Amadeus VII, Count of Savoy
Amadeus VII, known as the Red Count, was Count of Savoy from 1383 to 1391. Amadeus was Count of Savoy and Bonne of Bourbon. Amadeus VII was known for his hospitality, for he would entertain people of all stations and never turned a person from his table without a meal, he married Bonne of Berry, daughter of John, Duke of Berry, the younger brother of Charles V of France. They had three children: Amadeus VIII known as Antipope Felix V, married Mary of Burgundy, daughter of Philip the Bold Bonne married to Louis of Piedmont, the final of the Savoy-Archaea Branch. Upon his death at age 29 from tetanus, controversy arose because of his will. Amadeus VII left the important role of guardian of his son and heir, Amadeus VIII, to his own mother, a sister of the powerful Duke de Bourbon, instead of following the tradition of appointing the child's mother, a daughter of the powerful Duke de Berry, it took three months of negotiations to restore peace in the family. Cox, Eugene L.. The Green Count of Savoy.
Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. LCCN 67-11030. Tuchman, Barbara Wertheim. A Distant Mirror: The Calamitous 14th Century. New York: Knopf. Vaughan, Richard. Philip the Bold: The Formation of the Burgundian State. Boydell Press
County of Geneva
The County of Geneva corresponding to the Genevois province, originated in the tenth century, in the Burgundian Kingdom of Arles which fell to the Holy Roman Empire in 1032. Several nobles had held the title of a Count of Geneva in Upper Burgundy from the 9th century; the progenitor of the Counts of Geneva was Conrad possible count palatine of Burgundy, in Vienne. Count Cono/Conrad died about 1003 during the Hermann II's rebellion, their son, count of Geneva, was born about 970 and died about 1020. The county never played a major part as a feudal entity; the city of Geneva and its environs were retained, but the approaches to the western end of Lake Geneva, which had made the position strategic, were soon lost. In 1124 the Bishops of Geneva had their rule over the city acknowledged and continued to make themselves an independent force, while the Counts of Savoy encircled the territory and controlled the trade routes. From 1219 on, the counts' stronghold and capital was Annecy. At a moment when the male line of the counts was near exhaustion, Robert of Geneva was raised to a shadow papacy by the French cardinals who seceded from the College of Cardinals and wished to rescind their part in the election of the irascible Urban VI.
Unexpectedly, with the death of his brother, he succeeded as count in 1392. As count, Robert was dependent on the cooperative graces of the count of Savoy. With his death in 1394, the House of Geneva was extinguished and the title passed to the husband of the heiress, Humbert VII of Thoire and Villars who died in 1400; the year after Humbert's death, his heir Odo sold the comté to Count Amadeus VIII of Savoy. Though other members of the Genevan House protested, the House of Chalons remained the strongest claimant, Amadeus completed the integration of the county with his territories, which were raised to a duchy by Emperor Sigismund of Luxembourg; the title Count of Geneva passed securely into the House of Savoy, where it is maintained as a courtesy title. Medieval historians connected the literary figures of Reynier and Olivier from the late 12th-century Girart de Vienne to the Genevois, but this is pure fiction. C. 770: Reynier c. 770–800: Oliver, his son c. 890: Manasses, may be count of Geneva... c. 1002: Manasses c. 1012: Robert, his nephew, son of count Cono/Conrad I By Samuel Guichenon, in Histoire généalogique de la royale maison de Savoie 880: Ratbert 931: Albitius, his son: Conrad, his son c.
