine in Australia has been criticised as encouraging binge drinking.
There is no indication, as with a bottle. Cask wine in Australia is colloquially referred to as goon, which is a derived from the word flagon, meaning a large vessel used for drink, or boxy. Wine cask Franzia, brand of box wine Hardy Wine Company Bum wine, low-end fortified wine Jug wine, inexpensive table wine
People can potentially be injured from attempts at opening difficult packages, use of cutting tools can pose a risk of damage to the contents of the package. Easy-opening systems are available to improve package opening convenience, packaging sometimes must be made difficult to open. For example, regulations dictate that some over-the-counter drugs have tamper resistance to deter unauthorized opening before delivery to the intended customer, other packages are intentionally made difficult to open to reduce package pilferage and shoplifting. Hard plastic blister packs protect the products while they are being shipped, in addition, using transparent plastic allows customers to view products directly before purchasing them. The term wrap rage itself came about as a result of media attention to the phenomenon, although other variants such as packaging rage have been used as early as 1998, Word Spy identifies the earliest use of wrap rage as coming from The Daily Telegraph in 2003. The American Dialect Society identified the term as one of the most useful of 2007, in 2006, Consumer Reports magazine recognized the wrap rage phenomenon when it created the Oyster Awards for the products with the hardest-to-open packaging.
In a survey conducted at the Cox School of Business, almost 80 percent of households expressed anger, consumers tend to use words such as hate and difficult when describing these products. Consumers sometimes use potentially unsafe tools such as blades, snips. In the Yours survey, 71% of respondents said they had been injured while trying to open food packaging, the most common injury respondents had from trying to open packaging was a cut finger, followed by a cut hand, sprained wrist, bruised hand and strained shoulder muscle. According to a British study, over 60,000 people receive hospital treatment each year due to injuries from opening food packaging, the Consumer Product Safety Commission estimated that attempts to open packaging caused about 6,500 emergency room visits in the U. S. in 2004. When packagers and retailers are willing, there are possible solutions to allow easy access to package contents. Easy access, can allow more pilferage and shoplifting. Some companies are making their packs easier for consumers to open to help reduce frustration, other companies must keep tamper resistant packages.
Forces driving the efforts to improve packaging include pressure from consumers and retailers, several methods of making packages easy to open have long been available. These include perforations, tear tapes and break-open components, some easy-open features can add extra cost to packaging. Household scissors or a utility knife are sometimes used to open difficult packaging, tin snips are effective for tough plastics, the higher mechanical advantage of compound metal snips make it possible to cut such packages open even using little hand strength. These packages can be opened with a household can opener. Computer rage Rage Road rage Tamper resistance
Shelf life is the length of time that a commodity may be stored without becoming unfit for use, consumption, or sale. In other words, it refer to whether a commodity should no longer be on a pantry shelf. It applies to cosmetics and beverages, medical devices, explosives, pharmaceutical drugs, tires, batteries, in some regions, an advisory best before, mandatory use by or freshness date is required on packaged perishable foods. Most expiration dates are used as based on normal and expected handling. Use prior to the date does not guarantee the safety of a food or drug. According to the USDA, canned foods are safe indefinitely as long as they are not exposed to freezing temperatures, if the cans look ok, they are safe to use. Discard cans that are dented, rusted, or swollen, high-acid canned foods will keep their best quality for 12 to 18 months, low-acid canned foods for 2 to 5 years. Sell by date is an ambiguous term for what is often referred to as an expiration date. Most food is edible after the expiration date.
