The Matterhorn is a mountain of the Alps, straddling the main watershed and border between Switzerland and Italy. It is a huge and near-symmetrical pyramidal peak in the extended Monte Rosa area of the Pennine Alps, whose summit is 4,478 metres high, making it one of the highest summits in the Alps and Europe. The four steep faces, rising above the glaciers, face the four compass points and are split by the Hörnli, Leone. The mountain overlooks the Swiss town of Zermatt in the canton of Valais to the north-east, just east of the Matterhorn is Theodul Pass, the main passage between the two valleys on its north and south sides and a trade route since the Roman Era. The Matterhorn was studied by Horace-Bénédict de Saussure in the eighteenth century. It remained unclimbed after most of the other great Alpine peaks had been attained, the first ascent of the Matterhorn was finally made in 1865 from Zermatt by a party led by Edward Whymper but ended disastrously when four of its members fell to their deaths on the descent.
That climb and disaster, portrayed in films, marked the end of the golden age of alpinism. The north face was not climbed until 1931, and is amongst the three biggest north faces of the Alps, known as the ‘The Trilogy’, the west face, which is the highest of the four, was completely climbed only in 1962. It is estimated that over 500 alpinists have died on the Matterhorn since the first climb in 1865, making it one of the deadliest peaks in the world. The current shape of the mountain is the result of erosion due to multiple glaciers diverging from the peak, such as the Matterhorn Glacier at the base of the north face. Sometimes referred to as the Mountain of Mountains, the Matterhorn has become an emblem of the Swiss Alps. Since the end of the 19th century, when railways were built in the area, each year a large number of mountaineers try to climb the Matterhorn from the Hörnli Hut via the northeast Hörnli ridge, the most popular route to the summit. Many trekkers undertake the 10-day-long circuit around the mountain, the Matterhorn is part of the Swiss Federal Inventory of Natural Monuments since 1983.
Decomposing Matterhorn yields Matter and Horn, here Matter is Matte in the case. Commonly, prepositions related to Zermatt are dropped as in Matterhorn, Mattertal, in Sebastian Münsters Cosmography, published in 1543, the name Matter is given to the Theodul Pass, which seems to be the origin of the present German name of the mountain. On Münsters topographical map this group is marked under the names of Augstalberg, the French name Cervin, from which the Italian term Cervino derives, stems from the Latin Mons Silvanus where silva, means forest which was corrupted to Selvin and Servin. The change of the first letter s to c is attributed to Horace Bénédict de Saussure, servius Galba, in order to carry out Caesars orders, came with his legions from Allobroges to Octodurum in the Valais, and pitched his camp there. It is unknown when the new name of Servin, or Cervin, replaced the old, the Matterhorn is named Gran Becca by the Valdôtains and Horu by the local Walliser German speaking people
Jean-Antoine Carrel was an Italian mountain climber and guide. He had made climbs with Edward Whymper and was his rival when he attempted to climb the Matterhorn for the first time, Whymper ultimately succeeded in making the mountains first ascent in July 1865 while Carrel led the party that achieved the second ascent three days later. Carrel was in the group became the first Europeans to reach the summit of Chimborazo in 1880. He died from exhaustion when guiding a party on the side of the Matterhorn. Carrel was born on 16 January 1829 in Valtournenche, in the Aosta Valley and he served in the Bersaglieri, a light infantry unit of the Piedmontese army. Carrel first attempted to climb the Matterhorns Lion Ridge in 1857—by which time the mountain was the tallest unclimbed peak in the Alps—with his uncle, Whympers party outclimbed the Italians and reached the summit on 14 July 1865, marking the first ascent of the Matterhorn. Carrel and his Italian party successfully summited the Matterhorn three days later, Carrel died in August 1891 while guiding a party on the south side of the Matterhorn.