963–974: Robert, his son 974–1001: Albert 1004: Renaud 1016: Aymon c. 1060: Robert c. 1045–c.1061: Gerold of Geneva c. 1061-1080: Conrad, his son c. 1080–1128: Aymon I, his brother 1128–1178: Amadeus I, his son 1178–1195: William I his son 1195–1220: Humbert I, his son 1220–1252: William II, his brother 1252–1265: Rudolf, his son 1265–1280: Aymon II, his son 1280–1308: Amadeus II, his brother 1308–1320: William III, his son 1320–1367: Amadeus III, his son 1367–1367: Aymon III, his son 1367–1369: Amadeus IV, his brother 1369–1370: John I, his brother 1370–1392: Peter, his brother 1392–1394: Robert, his brother as Clement VII he was Antipope at Avignon from 1378 1394–1400: Humbert VII of Thoire and Villars, son of Humbert VI, Lord of Thoire and Villars, Maria of Geneva, Daughter of Amadeus III 1400–1401: Odo of Thoire and VillarsIn 1401 Odo sold the County to Amadeus VIII of Savoy. His heirs however contested this and the legal processes were not completed until 1424. From 1424 the County of Geneva was joined to the House of Savoy, although at times it was granted as appanage to cadet branches of the family.
1424–1434: Amadeus VIII, Duke of Savoy 1434–1444: Philip of Savoy, his son, apanagiste Count 1444–1460: Louis, Duke of Savoy, his brother 1460–1482: Louis, his son, apanagiste Count King of Cyprus 1482–1491: John of Savoy, his brother, apanagiste Count 1491–1496: Charles II, Duke of Savoy 1496–1497: Philipp II the Landless, Duke of Savoy, grand-uncle of the previous, son of Louis I 1497–1504: Philibert II the Handsome, Duke of Savoy, his son 1504–1514: Charles III, Duke of Savoy, his brother 1514–1533: Philippe, Duke of Nemours, apanagiste Count of Geneva, Duke of Nemours, his brother 1533–1585: Jacques, Duke of Nemours, Duke of Geneva 1564, his son 1585–1595: Charles Emmanuel, Duke of Nemours, his son 1595–1632: Henri I, Duke of Nemours, his brother 1632–1641: Louis, Duke of Nemours, his son 1641–1652: Charles Amadeus of Savoy, his brother 1652–1659: Henri II, Duke of Nemours, his brother, Archbishop of Reims 1659–1724: Marie Jeanne of Savoy, daughter of Charles Amadeus, married Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy husband of the aboveSubsequently, the County of Geneva was joined to the Duchy of Savoy.
Duparc, Pierre, Le Comté de Genève, Ixe-XVe siècle 1955. Paul Guichonnet: Genève, de in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
Francesco Maria Ferrero di Lavriano
Francesco Maria Ferrero di Lavriano was a Piedmontese official, Benedictine abbot and historian. He was born at Turin, the son of Giovanni, count of Lavriano, Anna Maria Re. In 1702, he published a collection of fine etchings of the rulers of Savoy, the Augustae regiaeque Sabaudae domus Arbor gentilitia regiae celsitudini Victori Amedeo II in Turin. On 3 June 1707, he was appointed royal bursar of the provinces of Alessandria, Valle di Sesia and Valenza, charged with administering vacant benefices; this was a new office at the time, Ferrero was the first such officer appointed. On 8 June, Duke Victor Amadeus II sent Cardinal Vincenzo Grimani to Rome to obtain for Ferrero from Pope Clement XI the right to collect the revenues otherwise owed to the Apostolic Camera from vacant ecclesiastical benefices in the same provinces. Grimani delayed his departure and Ferrero assumed the revenues without official authorization, thus prompting a dispute with the bishop of Novara; the matter was not cleared up until November 1712.
He composed two detailed volumes on his work as a royal bursar, both now in the Royal Library of Turin: Memorie concernenti l'Economato regio, ricavate dagli Archivi del Senato e dai registri della Cancelleria dell'Economato di Milano and Istoria dell'Economato regio o sia Relazione distinta di tutti i successi seguiti pendente l'amministrazione di quest'officio dal 1707 al 1718 inclusivamente. He was a copious collector of documents relating to ecclesiastical benefices: imperial diplomas, papal concessions, nuptial agreements, most of which found their way into the Royal Library of Turin. In 1712, he published at Turin the Istoria dell'augusta città di Torino, a continuation of the history of Turin written by Emanuele Tesauro. A copy was presented to Victor Amadeus by city leaders in 1713 to mark the signing of the Treaty of Utrecht, the favourable ending of the War of the Spanish Succession—especially the siege of Turin in 1706—and Victor Amadeus' acquisition of a royal crown, that of Sicily.
