A Different World
A Different World is an American sitcom that aired for six seasons on NBC from September 24, 1987 to July 9, 1993. The series centered on Denise Huxtable and the life of students at Hillman College, a fictional black college in Virginia, it was inspired by student life at black colleges and universities. After Bonet's departure in the first season, the remainder of the series focused more on Southern belle Whitley Gilbert and math whiz Dwayne Wayne. While it was a spin-off from The Cosby Show, A Different World addressed issues that were avoided by The Cosby Show writers. One episode that aired in 1990 was one of the first American network television episodes to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic; the original premise was to have a white student there and have Lena Horne as an acting teacher, but in production, the premise changed from being a story about a white girl in a black college to a black girl in a black college with a white friend. It was decided that Denise, of college age, would be spun off and have a white roommate in order to show the dynamic of a white girl in predominantly black surroundings.
Meg Ryan was cast for this role, but she decided to pursue a film career, so Marisa Tomei was cast. The first season of Hillman's student body consisted of both black and white students, but this was changed at the beginning of the second season and a predominantly black student body maintained until the series ended. After the first season, it came to Cosby's and the producers' attention that the series was not portraying a black college and life on campus, so Debbie Allen, an alumna of Howard University, was hired as the chief creative force to revamp the show. During the summer of 1988, Lisa Bonet announced that she and husband Lenny Kravitz were having a baby. Allen was in favor of having a young pregnant student in the show, but Cosby said that Lisa Bonet may be pregnant but not Denise Huxtable, it was felt that viewers would not accept Denise as an unwed mother, having grown to know her as a "good girl" after four seasons of The Cosby Show. Thus it was decided that Denise would drop out of Hillman, return home to her family, travel to Africa throughout the fifth season of The Cosby Show, ensuring that viewers would not see a pregnant Denise.
Allen was in favor of keeping Tomei, as she herself recalls a white student at Howard and wanted to relate that in the show and had possible premises for her character, such as meeting Dwayne's parents and seeing the other side of racism. However, Tomei left the show, she and Marie-Alise Recasner were replaced by Cree Summer and Charnele Brown, respectively. Darryl M. Bell and Sinbad were promoted to the principal cast, Glynn Turman and Lou Myers were added as supporting cast members; these changes led to the placement of Whitley and Dwayne at the center of a wider ensemble, dealing with more relevant issues of the day. Cory Tyler as Terrence Taylor Patrick Malone as Terrell Walker Bumper Robinson as Dorian Heywood Michael Ralph as Spencer Boyer, various characters Gary Dourdan as Shazza Zulu Marie-Alise Recasner as Millie Andrew Lowery as Matthew Kim Wayans as Allison Alisa Gyse Dickens as Kinu Owens Jenifer Lewis as Dean Dorothy Dandridge Davenport Diahann Carroll as Marion Gilbert Patti LaBelle as Adele Wayne Roger Guenveur Smith as Prof. Howard Randolph Rosalind Cash as Dean Hughes Ron O'Neal as Mercer Gilbert Phylicia Rashad as Clair Huxtable Jonell Green as Dashawn Curtis Bill Cosby as Cliff Huxtable Keshia Knight Pulliam as Rudy Huxtable Robert Guillaume as Dean Winston and Professor Murphy Harold Sylvester as Woodson Wayne Malcolm-Jamal Warner as Theo Huxtable Vanessa Bell Calloway as Lily Connors & Jaleesa's sister Tisha Campbell-Martin as Josie Webb Nestor Carbonell as Malik Velasquez Art Evans as Mr. Johnson IMx as Whitley's students Richard Roundtree as Clinton Reese Halle Berry as Jaclyn The Boys as Mice 2 Men Dean Cain as Brian Wayne Federman as A&M Wolf Ernie Sabella as Campus Security En Vogue as Faith, Hope and Henrietta Whoopi Goldberg as Dr. Jordan David Alan Grier as Professor Byron Walcott James Avery as bowler Alfonso Ribeiro as Zach Duncan Heavy D as himself Lena Horne as herself Jesse Jackson as himself Trina McGee as Gennifer Khandi Alexander as Theressa Stone Gladys Knight as herself Kris Kross as Dwayne's juvenile mentees Tupac Shakur as Piccolo Obba Babatundé as Frank Blair Underwood as Zelme
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity. The use of the term "racism" does not fall under a single definition; the ideology underlying racism includes the idea that humans can be subdivided into distinct groups that are different due to their social behavior and their innate capacities, as well as the idea that they can be ranked as inferior or superior. Historical examples of institutional racism include the Holocaust, the apartheid regime in South Africa and segregation in the United States, slavery in Latin America. Racism was an aspect of the social organization of many colonial states and empires. While the concepts of race and ethnicity are considered to be separate in contemporary social science, the two terms have a long history of equivalence in both popular usage and older social science literature. "Ethnicity" is used in a sense close to one traditionally attributed to "race": the division of human groups based on qualities assumed to be essential or innate to the group.
