United Kingdom census, 2011
A census of the population of the United Kingdom is taken every ten years. The 2011 census was held in all countries of the UK on 27 March 2011, it was the first UK census. The Office for National Statistics is responsible for the census in England and Wales, the General Register Office for Scotland is responsible for the census in Scotland, the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency is responsible for the census in Northern Ireland; the Office for National Statistics is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department formed in 2008 and which reports directly to Parliament. ONS is the UK Government's single largest statistical producer of independent statistics on the UK's economy and society, used to assist the planning and allocation of resources, policy-making and decision-making. ONS designs and runs the census in England and Wales. In its capacity as the national statistics office for the United Kingdom, ONS compiles and releases census tables for the United Kingdom when the data from England and Wales and Northern Ireland are complete.
In the run-up to the census both the main UK political parties expressed concerns about the increasing cost and the value for money of the census, it was suggested that the 2011 census might be the last decennial census to be taken. The first results from the 2011 census and sex, occupied households estimates for England and Wales and Northern Ireland, were released on 16 July 2012; the first results for Scotland, the first UK-wide results, were published on 17 December 2012. More detailed and specialised data were published from 2013; the Registrar General John Rickman conducted the first census of Great Britain's population, was responsible for the ten-yearly reports published between 1801 and 1831. During the first 100 years of census-taking the population of England and Wales grew more than threefold, to around 32 million, that of Scotland, where a separate census has been carried out since 1861, to about 4.5 million. From 1911 onwards rapid social change, scientific breakthroughs, major world events affected the structure of the population.
A fire that destroyed census records in 1931, the declaration of war in 1939, made the 1951 census hugely significant in recording 30 years of change over one of the most turbulent periods in British history. The 1971 census was run by the newly created Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, a body formed by the merger of the General Register Office and Government Social Survey. In 1996 the Office for National Statistics was formed by merging the Central Statistical Office, OPCS and the statistics division of the Department of Employment. In 2008 the UK Statistics Authority was established as an independent body. A population census is a key instrument for assessing the needs of local communities; when related to other data sources such as housing or agricultural censuses, or sample surveys, the data becomes more useful. Most countries of the world take censuses: the United Nations recommends that countries take a census at least once every ten years; the design for the 2011 census reflects changes in society since 2001 and asks questions to help paint a detailed demographic picture of England and Wales, as it stands on census day, 27 March.
Data collected by the census is used to provide statistical outputs which central government uses to plan and allocate local authority services funding, which local authorities themselves use to identify and meet the needs of their local communities. Other organisations that use census data include healthcare organisations, community groups and businesses; the questionnaires, including people's personal information, are kept confidential for 100 years before being released to the public, providing an important source of information for historical and genealogy research. The 2011 census for England and Wales included around 25 million households. Questionnaires were posted out to all households, using a national address register compiled by the Office for National Statistics with the help of local authorities through comparisons of the National Land and Property Gazetteer and the Royal Mail and Ordnance Survey national address products. People could complete and submit their questionnaire online, or fill it in on paper and post it back in a pre-addressed envelope.
Guidance was provided online and through the census helpline. Completed questionnaires were electronically tracked and field staff followed up with households that did not return a questionnaire. Special arrangements were made to count people living in communal establishments such as. In these cases field staff delivered and collected questionnaires and, where needed, provided advice or assistance in completing the questionnaire. There was a legal requirement to complete the 2011 census questionnaire, under the terms of the Census Act 1920; as at 27 March 2011 everyone who had lived or intended to live in the country for three months or more was required to complete a questionnaire. Failure to return a completed questionnaire could lead to a criminal record. Lockheed Martin UK, the UK arm of US-based aerospace, technology company Lockheed Martin was awarded the contract to provide services for the census comprising questionnaire printing, a customer contact centre and data capture and processing.