In 1717 he took over the provostship of Moncenisio. He renounced it in 1727 and became titular abbot of Santo Stefano in Ivrea in 1728. In 1718, he had helped the abbot of Santo Stefano, T. A. De Rossi, in settling a dispute with the Noble Consortium of the Fief of Passerano over the right to perform religious services. On 15 November 1720, Victor Amadeus nominated him one of the reformers of the University of Turin, praising him for his prudence and skill; some of his ideas on reform can be found in the letter he wrote to the secretary of state G. L. Raiberti dated 21 July 1721. In 1722, he published Gli elementi della lingua toscana in Germany, he died at Turin between 20 and 28 February 1730
Peter II, Count of Savoy
Peter II, called the Little Charlemagne, held the Honour of Richmond, Yorkshire from April 1240 until his death and was Count of Savoy from 1263 until his death. He built the Savoy Palace in London. Peter was the seventh of nine sons of Thomas I of Savoy and Margaret of Geneva, the uncle of the English queen Eleanor of Provence, he was born in Suze in the County of Albon. As a younger son of a noble house, Peter's father started his career in the church, getting him an appointment as a canon at Lausanne, where he worked his way up to acting bishop before a new permanent bishop came in 1231. At that point, Peter had been growing restless with church life. Upon the death of his father, Peter demanded substantial portions of the County from his eldest brother Amadeus; the brothers all got together in 1234 at Chillon, where they negotiated a settlement which recognized Amadeus as the head of the house. From this, Peter received control of key castles which helped him to expand his control in the area of Geneva.
His brother William negotiated a marriage for him with Agnes of Faucigny, which helped provide territory of his own, so he caused less trouble for his elder brothers. His desire to further extend his territory led him into conflict with his uncle, William II of Geneva. Around 1236, Peter was captured by his cousin Rudolf; when the resulting conflict was concluded in 1237, Amadeus forced William to sign a treaty which required Geneva to pay 20,000 marks and the castle of Arlod. In 1240, when Peter's brother Philip was in a contested election for the Bishop of Lausanne against Jean de Cossonay, a Geneva supported candidate, Peter brought 6000 troops, though the battle did not get resolved decisively, he continued to force to take further control of lands surrounding Savoy. In May 1244 Rudolph III, Count of Gruyère, surrendered Gruyères Castle to Peter, who gave it to William, the second son of Rudolph, with the agreement that William and his heirs would serve Peter and his family. On 29 May 1244 Cossonay surrendered significant territories to Peter and Amadeus, retaining them only under the overlordship of Savoy.
He continued to gain control of key towns and trade routes throughout the Pays de Vaud by enfeofing them to the younger sons of the previous rulers. He was responsible for the significant renovations of the Château de Chillon, by 1253 he was the protector of Bern. One scholar suggests that French is the language of western Switzerland due to Peter's extensive conquests in the region. In January 1236, Eleanor of Provence, Peter's niece, married King Henry III. On 20 April 1240 Peter was given the Honour of Richmond by Henry III who invited him to England about the end of the year, knighted him on 5 January 1241 when he became known popularly as Earl of Richmond although he never assumed the title, nor was it given to him in official documents. In February 1246 he was granted land between the Strand and the Thames, where Peter built the Savoy Palace in 1263, on the site of the present Savoy Hotel, it was destroyed during the Peasants' Revolt of 1381. By his will, the Honour of Richmond was left to his niece queen Eleanor, who transferred it to the crown.