Therefore and racial discrimination are used to describe discrimination on an ethnic or cultural basis, independent of whether these differences are described as racial. According to a United Nations convention on racial discrimination, there is no distinction between the terms "racial" and "ethnic" discrimination; the UN convention further concludes that superiority based on racial differentiation is scientifically false, morally condemnable unjust and dangerous. It declared that there is no justification for racial discrimination, anywhere, in theory or in practice. Racist ideology can manifest in many aspects of social life. Racism can be present in social actions, practices, or political systems that support the expression of prejudice or aversion in discriminatory practices or laws. Associated social actions may include nativism, otherness, hierarchical ranking and related social phenomena. In the 19th century, many scientists subscribed to the belief that the human population can be divided into races.
The term racism is a noun describing the state of being racist, i.e. subscribing to the belief that the human population can or should be classified into races with differential abilities and dispositions, which in turn may motivate a political ideology in which rights and privileges are differentially distributed based on racial categories. The origin of the root word "race" is not clear. Linguists agree that it came to the English language from Middle French, but there is no such agreement on how it came into Latin-based languages. A recent proposal is that it derives from the Arabic ra's, which means "head, origin" or the Hebrew rosh, which has a similar meaning. Early race theorists held the view that some races were inferior to others and they believed that the differential treatment of races was justified; these early theories guided pseudo-scientific research assumptions. Today, most biologists and sociologists reject a taxonomy of races in favor of more specific and/or empirically verifiable criteria, such as geography, ethnicity, or a history of endogamy.
To date, there is little evidence in human genome research which indicates that race can be defined in such a way as to be useful in determining a genetic classification of humans. An entry in the Oxford English Dictionary defines racialism as "n earlier term than racism, but now superseded by it", cites it in a 1902 quote; the revised Oxford English Dictionary cites the shortened term "racism" in a quote from the following year, 1903. It was first defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "he theory that distinctive human characteristics and abilities are determined by race". By the end of World War II, racism had acquired the same supremacist connotations associated with racialism: racism now implied racial discrimination, racial supremacism, a harmful intent; as its history indicates, the popular use of the word racism is recent. The word came into widespread usage in the Western world in the 1930s, when it was used to describe the social and political ideology of Nazism, which saw "race" as a given political unit.
It is agreed that racism existed before the coinage of the word, but there is not a wide agreement on a single definition of what racism is and what it is not. Today, some scholars of racism prefer to use the concept in the plural racisms, in order to emphasize its many different forms that do not fall under a single definition, they argue that different forms of racism have characterized different historical periods and geographical areas. Garner summarizes different existing definitions of racism and identifies three common elements contained in those definitions of racism. First, a historical, hierarchical power relationship between groups. Though many countries around the globe have passed laws related to race and discrimination, the first significant international human rights instrument developed by the United Nations
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog
Weill Cornell Medicine
Weill Cornell Medicine is the biomedical research unit and medical school of Cornell University, a private Ivy League university. The medical college is located at 1300 York Avenue, on the Upper East Side of Manhattan in New York City, along with the Weill Cornell Graduate School of Medical Sciences. One of the most selective medical schools in the United States, Cornell enrolls 100 students per class. In 2015, 6,183 persons applied, 800 were interviewed for only 106 seats. Weill Cornell Medicine is tied for 9th place on U. S. News & World Report's "Best Medical Schools: Research" ranking. For the Class of 2022, the average undergraduate GPA and MCAT scores for successful applicants were 3.85 and 518, respectively. The college is named after former Citigroup chairman Sanford Weill. Weill Cornell Medicine is affiliated with New York-Presbyterian Hospital, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Sloan-Kettering Institute, Rockefeller University. In addition, Weill Cornell is the academic center for the Hospital for Special Surgery, which lies across the street, The Methodist Hospital in Houston, a hospital which had been—until 2004—the primary private teaching hospital for Baylor College of Medicine.