The contract is valued at £150 million one third of the total £1 million census budget
The River Torridge is a river in Devon in England. The River Torridge rises near Meddon; the river describes a long loop through Devon farming country where its tributaries the Lew and Okement join before meeting the Taw at Appledore and flowing into the Bristol Channel. The river is spate dependent and flows between wooded banks which can be steep. After heavy rain the water can be coloured; the Torridge local government district is named after the river. It was the home of Tarka the Otter in Henry Williamson's book; the river rises close to the border with Cornwall. Its two primary sources are Seckington Water, which rises near Baxworthy Cross, Clifford Water, the longer of the two, which rises alongside the A39 at Higher Clovelly; these join to form the Torridge at Huddisford. It flows east, passing between East Putford and West Putford, near Bradford it is joined by the River Waldon heads east past Black Torrington and Sheepwash, it is joined by the River Lew near Hatherleigh, by the River Okement near Meeth.
It flows northwards, picking up the River Mere south of Beaford. After this it makes tight bends, goes past Little Torrington and Great Torrington heading north-west, it is joined by the River Yeo at Pillmouth, becomes estuarine by Bideford. Between Appledore and Instow it enters Bideford Bay; the Tarka Trail walking and cycle route follows the course of the North Devon Railway, for a considerable distance followed the line of the river. South of Bideford the railway crossed from one bank to the other, the Trail provides a good vantage point for viewing the river; the following is a list of bridges over the River Torridge listed going upstream from the estuary at Bideford: Torridge A39 Road Bridge Bideford Long Bridge Halfpenny Bridge, Annery/ Weare Giffard Beam Aqueduct, Great Torrington Rothern Bridge, Great Torrington Rolle Bridge, Great Torrington Taddiport Bridge, Great Torrington New Bridge, Great Torrington Pevsner, Nikolaus & Cherry, Bridget. The Buildings of England – Devon. Yale University Press.
ISBN 0300095961. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list
Webbery is an historic manor in the parish of Alverdiscott in North Devon, England. The manor of WIBERIE is listed in the Domesday Book of 1086 as the first of the twelve Devonshire holdings of "Nicholas the Bowman", a servant of King William the Conqueror and one of the Devon Domesday Book tenants-in-chief, his tenant was Roger Goad. He was a tenant-in-chief in Warwickshire. Nicholas was the king's artilleryman, whose role was "the captain or officer in charge of the stone and missile discharging engines used in sieges", he was known as Nicholas de la Pole. At some time between 1095 and 1100 he exchanged his manor of Ailstone in Warwickshire for the manor of Plymtree in Devon, held by St Peter's Abbey, Gloucester. Most of his landholdings descended to the feudal barony of Plympton. During the reign of King Henry III, Webbery was held by Richard Poleyne. Webbery passed to the de Wibbery family which, as was usual during the reign of King Edward I, adopted its surname from its seat. Simon de Wibbery is recorded as being lord of the manor in 1314.
It remained the seat of this family for several generations until the male line failed and it passed to the Lippingcott family, by marriage to the heiress Jane Wibbery, daughter of John Wibbery and sister and co-heiress of William Wibbery. The arms of Wibbery are uncertain. Pole gives them as: Argent, a fess embattled counter-embattled sable between three caterfoils gules, yet many 19th century sources give them as: A chevron between three mermaids, but without the provision of any evidence to ancient sources, curiously without mention or discussion of Pole's contradictory blazon; the Wibbery family had become extinct in the male line before the production of the Heraldic Visitations of Devon, thus the arms are not recorded in that source. The Lippingcott family quartered these mermaid arms, which the above sources identify as the arms of Wibbery, yet other sources, including Carew in his Scroll of Arms, state the mermaid arms quartered by Lippingcott to be the arms of Gough of Cornwall, an heiress of which family the Lippincotts married and whose arms they were thus entitled to quarter.