In 1241, Henry sent Peter to gather support for a pending invasion of Poitou. He travelled to Duke of Burgundy. In February 1242, Peter was sent into Poitou to see, he managed to escape. He travelled to Provence to negotiate the marriage of his niece Sanchia of Provence to Henry's brother Richard. In 1246, Peter went back in part to seal a marriage deal with Amadeus. In February 1247, he returned to England with Alice of Amadeus's granddaughter by Beatrice, she was married to Baron of Pontefract that May. Boston, on the river Witham, had over many years become an important port for Lincoln; the town was held by the Dukes of Brittany until about 1200. In 1241, Peter obtained the manor of Boston at the same time, it was restored to Duke of Brittany, on Peter's death. Donington manor is thought to have been passed from John de la Rye to Peter of Savoy about 1255, when a charter was granted for a market to be held at the manor on Saturdays. In the same year, a similar grant was made for the holding of a fair on 15 August to be held at the manor.
A separate charter was granted to Peter on 8 April 1255 by the king to hold a market on Mondays. In 1246, the king granted Peter the castle of Pevensey. Peter sided with Earl of Leicester, in the Second Barons' War; when Peter's nephew Boniface, Count of Savoy, died without heirs in 1263, the question of the succession to Savoy lay unanswered. Besides Peter, there was another possible claimant, the fifteen-year-old Thomas III of Piedmont, the eldest son of Peter's elder brother Thomas, Count of Flanders. Peter was recognised as count over his nephew; this led to a dispute between Savoy and Piedmont, to outlast Peter and Thomas. Peter brought many ideas back from his travels around Europe to improve Savoy, he started building castles with a more round form, rather than the square which had existed to that point in Savoy. He divided those into castellanies, he established an office of accounts at Chambéry to more manage financial matters. He was the first count of Savoy to issue laws to cover the whole county.
Peter came into conflict with Rudolf of Habsburg, Rudolf occupied Peter's
Grenoble is a city in southeastern France, at the foot of the French Alps where the river Drac joins the Isère. Located in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, Grenoble is the capital of the department of Isère and is an important European scientific centre; the city advertises itself as the "Capital of the Alps", due to its size and its proximity to the mountains. Grenoble's history goes back to a time when it was a small Gallic village, it gained somewhat in stature by becoming the capital of the Dauphiné in the 11th century, but Grenoble remained for most of its history a modest parliamentary and garrison city on the borders of the kingdom of France. Industrial development increased the prominence of Grenoble through several periods of economic expansion over the last three centuries; this started with a booming glove industry in the 18th and 19th centuries, continued with the development of a strong hydropower industry in the late 19th to early 20th centuries, ended with a post-World War II economic boom symbolized by the holding of the X Olympic Winter Games in 1968.
The city has grown to be one of Europe's most important research and innovation centers, with each fifth inhabitant working directly in these domains. The population of the city of Grenoble was 160,215 at the 2013 census, while the population of the Grenoble metropolitan area was 664,832; the residents of the city are called "Grenoblois". The many suburb communes that make up the rest of the metropolitan area include three with populations exceeding 20,000: Saint-Martin-d'Hères, Échirolles, Fontaine. For the ecclesiastical history, see Bishopric of Grenoble; the first references to what is now Grenoble date back to 43 BC. Cularo was at that time a small Gallic village of the Allobroges tribe, near a bridge across the Isère. Three centuries and with insecurity rising in the late Roman empire, a strong wall was built around the small town in 286 AD; the Emperor Gratian visited Cularo and, touched by the people's welcome, made the village a Roman city. In honour of this, Cularo was renamed Gratianopolis in 381.
Christianity spread to the region during the 4th century, the diocese of Grenoble was founded in 377 AD. From that time on, the bishops exercised significant political power over the city; until the French Revolution, they styled themselves the "bishops and princes of Grenoble". After the collapse of the Roman Empire, the city was part of the first Burgundian kingdom in the 5th century and the second Burgundian Kingdom of Arles until 1032, when it was integrated into the Holy Roman Empire. Arletian rule was interrupted between 970 due to Arab rule based in Fraxinet. Grenoble grew in the 11th century when the Counts of Albon chose the city as the capital of their territories. At the time, their possessions were a patchwork of several territories sprawled across the region; the central position of Grenoble allowed the Counts to strengthen their authority. When they took the title of "Dauphins", Grenoble became the capital of the State of Dauphiné. Despite their status, the Counts had to share authority over the city with the Bishop of Grenoble.
One of the most famous of those was Saint Hugh. Under his rule, the city's bridge was rebuilt, a regular and leper hospital were built; the inhabitants of Grenoble took advantage of the conflicts between the Counts and the bishops and obtained the recognition of a Charter of Customs that guaranteed their rights. That charter was confirmed by Kings Louis XI in 1447 and Francis I in 1541. In 1336 the last Dauphin Humbert II founded a court of justice, the Conseil delphinal, which settled at Grenoble in 1340, he established the University of Grenoble in 1339. Without an heir, Humbert sold his state to France in 1349, on the condition that the heir to the French crown used the title of Dauphin; the first one, the future Charles V, spent nine months in Grenoble. The city remained the capital of the Dauphiné, henceforth a province of France, the Estates of Dauphiné were created; the only Dauphin who governed his province was the future Louis XI, whose "reign" lasted from 1447 to 1456. It was only under his rule.
The Old Conseil Delphinal became a Parlement, strengthening the status of Grenoble as a Provincial capital. He ordered the construction of the Palais du Parlement and ensured that the Bishop pledged allegiance, thus forging the political union of the city. At that time, Grenoble was a crossroads between Vienne, Geneva and Savoy, it was the industrial centre of the Dauphiné and the biggest city of the province, but nonetheless a rather small one. Owing to Grenoble's geographical situation, French troops were garrisoned in the city and its region during the Italian Wars. Charles VIII, Louis XII, Francis I went several times to Grenoble, its people had to suffer from the exactions of the soldiers. The nobility of the region took part in doing so gained significant prestige; the best-known of its members was Bayard, "the knight without fear and beyond reproach". Grenoble suffered as a result of the French Wars of Religion; the Dauphiné was indeed an important settlement for Protestants and therefore experienced several conflicts.
The baron des Adrets, the leader of the Huguenots, pillaged the Cathedral of Grenoble and destroyed the tombs of the former Dauphins. In August 1575, Lesdiguières became the new leader of the Protestants and, thanks to the accession of Henry
Edward, Count of Savoy
Edward, surnamed the Liberal, was the Count of Savoy from 1323 to 1329. He was the son of Amadeus V, Count of Savoy, his first wife Sybille of Bâgé. Edward was born at Baugé, he was married to Blanche of Burgundy, daughter of Robert II, Duke of Burgundy and Agnes of France, Duchess of Burgundy. They had a daughter, who married John III the Good, duke of Brittany. In 1325, Edward was attacked at Varey by Guigues VIII of Viennois and Amadeus III of Geneva as he was besieging Varey castle. Guigues won the battle and Edward escaped. In 1327, the residents of Maurienne revolted against their bishop-prince; the bishop asked Edward for help, Edward agreed, provided that he gain the administrative control of the diocese. The bishop consented, was restored; that same year, the bishop of Sion refused to pay him homage, the custom since the time of Peter II, Count of Savoy. From on, the bishop and the count paid each other homage on the bridge of Morge. In 1328, he had wooden aqueducts built to bring fresh water directly into the courtyard of the castle at Chambéry.
His death in 1329 was unexpected, left the county to his brother, Aymon. Cox, Eugene L.. The Green Count of Savoy. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. LCCN 67-11030
Cluny Abbey is a former Benedictine monastery in Cluny, Saône-et-Loire, France. It was dedicated to St Peter; the abbey was constructed in the Romanesque architectural style, with three churches built in succession from the 4th to the early 12th centuries. The earliest basilica was the world's largest church until the St. Peter's Basilica construction began in Rome. Cluny was founded by William I, Duke of Aquitaine in 910, he nominated Berno as the first Abbot of Cluny, subject only to Pope Sergius III. The abbey was notable for its stricter adherence to the Rule of St. Benedict, whereby Cluny became acknowledged as the leader of western monasticism; the establishment of the Benedictine Order was a keystone to the stability of European society, achieved in the 11th century. In 1790 during the French Revolution, the abbey was sacked and destroyed, with only a small part of the Abbey surviving. Starting around 1334, the Abbots of Cluny maintained a townhouse in Paris known as the Hôtel de Cluny, a public museum since 1843.
