Alvie is a small crofting hamlet, a working Scottish highland estate and civil parish, located on the south shore of Loch Alvie in the Badenoch and Strathspey area of Inverness-shire, within the Scottish council area of Highland. Alvie sits in Cairngorm National Park and is part of Alvie and Dalraddy Estates which extend into the Monadhliath hills from the River Spey, famous for its fishing and whisky and overlook the Cairngorm Mountain range in National Park. In the early nineteenth century Alvie was owned by the Macpherson-Grants of Ballindalloch. In 1862 the property appears to have been in the ownership of James Evan Baillie, the predecessor of Lord Burton of Dochfour. By 1867 the estate was purchased or tenanted by Sir John Ramsden, an industrialist from northern England who planted up around 2,000 acres of what was described as moor land to forestry for timber production, he purchased and moved to Ardverikie Estate which his descendants still own. In 1905 Alvie was purchased by Sir Robert Boville Whitehead who owned Alvie until 1923.
Sir Robert was the grandson of Robert Whitehead. The Whitehead family married into some of the most influential in Europe with Bertie’s cousin Marguerite marrying Herbert von Bismark, son of the German chancellor Otto von Bismarck, whilst another cousin Agathe Whitehead, fell in love with and married an Austrian Kapitanleutnant Georg Johannes Von Trapp. Agathe died of scarlet fever in 1922 leaving Georg to bring up their 7 children with the help of a governess from the nearby Benedictine Nunnery, who taught them music; the musical the Sound of Music is based on the story of von Trapp and the governess Maria von Trapp who he married. The Whitehead family had a factory in Weybridge in England and another on the Baltic run by von Trapp. During the First World War the Baltic factory supplied the German navy with torpedoes whilst the factory at Weybridge supplied the British navy. Robert Whitehead deer fenced much of the Estate and invested large sums in extending Alvie House and improving the stock of red deer.
The remains of the deer fence erected. The Estate was sold in 1923 to Lady Carnarvon shortly after the untimely death of her husband, Lord Carnarvon, 5th Earl of Carnarvon. Lord Carnarvon broke into the Tutankhamun tombs in Egypt, he and his son died within a year of each other. The Carnarvan family own Highclere Castle, the shooting location of the hit TV show Downton Abbey. Lady Carnarvon set up Balchurn as a model dairy farm, she and her soon to be her 2nd husband, Lt Colonel Ian Onslow Dennistoun invested in grouse shooting. Alvie Estate was purchased by the Williamson family in 1927 for its field sports; the family had been Liberal MPs for Moray and Nairn since 1906 and had land holdings in Angus. Alexander Williamson, who purchased Alvie Estate in 1927 and Dalraddy Estate in 1929, was a younger son of the MP. Around the time of his death in 1930 the Estates were put into a limited liability company Alvie Estate Ltd, his nephew Gerald Williamson managed the Estates for his widow until her death in 1956.
He organised the replanting of most of the woodland areas felled during the 2 world wars. He purchased Invereshie Farm in 1957 and Blackmill and part of Ballintean Farms at the bottom end of Glenfeshie; these farms are now farmed by his youngest daughter Jane Williamson. Gerald Williamson died in 1966. In 1966 Gerald’s son Fergus Williamson transferred the Estates out of Alvie Estate Ltd. and into his ownership following advice that any sale of the assets would result in double taxation. In January 1972 Alvie and Dalraddy Estates were transferred into a Discretionary Trust but retaining Alvie House and policies in the ownership of Fergus Williamson; the class of beneficiaries were his grandchildren. Fergus Williamson was part of a consortium, he helped build Glenfeshie gliding club on land now owned by Jane Williamson and in 1968 opened Dalraddy Caravan Park. He turned parts of Alvie House into self catering holiday accommodation and rented out the grouse shooting and deer stalking on a commercial basis.