After ensuring that his clients descended the mountain safely and easily in a storm, he collapsed from exhaustion. The manner of his death strikes a chord in hearts he never knew
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Edward Whymper was an English mountaineer, explorer and author best known for the first ascent of the Matterhorn in 1865. Four members of his party were killed during the descent. Whymper made important first ascents on the Mont Blanc massif and in the Pennine Alps, Chimborazo in South America, and his exploration of Greenland contributed an important advance to Arctic exploration. Whymper wrote several books on mountaineering, including Scrambles Amongst the Alps, Edward Whymper was born in London, England, on 27 April 1840 to the artist and wood engraver Josiah Wood Whymper and Elizabeth Claridge. He was the second of eleven children, his brother being the artist. He was trained to be a wood-engraver at an early age, in 1860, he made extensive forays into the central and western Alps to produce a series of commissioned alpine scenery drawings. In 1861, Whymper successfully completed the ascent of Mont Pelvoux, Whymper climbed the Barre des Écrins in 1864 with Horace Walker, A. W. Moore and guides Christian Almer senior and junior.
That year he made the first crossing of the Moming Pass. According to his own words, his failure was on the west ridge of the Dent dHérens in 1863. In 1865, who had failed eight times already and this party of four was joined by Hudson and Croz, and the inexperienced Douglas Hadow. Their attempt by what is now the route, the Hörnli ridge, met with success on 14 July 1865. On the descent, Hadow slipped and fell onto Croz, dislodging him and dragging Douglas and Hudson to their deaths, a controversy ensued as to whether the rope had actually been cut, but a formal investigation could not find any proof. It can be deduced that Taugwalder had no choice but to use a weaker rope as the stronger rope was not long enough to connect Traugwalder to Douglas. The account of Whympers attempts on the Matterhorn occupies the part of his book, Scrambles amongst the Alps. Yes, I shall always see them, Whympers 1865 campaign had been planned to test his route-finding skills in preparation for an expedition to Greenland in 1867.
The exploration in Greenland resulted in an important collection of fossil plants, Whympers report was published in the report of the British Association of 1869. Another expedition in 1872 was devoted to a survey of the coastline, Whymper next organized an expedition to Ecuador, designed primarily to collect data for the study of altitude sickness and the effect of reduced pressure on the human body. His chief guide was Jean-Antoine Carrel, who died from exhaustion on the Matterhorn after bringing his employers into safety through a snowstorm
Club Alpino Italiano
The Club Alpino Italiano is the senior Italian alpine club which stages climbing competitions, operates alpine huts and maintains paths, and is active in protecting the Alpine environment. It was founded in Turin in 1863 by the finance minister Quintino Sella. After First World War and the annexation of Trento and Trieste to Italy, it absorbed the Società degli Alpinisti Tridentini and its most popular achievement is the 1954 first ascension on K2. Select the Italian language link on the column for more detail
Aosta is the principal city of Aosta Valley, a bilingual region in the Italian Alps,110 km north-northwest of Turin. It is situated near the Italian entrance of the Mont Blanc Tunnel, at the confluence of the Buthier and the Doire baltée, Aosta is not the capital of the province, because Aosta Valley is the only Italian region not divided into provinces. Provincial administrative functions are shared by the region and the communes. Aosta was settled in times and became a centre of the Salassi. The campaign was led by Terentius Varro, who founded the Roman colony of Augusta Praetoria Salassorum. After 11 BC Aosta became the capital of the Alpes Graies province of the Empire. Its position at the confluence of two rivers, at the end of the Great and the Little St Bernard Pass, gave it military importance. After the fall of the Western Empire, the city was conquered, in turn, by the Burgundians, the Ostrogoths, the Lombards, who had annexed it to their Italian kingdom, were expelled by the Frankish Empire under Pepin the Short.