(Gough of "Kilkeham" in Cornwall, per Joseph Hollands Collection of Arms, 1579, quoted in Carew's Scroll of Arms, 1588, no.62. John Lippingcott of Lippingcott, in the parish of Alverdiscott, married Jane Wibbery, the heiress of Webbery, the Lippingcott family moved its residence to Webbery from Lippingcott; the Lippingcott family is believed to have originated either at a manor named "Lovacott" or "Luffincott", of which a range of possible locations exists, of which their surname is a corruption. A possibility is "Lovacott" in the parish of Shebbear in the hundred of Shebbear, listed in the Domesday Book as LOVECOTE, the 17th of the 31 Devonshire manors of Roald Dubbed held in chief from King William the Conqueror. An alternative origin of the family is the manor and the present parish of "Luffincott", not mentioned in the Domesday Book, which has its own church of St James; this is situated in the Hundred of Black Torrington, is not identical to the DB LOVECOTE in Shebbear. A further estate named "Lovacott", is situated in the parish of Alverdiscott only 1 1/2 miles north-east of Webbery.
The Lippingcott family still held Webbery in the early 17th century, when Risdon wrote his work the Survey of Devon. A member of the Lippingcott family was an early settler in the American Colonies, his descendants are frequent visitors to Webbery today. In the late 18th century Webbery was inherited from Hugh Lippingcott by Charles Cutcliffe of Weach Barton, Devon, a member of the ancient Cutcliffe family of Damage in the parish of Ilfracombe in North Devon, said to have descended from the French family named Roquetaillard of Chateau Roquetaillard in Gironde; the name Cutcliffe was Latinized to de Rupescissa. Charles Cutcliffe's wife was Elizabeth Dene, a daughter of Humphry Dene of Horwood House in the parish of Horwood, Devon. Memorials to the Dene family survive in Horwood. Charles Cutcliffe's father Charles Cutcliffe of Bideford, had inherited the extensive Ilfracombe estates of his nephew of the senior line, Robert Cutcliffe of Damage, who died without progeny. Charles Newell Cutcliffe, eldest son, a solicitor and banker at nearby Bideford, a Deputy Lieutenant for Devon and Captain of Volunteers at a time of great anxiety in England of a French Invasion following the French Revolution of 1789.
He married Maragaret Mervyn, a daughter and co-heiress of John Mervyn of Marwood Hill in the parish of Marwood. Two of his daughters were Ann Cutcliffe and Harriet Cutcliffe, who both died unmarried, described in the census of 1851 as "resident gentlewomen" living at Hudscott, Chittlehampton as companions to Lucilla Rolle, the elderly and lunatic sister of John Rolle, 1st Baron Rolle, whom Rolle made provision for in his will, their monument survives in Marwood Church. His other daughter was Frances Cutcliffe, the wife of Zachary Hammett Drake I and mother of Zachary Hammett Drake II, Rector of Clovelly, a relative of James Hammet, lord of the Manor of Clovelly, who changed his surname and became Sir James Hamlyn
Pulpit is a raised stand for preachers in a Christian church. The origin of the word is the Latin pulpitum; the traditional pulpit is raised well above the surrounding floor for audibility and visibility, accessed by steps, with sides coming to about waist height. From the late medieval period onwards, pulpits have had a canopy known as the sounding board or abat-voix above and sometimes behind the speaker in wood. Though sometimes decorated, this is not purely decorative, but can have a useful acoustic effect in projecting the preacher's voice to the congregation below. Most pulpits have one or more book-stands for the preacher to rest his or her bible, notes or texts upon; the pulpit is reserved for clergy. This is mandated in the regulations of the Roman Catholic church, several others. In Welsh Nonconformism, this was felt appropriate, in some chapels a second pulpit was built opposite the main one for lay exhortations and other speeches. Many churches have a second, smaller stand called the lectern, which can be used by lay persons, is used for all the readings and ordinary announcements.
The traditional Catholic location of the pulpit to the side of the chancel or nave has been retained by Anglicans and some Protestant denominations, while in Presbyterian and Evangelical churches the pulpit has replaced the altar at the centre. Equivalent platforms for speakers are the bema of Ancient Greece and Jewish synagogues, the minbar of Islamic mosques. From the pulpit is used synecdochically for something, said with official church authority. In many Reformed and Evangelical Protestant denominations, the pulpit is at the centre of the front of the church, while in the Catholic and Anglican traditions the pulpit is placed to one side and the altar or communion table is in the centre. In many Christian churches, there are two speakers' stands at the front of the church; the one on the left is called the pulpit. Since the Gospel lesson is read from the pulpit, the pulpit side of the church is sometimes called the gospel side. In both Catholic and Protestant churches the pulpit may be located closer to the main congregation in the nave, either on the nave side of the crossing, or at the side of the nave some way down.