In 1983 Dalraddy Estate was transferred into the ownership of Jamie Williamson, the eldest son of Fergus Williamson. Alvie Farm was transferred into a limited partnership with Jamie Williamson being the general partner and Alvie Trust the limited partner. Following the death of Fergus Williamson in 1987 the widow of Fergus transferred ownership of Alvie House and policies to their eldest son Jamie Williamson in 1991. Most common surnames in Alvie at the time of the United Kingdom Census of 1881, by order of incidence: 1. McDonald 2. McBain 3. Grant 4. McIntosh 5. Fraser 6. McPherson 7. Cameron 8. Kennedy 9. McGregor 10. McKenzie Alvie Estate
Forrest, Victoria is a small rural township in the Otway Ranges, Australia. At the 2016 census and the surrounding area had a population of 230; the railway to the town closed in 1957, as a branch line from Birregurra. It serviced the townships of Deans Marsh, Barwon Downs and Forrest. At Forrest numerous tramways ran off into the nearby bush; these lines were used to bring the freshly cut timber to the rail head, the associated sawmills of which there were 4 in Forrest and nearby Yaugher. All of these mills are now closed. Called Yaugher, the name was changed to Forrest when the township was established; the Post Office opened as Yaugher on 27 July 1891 and was renamed Forrest a few weeks on 15 October 1891. The town football team was established in 1891 and competed in the Colac & District Football League until 2015 folding after struggling to field netball and junior football teams due to lack of available players in the district. Consisting of a microbrewery, upmarket restaurant, "pub", general store, bike hire cafe, a variety of accommodation rentals, Forrest is the gateway to the Otway Ranges.
It is fast becoming a hub for foodies and adventure tourists, now the primary economic driver of the town. The West Barwon river flows through the township and it is near the West Barwon reservoir, which services Geelong. During the past few years the town has begun to grow again with an influx of people seeking more affordable blocks of land not that far away from the coastal resorts of Apollo Bay, Skenes Creek, Grey River, Kennett River and Lorne; these can be reached either by a pleasant drive on a sealed main road or by ex-timber blue metal roads. Advice should be sought before motoring on the backroads to Wye River and Grey River. Fauna to be viewed on these drives include Australian king parrots, crimson rosellas, grey swamp wallabies, echidnas. Koalas have in the past been released into the Otways; the Smith Street Band recorded their third album Throw Me in the River in Forrest in July 2014. After the cessation of logging in the Otways, the Government of Victoria made funds available for the creation of dedicated Mountain bike trails in the Yaugher area, in order to replace the logging industry.
Mountain biking was seen as an addition to the plentiful eco-tourism industry. Mountain biking now makes up a large portion of the economy in Forrest; the area now has over 60 kilometres of sign posted "single track". Further details can be found at the official website www.rideforrest.com.au Forrest is home to the following annual Mountain Bike Events Forrest Festival - 2 day multi stage event Otway Odyssey - 100k event Forrest 6 Hour - 6 Hour event by teams and individuals Media related to Forrest, Victoria at Wikimedia Commons
Postcodes in Australia
Postcodes are used in Australia to more efficiently sort and route mail within the Australian postal system. Postcodes in Australia are placed at the end of the Australian address. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department and are now managed by Australia Post, are published in booklets available from post offices or online from the Australia Post website. Australian envelopes and postcards have four square boxes printed in orange at the bottom right for the postcode; these are used. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department to replace earlier postal sorting systems, such as Melbourne's letter and number codes and a similar system used in rural and regional New South Wales; the introduction of the postcodes coincided with the introduction of a large-scale mechanical mail sorting system in Australia, starting with the Sydney GPO. By 1968, 75% of mail was using postcodes, in the same year post office preferred-size envelopes were introduced, which came to be referred to as “standard envelopes”.
Postcode squares were introduced in June 1990 to enable Australia Post to use optical character recognition software in its mail sorting machines to automatically and more sort mail by postcodes. Australian postcodes consist of four digits, are written after the name of the city, suburb, or town, the state or territory: Mr John Smith 100 Flushcombe Road BLACKTOWN NSW 2148When writing an address by hand, a row of four boxes is pre-printed on the lower right hand corner of an envelope, the postcode may be written in the boxes. If addressing a letter from outside Australia, the postcode is recorded before'Australia'. Australian postcodes are sorting information, they are linked with one area. Due to post code rationalisation, they can be quite complex in country areas; the south-western Victoria 3221 postcode of the Geelong Mail Centre includes twenty places around Geelong with few people. This means that mail for these places is not sorted until it gets to Geelong; some postcodes cover large populations, while other postcodes have much smaller populations in urban areas.