A product that has passed its shelf life might still be safe, Shelf life depends on the degradation mechanism of the specific product. Most can be influenced by several factors, exposure to light, moisture, transmission of gases, mechanical stresses, product quality is often mathematically modelled around a parameter. For some foods, health issues are important in determining shelf life, bacterial contaminants are ubiquitous, and foods left unused too long will often be contaminated by substantial amounts of bacterial colonies and become dangerous to eat, leading to food poisoning. However, shelf life alone is not an indicator of how long the food can safely be stored. For example, pasteurized milk can remain fresh for five days after its sell-by date if it is refrigerated properly, in contrast, if milk already has harmful bacteria, the use-by dates become irrelevant. The expiration date of pharmaceuticals specifies the date the manufacturer guarantees the full potency, most medications continue to be effective and safe for a time after the expiration date. A rare exception is a case of renal tubular acidosis purportedly caused by expired tetracycline, a study conducted by the U. S.
Food and Drug Administration covered over 100 drugs and over-the-counter. The study showed that about 90% of them were safe and effective as long as 15 years past their expiration dates. One major exception is the Shelf Life Extension Program of the U. S. Department of Defense, which commissioned a major study of drug efficacy from the FDA starting in the mid-1980s
A can opener or tin opener is a device used to open tin cans. Although preservation of food using tin cans had been practiced since at least 1772 in the Netherlands and these early openers were basically variations of a knife, though the 1855 design continues to be produced. The first can opener consisting of the now familiar sharp rotating cutting wheel was invented in 1870 but was considered too difficult to operate for the ordinary consumer. A breakthrough design came in 1925 when a second, serrated wheel was added to hold the wheel on the ring of the can. This easy to use design has one of the most popular can opener models. Around the time of World War II, several can openers were developed for use, such as the American P-38. These featured a robust and simple design where a cutting blade. Electric can openers were introduced in the late 1950s and met with success, the development of new can opener types continues with the recent addition of a side-cutting model. Food preserved in tin cans was in use by the Dutch Navy from at least 1772, before 1800, there was already a small industry of canned salmon in the Netherlands.
Freshly caught salmon were cleaned, boiled in brine and placed in tin-plated iron boxes and this canned salmon was known outside the Netherlands, and in 1797 a British company supplied one of their clients with 13 cans. Preservation of food in tin cans was patented by Peter Durand in 1810, the patent was acquired in 1812 by Bryan Donkin, who had set up the worlds first canning factory in London in 1813. By 1820, canned food was an article in Britain and France. The first cans were robust containers, which weighed more than the food they contained and required ingenuity to open, the instruction on those cans read Cut round the top near the outer edge with a chisel and hammer. The gap of decades between the invention of the can and can opener may be attributed to the functionality of existing tools versus the cost, dedicated can openers appeared in the 1850s and were of a primitive claw-shaped or lever-type design. In 1858, another lever-type opener of a complex shape was patented in the United States by Ezra Warner of Waterbury.
It consisted of a sickle, which was pushed into the can. A guard kept the sickle from penetrating too far into the can, the opener consisted of several parts which could be replaced if worn out, especially the sickle. This opener was adopted by the United States Army during the American Civil War, however, a home-use opener named the Bulls head opener was designed in 1865 and was supplied with cans of pickled beef named Bully beef
Packaging engineering, package engineering, packaging technology and packaging science, is a broad topic ranging from design conceptualization to product placement. All steps along the process, and more, must be taken into account in the design of the package for any given product. Package engineering includes industry-specific aspects of engineering, materials science, industrial design. Packaging engineers must interact with research and development, marketing, graphic design, purchasing, the package must sell and protect the product, while maintaining an efficient, cost-effective process cycle. Engineers develop packages from a variety of rigid and flexible materials. Some materials have scores or creases to allow controlled folding into package shapes, Packaging involves extrusion, thermoforming and other processing technologies. Packages are often developed for high speed fabrication, processing, Packaging engineers use principles of structural analysis and thermal analysis in their evaluations.