The school was founded on April 1898, with an endowment by Col. Oliver H. Payne, it was established in New York because Ithaca, where the main campus is located, was deemed too small to offer adequate clinical training opportunities. James Ewing was the first professor of clinical pathology at the school, for a while was the only full-time professor. A branch of the school operated in Stimson Hall on the main campus; the two-year Ithaca course paralleled the first two years of the New York school. It closed in 1938 due to declining enrollment. In 1927, William Payne Whitney's $27 million donation led to the building of the Payne Whitney Psychiatric Clinic, which became the name for Cornell's large psychiatric effort; that same year, the college became affiliated with New York Hospital and the two institutions moved to their current joint campus in 1932. The hospital's Training School for Nurses became affiliated with the university in 1942, operating as the Cornell Nursing School until it closed in 1979.
In 1998, Cornell University Medical College's affiliate hospital, New York Hospital, merged with Presbyterian Hospital. The combined institution operates today as NewYork–Presbyterian Hospital. Despite the clinical alliance, the faculty and instructional functions of the Cornell and Columbia units remain distinct and independent. Multiple fellowships and clinical programs have merged and the institutions are continuing in their efforts to bring together departments, which could enhance academic efforts, reduce costs, increase public recognition. All hospitals in the NewYork–Presbyterian Healthcare System are affiliated with one of the two colleges. In 1998, the medical college was renamed as Weill Medical College of Cornell University after receiving a substantial endowment from Sanford I. Weill Chairman of Citigroup. In 2015, it renamed itself to Weill Cornell Medicine to reflect an expansion of focus beyond the medical school. While similar to other medical schools, Weill Cornell is different in some important respects.
Weill Cornell's administrative connections are complex. Its primary teaching hospital is NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, which has two medical centers: NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center and NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center. In addition to its affiliations with New York-Presbyterian Hospital, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Sloan-Kettering Institute, Rockefeller University, Weill Cornell is the academic center for the Hospital for Special Surgery, which lies across the street and The Methodist Hospital in Houston, a hospital which had been—until 2004—the primary private teaching hospital for Baylor College of Medicine. Other affiliates include Lincoln Hospital, New York Hospital Queens, New York Methodist Hospital, New York Downtown Hospital, NewYork-Presbyterian/Westchester Division. Weill Cornell has opened the first American medical school to be located outside of U. S. borders. The Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar opened for instruction in 2004.
Its facilities are found in Qatar near Doha. The Qatar campus offers a six-year integrated medical education program focused on patient care; the campus in Doha has led to criticism due to Qatar’s specific interpretation of Shari'a Law and lack of first amendment rights that are so important in U. S. universities. Cornell has received criticism for this campus due to Qatar's support of international terrorism groups such as Hamas and ISIS. Weill Cornell has been involved in the development of the Weill Bugando Medical College in Mwanza, Tanzania. New York-Presbyterian Hospital is a member of the Planetree Alliance, a nonprofit association of health-care institutions set up to promote practices to make patients less intimidated and more comfortable with the health care they receive. Weill Cornell helped Intelligent Medical Objects develop its vocabulary tool map for medical billing and SNOMED terminology. In 2012, the school was featured in the ABC medical documentary series NY Med. Robert C. Atkins, The Atkins Diet Hilary Blumberg, professor of psychiatric neuroscience Carlos Cordon-Cardo and scientist known for his pioneering research in experimental pathology and molecular oncology John P. Donohue, testicular cancer treatment pioneer Anthony Fauci, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease at the Nat
East Harlem known as Spanish Harlem or El Barrio, is a neighborhood of Upper Manhattan, New York City encompassing the area north of the Upper East Side and East 96th Street up to East 142nd Street east of Fifth Avenue to the East and Harlem Rivers. Despite its name, it is not considered to be a part of Harlem; the neighborhood is one of the largest predominantly Latino communities in New York City made up of Puerto Ricans, as well as sizeable numbers of Dominican and Mexican immigrants. The community is notable for its contributions to Latin salsa music. East Harlem includes the area known as Italian Harlem, in which the remnants of a once predominantly Italian community remain; the Chinese population has increased in East Harlem since 2000. East Harlem has suffered from many social issues, such as a high crime rate, the highest jobless rate in New York City, teenage pregnancy, AIDS, drug abuse, an asthma rate five times the national average, it has the second-highest concentration of public housing in the United States, behind Brownsville, Brooklyn.