Australian postcodes range from 0200 for the Australian National University to 9944 for Cannonvale, Queensland. Some towns and suburbs have two postcodes — one for street deliveries and another for post office boxes. For example, a street address in the Sydney suburb of Parramatta would be written like this: Mr John Smith 99 George Street PARRAMATTA NSW 2150But mail sent to a PO Box in Parramatta would be addressed: Mr John Smith PO Box 99 PARRAMATTA NSW 2124Many large businesses, government departments and other institutions receiving high volumes of mail had their own postcode as a Large Volume Receiver, e.g. the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital has the postcode 4029, the Australian National University had the postcode 0200. More postcode ranges were made available for LVRs in the 1990s. Australia Post has been progressively discontinuing the LVR programme since 2006; the first one or two numbers show the state or territory that the postcode belongs to Sometimes near the state and territory borders, Australia Post finds it easier to send mail through a nearby post office, across the border: Some of the postcodes above may cover two or more states.
For example, postcode 2620 covers both a locality in NSW as well as a locality in the ACT, postcode 0872 covers a number of localities across WA, SA, NT and QLD. Three locations straddle the NSW-Queensland border. Jervis Bay Territory, once an exclave of the ACT but now a separate territory, is geographically located on the coast of NSW, it is just south of the towns of Huskisson, with which it shares a postcode. Mail to the Jervis Bay Territory is still addressed to the ACT; the numbers used to show the state on each radio callsign in Australia are the same number as the first number for postcodes in that state, e.g. 2xx in New South Wales, 3xx in Victoria, etc. Radio callsigns pre-date postcodes in Australia by more than forty years. Australia's external territories are included in Australia Post's postcode system. While these territories do not belong to any state, they are addressed as such for mail sorting: Three scientific bases in Antarctica operated by the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions share a postcode with the isolated sub-Antarctic island of Macquarie Island: Each state's capital city ends with three zeroes, while territorial capital cities end with two zeroes.
Capital city postcodes were the lowest postcodes in their state or territory range, before new ranges for LVRs and PO Boxes were made available. The last number can be changed from "0" to "1" to get the postcode for General Post Office boxes in any capital city: While the first number of a postcode shows the state or territory, the second number shows a region within the state. However, postcodes with the same second number are not always next to each other; as an example, postcodes in the range 2200–2299 are split between the southern suburbs of Sydney and the Central Coast of New South Wales. Postcodes with a second number of "0" or "1" are always located within the metropolitan area of the state's capital city. Postcodes with higher secon
A scenic viewpoint – called an observation point, viewing point, vista point, scenic overlook, etc. – is an elevated location where people can view scenery and photograph it. Scenic viewpoints may be created alongside mountain roads as simple turnouts where motorists can pull over onto pavement, gravel, or grass on the right-of-way. Many viewpoints are larger, having parking areas. Viewing points may be found on hill or mountain tops or on rocky spurs overlooking a valley and reached via a hiking trail, they may be protected by railings to protect the public or be enhanced by a viewing tower designed to elevate visitors above the surrounding terrain or trees in order to offer panoramic views. Overlooks are found in national parks, in the U. S. along national parkways such as the Blue Ridge Parkway, which has numerous individually named overlooks for viewing the Blue Ridge Mountains and its valleys. Other overlooks are next to waterfalls since mountain roads tend to follow streams. Many overlooks are accessible only by trails and wooden walkways and stairs in ecologically sensitive areas.
These overlooks are wooden decks, which minimize the impact on the land by reducing the need to disturb it for construction. Stratum Pier by artist Kendall Buster
Birregurra is a town in Victoria, Australia 130 kilometres south-west of Melbourne. The town is divided between the Shire of the Surf Coast Shire. At the 2016 census, Birregurra had a population of 828. Birregurra is an Aboriginal word thought to mean ‘kangaroo camp'. In 1839, the Wesleyan missionaries and colonial government established the Buntingdale Mission Station in the area - Victoria's first Aboriginal mission. A Post Office opened in the area on 1 October 1858 and was renamed Mount Gellibrand in 1894, a few days before another office nearby was opened as Birregurra; the railway though the town was opened as part of the line to the south west of the state. A branch line to Forrest left the main line here, opened in 1891 and closed in 1957; the local railway station is served by V/Line passenger services on the Warrnambool line. The town has an Australian Rules football team competing in the District Football League. Golfers play at the Birregurra Golf Club on Hopkins Street. Birregurra is home to the restaurant Brae, number 44 in The World's 50 Best Restaurants, 2017.