Contract Packaging Engineering known as Staffing Packaging Engineering, is a subgroup within the Packaging Engineering Field. Contract Packaging Engineers typically work under the jurisdiction of a legal arrangement between a company and the engineer or consulting company. Contrary to an engineer, Contract Packaging Engineers work per project and/or predetermined time stated within the contract. Some packaging engineers have backgrounds in science, engineering, or design disciplines while some have college degrees specializing in this field. Formal packaging programs might be listed as engineering, packaging science, packaging technology. BE, BS, MS, M. Tech and PhD programs are available, in 1952, Michigan State University became the first university in the USA to offer a degree in Packaging. Faculty and staff are published in packaging and other technical subjects. Indiana State University began offering Packaging as a B. S. in 1974, today, ISU offers Packaging Engineering Technology. The University of Wisconsin-Stout is the school in the UW System that offers a B. S.
degree in Packaging. Rutgers University offers the nation’s only packaging program housed in an engineering school, the Rutgers Packaging Engineering Program offers an 18 credit Graduate Packaging Engineering Certificate. Clemson University offers a bachelors and masters degrees in Packaging Science, the undergraduate program at Clemson requires students to take at least one six-month co-op for the degree
The terms active packaging, intelligent packaging, and smart packaging refer to packaging systems used with foods and several other types of products. They help extend shelf life, monitor freshness, display information on quality, improve safety, active packaging usually means having active functions beyond the inert passive containment and protection of the product. Intelligent and smart packaging usually involve the ability to sense or measure an attribute of the product and this information can be communicated to users or can trigger active packaging functions. Programmable matter, smart materials, etc can be employed in packages, depending on the working definitions, some traditional types of packaging might be considered as active or intelligent. More often, the terms are used with new technologically advanced systems, computer applications, for many years, desiccants have been used to actively control the water vapor in a closed package. A desiccant is a hygroscopic substance usually in a pouch or sachet which is placed inside a sealed package.
They have been used to reduce corrosion of machinery and electronics and to extend the life of moisture sensitive foods. Corrosion inhibitors can be applied to items to prevent rust. Volatile corrosion inhibitors or vapor phase corrosion inhibitors can be provided inside a package in a pouch or can be incorporated in a saturated overwrap of special paper, many of these are organic salts that condense on the metal to resist corrosion. Some films have VCI emitting capability, films are available with copper ions in the polymer structure, These neutralize the corrosive gas in a package and deter rust. VCI create an environment in the packaging. It works on the principle of difference in pressure and causes reaction with Metals and Non metals. There are different forms of VCIs available like Papers, Plastics, HDPE Papers, Foams, Aluminum Barrier Foils, Emitters etc. that can prevent corrosion at many stages. Trace transition metals in foods, especially iron, can induce oxidative degradation of food components, especially lipids.
Metal-chelating active packaging materials are made by immobilizing metal-chelating active compounds onto traditional active packaging material, the surface immobilized metal-chelating compounds can scavenge the transition metals from the product and enhance the oxidative stability of the product. The metal-chelating active packaging technology is antioxidant active packaging that will extend the shelf-life of consumer products by controlling the oxidation, the metal-chelating active packaging technology is known to be able to remove synthetic food preservatives from the food product. This technology can be used to address the consumer demand for additive free. Oxygen scavengers or oxygen absorbers help remove oxygen from a closed package, some are small packets or sachets containing powdered iron, as the iron rusts, oxygen is removed from the surrounding atmosphere
Reusable packaging is manufactured of durable materials and is specifically designed for multiple trips and extended life. A reusable package or container is “designed for reuse without impairment of its protective function. ”The term returnable is sometimes used interchangeably but it can include returning packages or components for other than reuse, disposal, etc. Typically, the used to make returnable packaging include steel, wood. Reusability of packaging is an important consideration of the credo of “reduce, reuse. It is important to the movement toward more sustainable packaging, returnable packaging is encouraged by regulators. For many years, several types of shipping containers have been returnable and reusable and these have made most sense when a reverse logistics system is available or can be readily developed. A return and reuse system can save money on the cost per shipment, particularly the automobile industry, has used heavy-duty returnable racks for shipping hoods, engines, etc. from suppliers to final assembly plants.