Apart from the name, it no longer possesses anything connected with Cluny. In 910, William I, Duke of Aquitaine "the Pious", Count of Auvergne, founded the Benedictine Abbey of Cluny on a modest scale, as the motherhouse of the Congregation of Cluny; the deed of gift included vineyards, meadows, waters, serfs and uncultivated lands. Hospitality was to be given to the poor and pilgrims, it was stipulated that the monastery would be free from local authorities, lay or ecclesiastical, subject only to the Pope, with the proviso that he could not seize the property, divide or give it to someone else or appoint an abbot without the consent of the monks. William placed Cluny under the protection of saints Peter and Paul, with a curse on anyone who should violate the charter. With the Pope across the Alps in Italy, this meant the monastery was independent. In donating his hunting preserve in the forests of Burgundy, William released Cluny Abbey from all future obligation to him and his family other than prayer.
Contemporary patrons retained a proprietary interest and expected to install their kinsmen as abbots. William appears to have made this arrangement with Berno, the first abbot, to free the new monastery from such secular entanglements and initiate the Cluniac Reforms; the Abbots of Cluny were statesmen on the international stage and the monastery of Cluny was considered the grandest, most prestigious and best-endowed monastic institution in Europe. The height of Cluniac influence was from the second half of the 10th century through the early 12th; the first female members were admitted to the Order during the 11th century. The reforms introduced at Cluny were in some measure traceable to the influence of Benedict of Aniane, who had put forward his new ideas at the first great meeting of the abbots of the order held at Aachen in 817. Berno had adopted Benedict's interpretation of the Rule at Baume Abbey. Cluny was not known for the severity of its discipline or its asceticism, but the abbots of Cluny supported the revival of the papacy and the reforms of Pope Gregory VII.
The Cluniac establishment found itself identified with the Papacy. In the early 12th century, the order lost momentum under poor government, it was subsequently revitalized under Abbot Peter the Venerable, who brought lax priories back into line and returned to stricter discipline. Cluny reached its apogee of power and influence under Peter, as its monks became bishops and cardinals throughout France and the Holy Roman Empire, but by the time Peter died and more austere orders such as the Cistercians were generating the next wave of ecclesiastical reform. Outside monastic structures, the rise of English and French nationalism created a climate unfavourable to the existence of monasteries autocratically ruled by a head residing in Burgundy; the Papal Schism of 1378 to 1409 further divided loyalties: France recognizing a pope at Avignon and England one at Rome, interfered with the relations between Cluny and its dependent houses. Under the strain, some English houses, such as Lenton Priory, were naturalized and no longer regarded as alien priories, weakening the Cluniac structure.
By the time of the French Revolution, the monks were so identified with the Ancien Régime that the order was suppressed in France in 1790 and the monastery at Cluny totally demolished in 1810. It was sold and used as a quarry until 1823. Today, little more than one of the original eight towers remains of the whole monastery. Modern excavations of the Abbey began in 1927 under the direction of Kenneth John Conant, American architectural historian of Harvard University, continued until 1950; the Abbey of Cluny differed in three ways from other Benedictine houses and confederations: organisational structure. Cluny developed a centralized form of government foreign to Benedictine tradition. While most Benedictine monasteries remained autonomous and associated with each other only informally, Cluny created a large, federated order in which the administrators of subsidiary houses served as deputies of the Abbot of Cluny and answered to him; the Cluniac houses, being directly under the supervision of the Abbot of Cluny, the head of the Order, were styled priories, not abbeys.
The priors, or chiefs of priories, met at Cluny once a year to deal with administrative issues and to make reports. Many other Benedictine monasteries those of earlier formation, came to regard Cluny as their guide; when in 1016