This is the case in large churches, to ensure the preacher can be heard by all the congregation. Fixed seating for the congregation came late in the history of church architecture, so the preacher being behind some of the congregation was less of an issue than later. Fixed seating facing forward in the nave and modern electric amplification has tended to reduce the use of pulpits in the middle of the nave. Outdoor pulpits attached to the exterior of the church, or at a preaching cross, are found in several denominations. If attached to the outside wall of a church, these may be entered from a doorway in the wall, or by steps outside; the other speaker's stand on the right, is known as the lectern. The word lectern comes from the Latin word "lectus" past participle of legere, meaning "to read", because the lectern functions as a reading stand, it is used by lay people to read the scripture lessons, to lead the congregation in prayer, to make announcements. Because the epistle lesson is read from the lectern, the lectern side of the church is sometimes called the epistle side.
In other churches, the lectern, from which the Epistle is read, is located to the congregation's left and the pulpit, from which the sermon is delivered, is located on the right. Though unusual, movable pulpits with wheels were found in English churches, they were either wheeled into place for each service where they would be used or, as at the hospital church in Shrewsbury, rotated to different positions in the church quarterly in the year, to allow all parts of the congregation a chance to have the best sound. A portable outside pulpit of wood and canvas was used by John Wesley, a 19th century Anglican vicar devised a folding iron pulpit for using outdoors; the Ancient Greek bema means both'platform' and'step', was used for a variety of secular raised speaking platforms in ancient Greece and Rome, from those times to today for the central raised platform in Jewish synagogues. Modern synagogue bimahs are similar in form to centrally-placed pulpits in Evangelical churches; the use of a bema carried over from Judaism into early Christian church architecture.
It was a raised platform large, with a lectern and seats for the clergy, from which lessons from the Scriptures were read and the sermon was delivered. In Western Christianity the bema developed over time into the chancel; the next development was the ambo, from a Greek word meaning an elevation. This was a raised platform from which the Epistle and Gospel would be read, was an option to be used as a preacher's platform for homilies, though there were others. Saint John Chrysostom is recorded as preaching from the ambo, but this was uncommon at this date. In cathedrals early bishops seem to have preached from their chair in the apse, echoing the position of magistrates in the secular basilicas whose general form most large early churches adopted. There were two ambos, one to each side, one used more as a platform on which the choir sang.
W. G. Hoskins
William George Hoskins CBE FBA was an English local historian who founded the first university department of English Local History. His great contribution to the study of history was in the field of landscape history. Hoskins demonstrated the profound impact of human activity on the evolution of the English landscape in a pioneering book: The Making of the English Landscape, his work has had lasting influence in the fields of local and landscape history and historical and environmental conservation. William George Hoskins was born at 26–28 St David's Hill, Devon on 22 May 1908: his father, like his grandfather, was a baker, he won a scholarship to Hele's School in 1918, attended the University College of South West England where he gained BSc and MSc degrees in economics by the age of 21. Both his MSc in 1929 and his PhD in 1938 were on the history of Devon; the remainder of his life was devoted to the authorship of historical works. He died on 11 January 1992 in Devon. Hoskins was appointed Assistant Lecturer in Commerce at University College, Leicester in 1931.
He found the trade statistics to be dull lecture material, but he enjoyed the evenings that he spent teaching archaeology and local history at Vaughan College. His academic researches covered historical demography, urban history, agrarian history, the evolution of vernacular architecture, landscape history and local history, he became a member of the Leicestershire Archaeological Society in September 1935. After the award of his doctorate Hoskins was appointed Reader in English Local History at University College, Leicester. In 1952, Hoskins resigned from his posts at University College, on the Leicestershire Victoria County History Committee to become Reader in Economic History in the University of Oxford. In his obituary, this was stated to be acknowledged as a mistake. Hoskins was one of the founders of the Exeter Group in 1960, he was president of the Dartmoor Preservation Association from 1962 until 1976. He became the first professor of local history at the University of Leicester in 1965 when he was appointed Hatton Professor of English History.