Under his son, Aosta acquired importance as a post on the Via Francigena, after 888 AD it was part of the renewed Kingdom of Italy under Arduin of Ivrea and Berengar of Friuli. In the 10th century Aosta became part of the Kingdom of Burgundy, after the fall of the latter in 1032, it became part of the lands of Count Humbert I of Savoy. The ancient town walls of Augusta Prætoria Salassorum are still preserved almost in their entirety and they are 6.4 metres high, built of concrete faced with small blocks of stone. At the bottom, the walls are nearly 2.75 metres thick, towers stand at angles to the enceinte and others are positioned at intervals, with two at each of the four gates, making twenty towers in total. They are roughly 6.5 metres square, and project 4.3 metres from the wall. Of the 20 original towers, the following are well preserved, Le lépreux de la cité dAoste, a novel by Xavier de Maistre, is named after this leper. Tower of Bramafan, built in the 11th century over a Roman bastion and it was the residence of the Savoy viscounts.
The Franco-Provençal term Bramafan is translated as He who screams for hunger, the east and south gates exist intact. The latter, a gate with three arches flanked by two towers known as the Porta Praetoria was the eastern gate to the city, and has preserved its original forms apart from the marble covering. It is formed by two series of arches enclosing a small square, the rectangular arrangement of the streets is modeled on a Roman plan dividing the town into 64 blocks
Saint-Pierre, Aosta Valley
Saint-Pierre is a town and comune in the Aosta Valley region of north-western Italy. There are about 150 medieval castles and fortified houses in the Aosta Valley, the main sight is the Saint-Pierre Castle. Nearby, the Sarriod family built the Sarriod de la Tour Castle, Saint-Pierre is a town in the Aosta Valley, a bilingual region in the Italian Alps,110 km north-northwest of Turin. It is situated near the Italian entrance of the Mont Blanc Tunnel, near the confluence of the Buthier and the Doire baltée, and near the junction of the Great and Little St. Bernard routes. Saint-Pierre is twinned with, Saint-Pierre-en-Faucigny, France Saint-Pierre Castle Saint-Pierre, Office for Tourism, Sports and Transport, Autonomous Region of Aosta Valley,2017
Ayas, Aosta Valley
Ayas is a comune sparso in the Aosta Valley region of northwestern Italy, with 1359 inhabitants in 2010. It is made up of several frazioni, the two major ones being Antagnod which holds the town hall and the parish, and Champoluc. All the frazioni of Ayas were combined under the one parish of Saint-Martin dAntagnod in 1761. They remained combined in this way until the new parish of Sainte-Anne of Champoluc was built in 1946, the comune of Ayas lies up the Ayas valley from Brusson. The most notable of these peaks are Castor and the Breithorn, another important glacier is the Grand Glacier of Verra. It is the source of the Évançon, which flows down the Val dAyas. In the opposite direction from the Monte Rosa Massif is Dzerbion, a 2,720 metre mountain in the shape of a pyramid, which separated the comune of Ayas from that of Saint-Vincent. Seismic classification, zone 4 With respect to flora, the landscape of Ayas is dominated by species of Alpine plant, such as the cowberry, the gentian. The main trees in the woods are the European spruce, the Swiss pine, the fauna which inhabits the area of Ayas is very varied too.
There are marmots in the parts of the territory and foxes in the woods. The rivers and lakes are characterised by freshwater fish, like the marble trout. / The Latin name is Agatius which seems to be the name of the first Roman colony, the etymology of the name is uncertain - there are many opinions. For example, Ayas could be cognate with the river Ayasse in the Champorcher Valley, another theory is that it might derive from giàs, Piedmontese for livestock pen. As for the earliest human settlement in the valley, it is thought that Ayas was initially populated by the Salassi and these people practiced agriculture, pastoralism and fishing up to the Roman conquest in around 25 BC. The Val dAyas became an important route to other territories of the Empire, this role was consolidated and the connections with Valais were expanded. As a result of connections, Ayas became known as Krämertal. Around 515, the territory of Ayas became part of the controlled by the monks of Saint-Maurice dAgaune. This group imposed Christianity on the peasantry of Ayas and this is the period when the first churches were built and the roads connecting the villages were expanded.
Later the control of the Church over Ayas was strengthened, until the Pope gave total control of the valley to the Bishop of Aosta and this is the first certain attestation of Ayas