The racks are returned for the next shipment cycle, bulk foods and pharmaceuticals are often shipped in reusable and returnable containers. These need to be inspected and sanitized as part of the reuse cycle. An effective Quality Management System is necessary, wooden pallets are often made to be expendable, for a single shipment. Others are heavy duty and intended for multiple shipments, some are in “pallet pools” which are used and refurbished for extended usage. Often reusable industrial shipping containers have bar code labels or RFID chips to help identify, automotive OEM manufacturers use and encourage the use of returnable packaging to move components from their vendors to their factories. The components are placed in packaging and are at times. Such packaging replaces traditional corrugated cartons, thereby helping companies cut costs by avoiding wastage and it helps in reducing the environmental footprint of the automotive industry. Other advantages of using returnable packaging include avoiding damages to parts in while in transit, parts are at times placed in specially designed receptacles for easy picking on the assembly line contributing to fewer mistakes and simpler inventory management.
A few examples of packaging in automotive industry, Several types of consumer containers have been in reuse systems. Reusable bottles for milk and beer have been part of closed-loop use-return-clean-refill-reuse cycles, home canning often uses glass mason jars which are often reused several times. With any food packaging, proper cleaning and disinfecting between each use is critical to health, used packages are often reused for purposes other than their primary use
Packaging and labeling
Packaging is the technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage and use. Packaging refers to the process of designing, Packaging can be described as a coordinated system of preparing goods for transport, logistics and end use. Packaging contains, preserves, informs, in many countries it is fully integrated into government, institutional and personal use. Package labeling or labelling is any written, electronic, or graphic communication on the package or on a separate but associated label. The first packages used the materials available at the time, baskets of reeds, wooden boxes, pottery vases, ceramic amphorae, wooden barrels, woven bags. Processed materials were used to form packages as they were developed, for example, early glass, the study of old packages is an important aspect of archaeology. The use of tinplate for packaging dates back to the 18th century, by 1697, John Hanbury had a rolling mill at Pontypool for making Pontypoole Plates. The method pioneered there of rolling iron plates by means of cylinders enabled more uniform black plates to be produced than was possible with the practice of hammering.
Tinplate boxes first began to be sold from ports in the Bristol Channel in 1725, the tinplate was shipped from Newport, Monmouthshire. By 1805,80,000 boxes were made and 50,000 exported, tobacconists in London began packaging snuff in metal-plated canisters from the 1760s onwards. With the discovery of the importance of airtight containers for food preservation by French inventor Nicholas Appert, after receiving the patent, Durand did not himself follow up with canning food. By 1813, they were producing the first canned goods for the Royal Navy, the progressive improvement in canning stimulated the 1855 invention of the can opener. In 1858, another lever-type opener of a complex shape was patented in the United States by Ezra Warner of Waterbury. Set-up boxes were first used in the 16th century and modern folding cartons date back to 1839, the first corrugated box was produced commercially in 1817 in England. Corrugated paper received a British patent in 1856 and was used as a liner for tall hats, scottish-born Robert Gair invented the pre-cut paperboard box in 1890—flat pieces manufactured in bulk that folded into boxes.
Gair discovered that by cutting and creasing in one operation he could make prefabricated paperboard boxes, commercial paper bags were first manufactured in Bristol, England, in 1844, and the American Francis Wolle patented a machine for automated bag-making in 1852. Packaging advancements in the early 20th century included Bakelite closures on bottles, transparent cellophane overwraps and these innovations increased processing efficiency and improved food safety. As additional materials such as aluminum and several types of plastic were developed, they were incorporated into packages to improve performance, in 1952, Michigan State University became the first university in the world to offer a degree in Packaging Engineering
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element in the boron group with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, nonmagnetic, ductile metal, Aluminium metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is combined in over 270 different minerals. The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite, Aluminium is remarkable for the metals low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation. Aluminium and its alloys are vital to the industry and important in transportation and structures, such as building facades. The oxides and sulfates are the most useful compounds of aluminium, despite its prevalence in the environment, no known form of life uses aluminium salts metabolically, but aluminium is well tolerated by plants and animals. Because of these salts abundance, the potential for a role for them is of continuing interest. Aluminium is a soft, lightweight, ductile. It is nonmagnetic and does not easily ignite, a fresh film of aluminium serves as a good reflector of visible light and an excellent reflector of medium and far infrared radiation.