Hoskins wrote and presented a BBC television series Landscapes of England in 1976, derived from his best-selling book The Making of the English Landscape. Hoskins was awarded the Fellowship of the British Academy in 1969 and the CBE in 1971, he was made an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects in 1973, received the Murchison Award of the Royal Geographical Society in 1976. The University of Exeter acknowledged his links with the city by conferring an honorary Doctorate of Letters upon him in 1974; as founder of the Department of English Local History at the University of Leicester, his achievements are commemorated by the Friends of the Centre for English Local History each year in the annual W. G. Hoskins lecture, another at St Anne's College, Oxford. In 2004 the Devon History Society erected a blue plaque on his birthplace in Exeter with the inscription: "W. G. Hoskins CBE FBA Dlitt 1908–1992 Historian of Devon and the English Landscape Born Here'Hic Amor, Haec Patria Est'."
In 1955, Hoskins published the book, to make his name. The Making of the English Landscape is a landscape history of England and a seminal text in that discipline and in local history; the brief history of some one thousand years has become a standard text in local and environmental history courses. Hoskins sets out his stall in the introduction with "No book exists to describe the manner in which the various landscapes of this country came to assume the shape and appearance they now have...". The brief concluding chapter contains only one image, Plate 82, "The completed English landscape" showing a tall tree in a wide open field, a strip of hedges and villages just visible in the distance; the chapter laments the damage caused to parts of the English landscape, mentioning bulldozers and tractors, nuclear bombers and by-passes, ends by celebrating again the wealth of detail within a few hundred yards of Hoskins' study window at Steeple Barton. The book has been well received by critics. Penelope Lively describes the book as "a marvellous, opinionated account of the landscape as narrative".
William Boyd describes it as "an absolute trailblazer, a revolution." Boyd notes that W. H. Auden "revered" the book, that reading Hoskins had enabled him to "read" a landscape as a "historical palimpsest". Local historian Graeme White calls the book "brilliantly-crafted". Hoskins wrote the following essays: The Face of Britain. Midland England: A Survey of the Country Between the Midlands and the Trent East Midlands and the Peak Chilterns to Black Country Devonshire Studies A New Survey of England: Devon, The Making of the English Landscape ISBN 0-340-77020-1, new edition Little Toller Books Leicestershire: an illustrated essay on the history of the landscape; the Midland Peasant: The economic and social history of a Leicestershire village Local History in England ISBN 0-582-48286-0 Devon and its People, ISBN 0-7153-4865-5 Two Thousand Years in Exeter, ISBN 1-86077-303-6 "Foreword" in West, John. Village Records ISBN 0-85033-444-6 (with Stamp, L
Devon and Somerset Fire and Rescue Service
Devon and Somerset Fire and Rescue Service is the statutory fire and rescue service covering the county of Devon and the non-metropolitan county of Somerset in South West England. The service does not cover the unitary authorities of North Somerset and Bath and North East Somerset, which are covered by the Avon Fire and Rescue Service, it is the fifth largest rescue service in the United Kingdom. Devon and Somerset Fire and Rescue Service was founded on 1 April 2007, following the merger of Devon Fire and Rescue Service with Somerset Fire and Rescue Service; the Somerset service known as Somerset Fire Brigade, was formed on 1 April 1948. Devon Fire Brigade was formed in 1973, by the amalgamation of Exeter City Brigade, Plymouth City Brigade and Devon County Brigade, it became Devon Fire and Rescue Service in 1987. The Service's main headquarters is located at Clyst St George near Exeter, its main training centre is the Service Training Centre at Plympton fire station. The Service employs 1,850 staff, including 578 whole time firefighters and 36 control room staff, 930 retained firefighters and 300 non-uniformed staff.
Each county operated its own control room until 2012 but they now have a single control room at Service Headquarters, Exeter. The fire service operates 85 fire stations, the second largest number of fire stations in an English fire service after those of the London Fire Brigade. Water Ladder: P1 / P3 Water Tender: P2 / P5 Rapid Intervention Vehicle: P1 /P2 Light Rescue Pump: P1 / P2 Light 6x6 Pump: P9 Aerial Ladder Platform: A1 Fire Boat: B1 Command Support Unit: C1 Environmental Protection Unit: H2 Light 4x4 Pump: M1 Light 4x4 Vehicle: M5 / R2 / T5 Heavy Rescue Unit: R1 Specialist Rescue Unit: R5 Incident Support Unit: S4 Light Utility Vehicle: T2 Prime Mover: T2 / T8 / T9Pods: Bulk Foam Unit High Volume Pump High Volume Hose Layer Incident Support Unit Hose Layer Unit: W1 Water Carrier: W1 / W3 Co-Responder/Emergency Response Unit: V1 / V3 Trailers All Terrain Vehicle Inshore Rescue Boat Pump Water Bowser Urban Search & Rescue: Command Support Unit: C1 Light 4x4 Vehicle: M5 / M6 / R2 Specialist Rescue Unit: R5 Search & Rescue Dog Unit: R8 / R9 General Purpose Vehicle: T1 Light Utility Vehicle: T2 Personnel Carrier Vehicle: T3 Prime Mover: T6 / T7 / T8 / T9Modules: Module 1 - Technical Search Equipment Module 2 - Heavy Transport, Confined Space & Hot Cutting Equipment Module 3 - Breaching & Breaking Equipment Module 4 - Multi Purpose Vehicle Module 5 - Shoring Operations CBRN Response: Incident Response Unit: H9 Prime Mover + Mass Decontamination Disrobe: T9 Prime Mover + Mass Decontamination Rerobe: T9 Devon and Somerset Fire and Rescue Service works in partnership with South Western Ambulance Service to provide emergency medical cover to areas of Devon and Somerset.
These are areas. The aim of a co-responder team is to preserve life until the arrival of either a Rapid Response Vehicle or an ambulance. Co-responder vehicles are equipped with automatic external defibrillation equipment. Co-responder stations have a dedicated vehicle for Co-responder calls; the vehicle, known as the emergency response unit, attends in place of the fire appliance, allowing the fire appliance to remain available. Nineteen stations operate as co-responders: Axminster 34 Chagford 23 Cheddar 76 Combe Martin 07 Crediton 38 Dawlish 25 Dulverton 64 Hartland 08 Hatherleigh 09 Holsworthy 10 Ivybridge 53 Lynton 11 Moretonhampstead 27 Nether Stowey 67 Porlock 68 Princetown 56 Seaton 42 Williton 71 Woolacombe 16 The M5 motorway is the arterial route through Devon and Somerset, it is the main link road to the south west from the North. Devon and Somerset Fire and Rescue Service divide the M5 into sections so that the nearest appliances attend; the station grounds are: Northbound - Bravo J31–J30: 59 Middlemoor J30–J29: 59 Middlemoor J29–J28: 59 Middlemoor J28–J27: 39 Cullompton J27–J26: 39 Cullompton J26–J25: 70 Wellington J25–J24: 61 Taunton J24–J23: 62 Bridgwater J23–J22: 62 Bridgwater J22–J21: 63 Burnham-On-Sea Southbound - Alpha J21–J22: Avon FRS 18 Weston-super-Mare J22–J23: 63 Burnham-On-Sea J23–J24: 62 Bridgwater J24–J25: 62 Bridgwater J25–J26: 61 Taunton J26–J27: 70 Wellington J27–J28: 39 Cullompton J28–J29: 59 Middlemoor J29–J30: 59 Middlemoor J30–J31: 59 Middlemoor HMNB Devonport Dockyard, in Plymouth, is home to twenty one of the Royal Navy's fleet of ships and submarines.
The dockyard falls into the station ground of 48 Camels Head, is backed up by 49 Crownhill. Each part of the dockyard is divided into risk areas - this reflects in the level of attendance by the Fire Service; some parts of the dockyard are considered a high risk - therefore attract a high attendance - sometimes as many as four pumping appliances and the aerial ladder platform are mobilised to a fire alarm actuating. Hinkley Point is a headland on the coast of Somerset, it is the location of two nuclear power stations. Hinkley Point B is the only active site. Hinkley Point has its own fire station, backed up by 67 Nether Stowey and would be backed up by 62 Bridgwater. There is a planned new nuclear power station that will be Hinkley Point C. Devon and Somerset use a variety of special appliances. Operating from 85 fire stations, It has 121 fire engines a
Domesday Book is a manuscript record of the "Great Survey" of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of King William the Conqueror. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle states: Then, at the midwinter, was the king in Gloucester with his council.... After this had the king a large meeting, deep consultation with his council, about this land. Sent he his men over all England into each shire, it was written in Medieval Latin, was abbreviated, included some vernacular native terms without Latin equivalents. The survey's main purpose was to determine what taxes had been owed during the reign of King Edward the Confessor, which allowed William to reassert the rights of the Crown and assess where power lay after a wholesale redistribution of land following the Norman conquest; the assessors' reckoning of a man's holdings and their values, as recorded in Domesday Book, was dispositive and without appeal. The name "Domesday Book" came into use in the 12th century; as Richard FitzNeal wrote in the Dialogus de Scaccario: for as the sentence of that strict and terrible last account cannot be evaded by any skilful subterfuge, so when this book is appealed to... its sentence cannot be quashed or set aside with impunity.
That is why we have called the book "the Book of Judgement"... because its decisions, like those of the Last Judgement, are unalterable. The manuscript is held at The National Archives at London. In 2011, the Open Domesday site made the manuscript available online; the book is an invaluable primary source for historical economists. No survey approaching the scope and extent of Domesday Book was attempted again in Britain until the 1873 Return of Owners of Land which presented the first complete, post-Domesday picture of the distribution of landed property in the British Isles. Domesday Book encompasses two independent works; these were "Little Domesday", "Great Domesday" No surveys were made of the City of London, Winchester, or some other towns due to their tax-exempt status. Most of Cumberland and Westmorland are missing. County Durham is missing; the omission of the other counties and towns is not explained, although in particular Cumberland and Westmorland had yet to be conquered. "Little Domesday" – so named because its format is physically smaller than its companion's – is the more detailed survey, down to numbers of livestock.
It may have represented the first attempt, resulting in a decision to avoid such level of detail in "Great Domesday". Both volumes are organised into a series of chapters listing the fees, held by a named tenant-in-chief of the king, namely religious institutions, Norman warrior magnates and a few Saxon thegns who had made peace with the Norman regime; some of the largest such magnates held several hundred fees, in a few cases in more than one county. For example, the chapter of the Domesday Book Devonshire section concerning Baldwin the Sheriff lists 176 holdings held in-chief by him. Only a few of the holdings of the large magnates were held in demesne, most having been subinfeudated to knights military followers of the tenant-in-chief which latter thus became their overlord; the fees listed within the chapter concerning a particular tenant-in-chief were ordered, but not in a systematic or rigorous fashion, by the Hundred Court under the jurisdiction of which they were situated, not by geographic location.
As a review of taxes owed, it was unpopular. Each county's list opened with the king's demesne lands, it should be borne in mind that under the feudal system the king was the only true "owner" of land in England, under his allodial title. He was thus the ultimate overlord and the greatest magnate could do no more than "hold" land from him as a tenant under one of the various contracts of feudal land tenure. Holdings of Bishops followed of the abbeys and religious houses of lay tenants-in-chief and lastly the king's serjeants, Saxon thegns who had survived the Conquest, all in hierarchical order. In some counties, one or more principal towns formed the subject of a separate section: in some the clamores were treated separately; this principle applies more to the larger volume: in the smaller one, the system is more confused, the execution less perfect. Domesday names a total of 13,418 places. Apart from the wholly rural portions, which constitute its bulk, Domesday contains entries of interest concerning most of t