However, East Harlem is undergoing some gentrification. In February 2016, East Harlem was one of four neighborhoods featured in an article in The New York Times about "New Hot Neighborhoods", the city was considering re-zoning the area. East Harlem is part of Manhattan Community District 11 and its primary ZIP Codes are 10029 and 10035, it is patrolled by the 25th Precincts of the New York City Police Department. The area which became East Harlem was rural for most of the 19th century, but residential settlements northeast of Third Avenue and East 110th Street had developed by the 1860s; the construction of the elevated transit line to Harlem in 1879 and 1880, the building of the Lexington Avenue subway in 1919, urbanized the area, precipitating the construction of apartment buildings and brownstones. The extension of cable cars up Lexington Avenue into East Harlem was stymied by the incline created by Duffy's Hill at 103rd Street, one of the steepest grades in Manhattan. East Harlem was first populated by poor German, Irish and Eastern European Jewish immigrants, with the Jewish population standing at 90,000 around 1917.
In the 1870s, Italian immigrants joined the mix after a contractor building trolley tracks on First Avenue imported Italian laborers as strikebreakers. The workers' shantytown along the East River at 106th Street was the beginning of an Italian neighborhood, with 4,000 having arrived by the mid-1880s; as more immigrants arrived, it expanded north to west to Third Avenue. East Harlem now consisted of pockets of ethnically-sorted settlements – Italian, German and Jewish – which were beginning to press up against each other, with the spaces still between them occupied by "gasworks and tar and garbage dumps". In 1895, Union Settlement Association, one of the oldest settlement houses in New York City, began providing services in the area, offering the immigrant and low-income residents a range of community-based programs, including boys and girls clubs, a sewing school and adult education classes. Southern Italians and Sicilians, with a moderate number of Northern Italians, soon predominated in the area east of Lexington Avenue between 96th and 116th Streets and east of Madison Avenue between 116th and 125th Streets, with each street featuring people from different regions of Italy.
The neighborhood became known as "Italian Harlem", the Italian American hub of Manhattan. The first Italians arrived in East Harlem in 1878, from Polla in the province of Salerno, settled in the vicinity of 115th Street. There were many crime syndicates in Italian Harlem from the early Black Hand to the bigger and more organized Italian gangs that formed the Italian-American Mafia, it was the founding location of the Genovese crime family, one of the Five Families that dominated organized crime in New York City. This includes the current 116th Street Crew of the Genovese family. During the 1970s, Italian East Harlem was home to the Italian-American drug gang and murder-for-hire crew known as the East Harlem Purple Gang. In the 1920s and early 1930s, Italian Harlem was represented in Congress by future Mayor Fiorello H. La Guardia, in the 1940s, by Italian-American civil rights lawyer and socialist Vito Marcantonio; the Italian neighborhood approached its peak in the 1930s, with over 110,000 Italian-Americans living in its crowded, run-down apartment buildings.
The 1930 census showed that 81 percent of the population of Italian Harlem consisted of first- or second-generation Italian Americans. The Italian community in East Harlem remained strong into the 1980s, but it has diminished since then. However, Italian inhabitants and vestiges of the old Italian neighborhood remain; the annual Feast of Our Lady of Mount Carmel and the "Dancing of the Giglio", the first Italian feast in New York City, is still celebrated there every year on the second weekend of August by the Giglio Society of East Harlem. Italian retail establishments still exist, such as Rao's restaurant, started in 1896, the original Patsy's Pizzeria which opened in the 1933. In May 2011, one of the last remaining Italian retail businesses in the neighborhood, a barbershop owned by Claudio Caponigro on 116th Street, was threatened with closure by a rent increase. Puerto Rican and Latin American migration after the First World War established an enclave at the western portion of East Har