The yield strength of aluminium is 7–11 MPa, while aluminium alloys have yield strengths ranging from 200 MPa to 600 MPa. Aluminium has about one-third the density and stiffness of steel and it is easily machined, cast and extruded. Aluminium atoms are arranged in a cubic structure. Aluminium has an energy of approximately 200 mJ/m2. Aluminium is a thermal and electrical conductor, having 59% the conductivity of copper. Aluminium is capable of superconductivity, with a critical temperature of 1.2 kelvin. Aluminium is the most common material for the fabrication of superconducting qubits, the strongest aluminium alloys are less corrosion resistant due to galvanic reactions with alloyed copper. This corrosion resistance is reduced by aqueous salts, particularly in the presence of dissimilar metals. In highly acidic solutions, aluminium reacts with water to form hydrogen, primarily because it is corroded by dissolved chlorides, such as common sodium chloride, household plumbing is never made from aluminium
Alternative wine closure
Alternative wine closures are substitute closures used in the wine industry for sealing wine bottles in place of traditional cork closures. The emergence of these alternatives has grown in response to quality control efforts by winemakers to protect against cork taint caused by the presence of the chemical trichloroanisole, the cork-industry group APCOR cites a study showing a 0. 7-1. 2% taint rate. In a 2005 study of 2800 bottles tasted at the Wine Spectator blind-tasting facilities in Napa, synthetic corks are made from plastic compounds designed to look and pop like natural cork, but without the risk of TCA contamination. James Laube of Wine Spectator notes that some can impart a slight chemical flavour to the wine, unlike natural corks, many wine synthetic corks are made from material that is not biodegradable but recyclable as either #4 or #7 in many communities. There are two main techniques for synthetic wine closures, injection molding and extrusion. Methods exist which are claimed to combine the two techniques of injection and extrusion, synthetic wine bottle closures may allow for a controlled oxygen transfer rate which affects the sensory characteristics.
Screw caps or Stelvin caps are made only from aluminium material that threads onto the bottleneck. They are the predominant closure used by Austrian and New Zealand wineries and this can be attributed in part to the New Zealand screw cap initiative which promotes the use of screw caps instead of cork. Screw caps form a seal and can keep out oxygen for a longer time than cork. These benefits aid in maintaining the overall quality and aging potential. Michel Laroche of Domaine Laroche noted that played a role in his decision to adopt screwcaps. Extensive quality tests show convincing results, apart from protecting against cork taint, screwcaps are beneficial in the aging of wine, particularly preserving the aromatic freshness. An often cited contradiction is the case of experiments carried out by Château Haut-Brion in the 1970s, the result was, according to Haut-Brion manager Jean-Bernard Delmas, that it worked perfectly for the first ten years, until the plastic in the caps went brittle and let air in.
Furthermore, there is the public image, as consumers still perceive screwcaps as being for cheap wines. Vino-Seal is a plastic/glass closure released by Alcoa, since its introduction into the European market in 2003, over 300 wineries have utilized Vino-Seal. Using a glass stopper with an inert o-ring, the Vino-Seal creates a seal that prevents oxidation. A disadvantage with the Vino-Seal is the high cost of each plug. Vinolok is a glass stopper developed and produced by a Czech crystal glass producer Preciosa, zork is an alternative wine closure for still wines, that seals like a screw cap and pops like a cork, created by an Australian company of the same name