The town has a Primary School which has 85 students and is located on Beal Street. The town is host to the Birregurra Art Show, it starts each year on the 2nd full weekend of the month of October. A produce market is held on the second Sunday of each month from November to April, where local vendors sell cakes, plants, fresh fruit and vegetables, wine and crafts. Organisers hold a barbecue for patrons of all proceeds return to the community; the town is full of cafes, serving food and coffee, a local meat provedore showcasing local produce, The Royal Mail Hotel, a great General Store and a few gift shops. Birregurra was the setting for the fictional Victorian town of Haven Bay in the Channel 10 television series The Henderson Kids. Birregurra railway station, Victoria Media related to Birregurra at Wikimedia Commons Community website Birregurra Festival & Art Show Colac Otway Shire Birregurra Primary School
Victoria is a state in south-eastern Australia. Victoria is Australia's smallest mainland state and its second-most populous state overall, thus making it the most densely populated state overall. Most of its population lives concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australia's second-largest city. Victoria is bordered by Bass Strait and Tasmania to the south,New South Wales to the north, the Tasman Sea to the east, South Australia to the west; the area, now known as Victoria is the home of many Aboriginal people groups, including the Boon wurrung, the Bratauolung, the Djadjawurrung, the Gunai/Kurnai, the Gunditjmara, the Taungurong, the Wathaurong, the Wurundjeri, the Yorta Yorta. There were more than 30 Aboriginal languages spoken in the area prior to the European settlement of Australia; the Kulin nation is an alliance of five Aboriginal nations which makes up much of the central part of the state. With Great Britain having claimed the half of the Australian continent, east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria formed part of the wider colony of New South Wales.
The first European settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, much of what is now Victoria was included in 1836 in the Port Phillip District, an administrative division of New South Wales. Named in honour of Queen Victoria, who signed the division's separation from New South Wales, the colony was established in 1851 and achieved self government in 1855; the Victorian gold rush in the 1850s and 1860s increased both the population and wealth of the colony, by the time of the Federation of Australia in 1901, Melbourne had become the largest city and leading financial centre in Australasia. Melbourne served as federal capital of Australia until the construction of Canberra in 1927, with the Federal Parliament meeting in Melbourne's Parliament House and all principal offices of the federal government being based in Melbourne. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate. At state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
The Labor Party led Daniel Andrews as premier has governed Victoria since 2014. The personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria Linda Dessau. Victoria is divided into 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, which the state administers directly; the economy of Victoria is diversified, with service sectors including financial and property services, education, retail and manufacturing constitute the majority of employment. Victoria's total gross state product ranks second in Australia, although Victoria ranks fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne hosts a number of museums, art galleries, theatres, is described as the world's sporting capital; the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the largest stadium in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere, hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. The ground is considered the "spiritual home" of Australian cricket and Australian rules football, hosts the grand final of the Australian Football League each year, drawing crowds of 100,000.
Nearby Melbourne Park has hosted the Australian Open, one of tennis' four Grand Slam events, annually since 1988. Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, dating from 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851. After the founding of the colony of New South Wales in 1788, Australia was divided into an eastern half named New South Wales and a western half named New Holland, under the administration of the colonial government in Sydney; the first British settlement in the area known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. It consisted of 402 people, they had been sent from England in HMS Calcutta under the command of Captain Daniel Woodriff, principally out of fear that the French, exploring the area, might establish their own settlement and thereby challenge British rights to the continent.
In 1826, Colonel Stewart, Captain Samuel Wright, Lieutenant Burchell were sent in HMS Fly and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. The expedition landed at Settlement Point, on the eastern side of Western Port Bay, the headquarters until the abandonment of Western Port at the insistence of Governor Darling about 12 months afterwards. Victoria's next settlement was on the south west coast of what is now Victoria. Edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, John Pascoe Fawkner. From settlement, the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after, the site now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe, three weeks after Melbourne, and in 1838, Geelong was declared a town, despite earlier European settlements dating back to 1826
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo