Berengaria of Navarre
Berengaria of Navarre was Queen of England as the wife of Richard I of England. She was the eldest daughter of Sancho VI of Navarre and Sancha of Castile, as is the case with many of the medieval English queens, relatively little is known of her life. In 1185, Berengaria was given the fief of Monreal by her father, Eleanor of Aquitaine promoted the engagement of Berengaria to her son, Richard the Lionheart. Also, Navarre had assimilated the culture of Aquitaine and Berengarias reputation was unbesmirched. It seems that Berengaria and Richard did in fact meet once, years before their marriage, in 1190, Eleanor met Sancho in Pamplona and he hosted a banquet in the Royal Palace of Olite in her honour. The betrothal could not be celebrated openly, for Richard had been betrothed for many years to Alys, Richard terminated his betrothal to Alys in 1190 while at Messina. Richard had Berengaria brought to him by his mother Eleanor of Aquitaine, since Richard was already on the Third Crusade, having wasted no time in setting off after his coronation, the two women had a long and difficult journey to catch up with him.
They arrived at Messina in Sicily during Lent in 1191 and were joined by Richards sister Joan, the two women became good friends and Berengaria was left in Joans custody. En route to the Holy Land, the ship carrying Berengaria and Joan ran aground off the coast of Cyprus, Richard came to their rescue, captured the island, and overthrew Comnenus. Whether the marriage was ever even consummated is a matter for conjecture, in any case, Richard certainly took his new wife with him for the first part of the Third Crusade. Berengaria returned well before Richard left the Holy Land, on his return to Europe he was captured and imprisoned, Berengaria remained in Europe, based at Beaufort-en-Vallée, attempting to raise money for his ransom. After his release, Richard returned to England and was not joined by his wife, when Richard returned to England, he had to regain all the territory that had either been lost by his brother John or taken by King Philip of France. His focus was on his kingdom, not his queen, Richard was ordered by Pope Celestine III to reunite with Berengaria and to show fidelity to her in the future.
Richard, now mostly spending his time in France, when he died in 1199, she was greatly distressed, perhaps more so at being deliberately overlooked as Queen of England and Cyprus. Some historians believe that Berengaria honestly loved her husband, while Richards feelings for her were merely formal, Berengaria never visited England during King Richards lifetime, during the entirety of their marriage, Richard spent less than six months in England. There is evidence, that she may have done so in the following his death. The traditional description of her as the only English queen never to set foot in the country would still be literally true, as she did not visit England during the time she was Richards consort. She certainly sent envoys to England several times, mainly to inquire about the pension she was due as dowager queen and Richards widow, which King John failed to pay
The Crusades (film)
The Crusades is a 1935 American historical adventure film produced and directed by Cecil B. DeMille, and originally released by Paramount Pictures and it stars Loretta Young as Berengaria of Navarre and Henry Wilcoxon as Richard I of England. It was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Cinematography as well as for Best Foreign Film at the Venice Film Festival in 1935. The film takes many of its elements and main characters from the Third Crusade, which was prompted by the Saracen capture of Jerusalem, the character of King Richard the Lionheart is established early as a man of action but little thought. A hermit arrives preaching a great Crusade to bring Jerusalem back into Christian hands, Richard enlists in order, cynically, to get out of an arranged betrothal to Princess Alice of France. A plot is laid against Richards life by his brother Prince John and Conrad, en route to the war, Richard meets Berengaria, Princess of Navarre and—again cynically—marries her in exchange for food for his men.
Berengaria accompanies Richard to the Holy Land, during the Crusaders attempts to get past the walls of Acre, the allies assemble in conference, but in disarray. Richards ally, Philip II of France, is enraged at Richards rejection of his sister Alice, but Richard defies Philip, the Christian leaders meet in parley with the Muslim Sultan and leader Saladin. Saladin is struck by Berengarias beauty and bravery in supporting her husband, however, he rejects any truce with the Crusaders, and declares that the arrogant Richard will never pass the gates of Jerusalem. Berengaria is fearful that her presence in camp is causing disloyalty among Richards allies, in particular the powerful French King Philip, seeking death, she enters no mans land between the lines, only to be wounded and captured by the forces of Saladin. The hermit, the Christian holy man who had preached the Crusade, Saladin escapes the siege, and brings Berengaria to Jerusalem to care for her, with admiration and growing affection.
Not knowing this, and inflamed to save the Queen of England, the internal plot against Richards life is hatched by Conrad and disloyal soldiers. Conrad reveals his plot to Saladin, expecting to be rewarded, Berengaria offers herself to Saladin if he will intervene and save Richards life. Saladin, moved by Berengarias loyalty to Richard and appalled at Conrads perfidy, orders Conrad to be summarily executed, with their forces exhausted and Saladin agree to a truce, and Berengaria is freed. The gates of Jerusalem are opened to all Christians with the exception of Richard, Richard only belatedly appreciates Berengaria’s loyalty and love for him. Richard encounters Berengaria on her way to the Holy City and he admits his mistakes, but Berengaria proceeds alone toward Jerusalem, their future together unknown. Loretta Young – Berengaria, Princess of Navarre Henry Wilcoxon – Richard, King of England Ian Keith – Saladin, aubrey Smith – The Hermit Katherine DeMille – Alice, Princess of France Joseph Schildkraut – Conrad, Marquis of Montferrat Alan Hale – Blondel C.
Andre Sennwald of The New York Times called the film a grand show, variety praised the film, Probably only DeMille could make a picture like Crusades – and get away with it
Canterbury Cathedral in Canterbury, Kent, is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England. It forms part of a World Heritage Site and its formal title is the Cathedral and Metropolitical Church of Christ at Canterbury. Founded in 597, the cathedral was rebuilt from 1070 to 1077. The Norman nave and transepts survived until the fourteenth century. Christianity had started to become powerful in the Roman Empire around the third century, following the conversion of Augustine of Hippo in the 4th century, the influence of Christianity grew steadily. The cathedrals first bishop was Augustine of Canterbury, previously abbot of St. Andrews Benedictine Abbey in Rome and he was sent by Pope Gregory the Great in 596 as a missionary to the Anglo-Saxons. Augustine founded the cathedral in 597 and dedicated it to Jesus Christ, Augustine founded the Abbey of St. Peter and Paul outside the city walls. This was rededicated to St. Augustine himself and was for centuries the burial place of the successive archbishops.
The abbey is part of the World Heritage Site of Canterbury, along with the cathedral, bede recorded that Augustine reused a former Roman church. The oldest remains found during excavations beneath the present nave in 1993 were, parts of the foundations of an Anglo-Saxon building and they indicate that the original church consisted of a nave, possibly with a narthex, and side-chapels to the north and south. A smaller subsidiary building was found to the south-west of these foundations, during the ninth or tenth century this church was replaced by a larger structure with a squared west end. It appears to have had a central tower. During the reforms of Dunstan, archbishop from 960 until his death in 988, but the formal establishment as a monastery seems to date only to c.997 and the community only became fully monastic from Lanfrancs time onwards. Dunstan was buried on the side of the high altar. The cathedral was damaged during Danish raids on Canterbury in 1011. The Archbishop, Ælfheah, was taken hostage by the raiders and eventually killed at Greenwich on 19 April 1012, after this a western apse was added as an oratory of St.
Mary, probably during the archbishopric of Lyfing or Aethelnoth. The 1993 excavations revealed that the new apse was polygonal. It housed the archbishops throne, with the altar of St Mary just to the east, at about the same time that the westwork was built, the arcade walls were strengthened and towers added to the eastern corners of the church
Margaret of France, Queen of England and Hungary
Margaret of France was, by her two marriages, queen of England and Croatia. She was the eldest daughter of Louis VII of France by his second wife Constance of Castile and her older half-sisters and Alix, were older half-sisters of her future husband. She was betrothed to Henry the Young King on 2 November 1160, Henry was the second of five sons born to King Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine. He was five years old at the time of this agreement while Margaret was three, margarets dowry was the vital and much disputed territory of Vexin. Her husband became co-ruler with his father in 1170, because Archbishop Thomas Becket was in exile, Margaret was not crowned along with her husband on 14 July 1170. This omission and the coronation being handled by a greatly angered her father. To please the French King, Henry II had his son, when Margaret became pregnant, she did her confinement period in Paris, where she gave birth prematurely to their only son William on 19 June 1177, who died three days on 22 June.
She was accused in 1182 of having an affair with William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke. Henry may have started the process to have their marriage annulled, ostensibly due to her adultery, Margaret was sent back to France, according to E. Hallam and Amy Kelly, to ensure her safety during the civil war with Young Henrys brother Richard the Lionheart. Her husband died in 1183 while on campaign in the Dordogne region of France, by virtue of her marriage to Young King Henry, duke of Anjou, she was installed as the duchess. The coronet he and she would have worn was chronicled in about 1218 as the traditional ring-of-roses coronet of the house of Anjou, Margaret may have taken her coronet to Hungary in 1186 when she married King Bela III. A ring-of-roses coronet was discovered in a convent grave in Budapest in 1838, after receiving a substantial pension in exchange for surrendering her dowry of Gisors and the Vexin, she became the second wife of Béla III of Hungary in 1186. The difficult delivery of her only child in 1177 seems to have rendered her sterile.
She was widowed for a time in 1196 and died on pilgrimage to the Holy Land at St John of Acre in 1197. She was buried at the Cathedral of Tyre, according to Ernoul, Margaret was portrayed by Lucy Durham-Matthews and Tracey Childs in the 1978 BBC TV drama series The Devils Crown, which dramatised the reigns of Henry II, Richard I and John
Raymond of Burgundy
Raymond of Burgundy was the ruler of Galicia from about 1090 until his death. He was the son of Count William I of Burgundy. He married Urraca, future queen of León, and was the father of the future emperor Alfonso VII, in April 1087, the army abandoned its siege of Tudela and most of the host returned home, but Odo and his retinue went west. By 21 July 1087 they were probably at Burgos, at the court of Alfonso VI, there Odo arranged Raymonds marriage to Alfonsos heiress, Urraca. All surviving charters which seem to place Raymond in Spain before 1087 are either misdated or interpolated and he was father of Alfonso VII of León and Castile, already crowned king of Galicia in 1111, while his brother became Pope Callixtus II
Julia Aleksandrovna Vysotskaya is a Russian actress and television presenter. Julia Vysotskaya was born in Novocherkassk, Rostov Oblast, Russian SFSR and she finished high school №9 in the city of Baku in 1990. She graduated in drama from the Belarusian State Academy of Arts in 1995 and she worked at the Belarusian Yanka Kupala National Academic Theatre, where she played the lead role in productions of The Star Without a Name and The Bald Soprano among others. She currently acts in productions staged at the Mossovet Academy Theatre, in 2008 she was invited to be the culinary supervisor at a Russian evening held during the World Economic Forum in London. In 2009 she was director of the Moscow restaurant Family Floor. Since 2003 she has presented the evening programme Lets Eat at Home. Vysotskaya is the author of numerous cooking bestsellers, of which she has already sold over one and half million copies. She has been married to film director Andrei Mikhalkov-Konchalovsky since 1998 and they have two children, a daughter, and a son, Peter.
Best Actress Award for her role in John Osbournes play Look Back in Anger Best Actress Award at the Vivat, kino Rossii festival for her role in House of Fools In 2007, received the prestigious TEFI award in the Entertainment Programme. Way of Life category, and an Effie award for Brand of the Year, in 2009, the programme Lets Eat at Home. was awarded the Approved by Russian Ecologist accolade in recognition of its work promoting a healthy lifestyle
Eleanor Anne Porden
Eleanor Anne Porden was a British Romantic poet and first wife of the explorer John Franklin. She was born in London, the surviving daughter of the architect William Porden. Her mother was an invalid, and after her sisters marriage. An intelligent young woman, educated privately at home, and interested in the arts and sciences, Porden attracted attention for her poetry from an early age. Her first major work, the allegorical The Veils, or the Triumph of Constancy, was published in 1815, when she was just twenty - although she had written it at the age of sixteen. In 1818, she met her husband, John Franklin, on board his ship, HMS Trent. This inspired a poem, The Arctic Expeditions. During Franklins absence, she researched and wrote an epic poem, Cœur de Lion. This was published in two volumes in 1822, with a dedication to the king, George IV, based on historical research, and on mediaeval romances, it recounts the adventures of Richard I of England on the Third Crusade. She depicts Richards former fiancée, Alasia of France, fighting for the Saracens as the female knight Zorayda, despite such fanciful episodes, strongly influenced by Torquato Tasso, her poem has more historical content than Scotts better-known novel.
Her sources included the works of Joseph François Michaud and Charles Mills, in 1822, her father died, and Franklin returned from the Arctic. She married him on 19 August 1823 and she made her acceptance of his proposal conditional on his acceptance of her continuing her career as a poet after their marriage. She wrote to him six months before the wedding, it was the pleasure of Heaven to bestow those talents on me, I should therefore be guilty of a double dereliction of duty in abandoning their exercise. She gave birth to their daughter, Eleanor Isabella, on 3 June 1824, childbirth accelerated the advance of the tuberculosis from which she suffered, and she died on 22 February 1825, aged twenty-nine. She had encouraged her husband not let his concerns for her health impede his career, on his return, he married her friend Jane Griffin. The Veils, or the Triumph of Constancy Gell, Edith Mary, Kathryn, Eleanor Anne Porden, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
Philip I of France
Philip I, called the Amorous, was King of the Franks from 1060 to his death. His reign, like that of most of the early Capetians, was long for the time. The monarchy began a modest recovery from the low it reached in the reign of his father and he added to the royal demesne the Vexin, Philip was born 23 May 1052 at Champagne-et-Fontaine, the son of Henry I and his wife Anne of Kiev. Unusual at the time for Western Europe, his name was of Greek origin, although he was crowned king at the age of seven, until age fourteen his mother acted as regent, the first queen of France ever to do so. Baldwin V of Flanders acted as co-regent, following the death of Baldwin VI of Flanders, Robert the Frisian seized Flanders. Baldwins wife, Richilda requested aid from Philip, who defeated Robert at the battle of Cassel in 1071, Philip first married Bertha in 1072. Although the marriage produced the heir, Philip fell in love with Bertrade de Montfort. He repudiated Bertha and married Bertrade on 15 May 1092, in 1094, he was excommunicated by Hugh of Die, for the first time, after a long silence, Pope Urban II repeated the excommunication at the Council of Clermont in November 1095.
In France, the king was opposed by Bishop Ivo of Chartres, Philip appointed Alberic first Constable of France in 1060. A great part of his reign, like his fathers, was spent putting down revolts by his power-hungry vassals, in 1077, he made peace with William the Conqueror, who gave up attempting the conquest of Brittany. In 1082, Philip I expanded his demesne with the annexation of the Vexin, in 1100, he took control of Bourges. It was at the aforementioned Council of Clermont that the First Crusade was launched, Philip at first did not personally support it because of his conflict with Urban II. Philips brother Hugh of Vermandois, was a major participant, Philip died in the castle of Melun and was buried per request at the monastery of Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire – and not in St Denis among his forefathers. He was succeeded by his son, Louis VI, whose succession was, according to Abbot Suger, Philip‘s children with Bertha were, married Hugh I of Champagne before 1097 and then, after her divorce, to Bohemund I of Antioch in 1106