Eleanor of Provence
Eleanor of Provence was Queen consort of England, as the spouse of King Henry III of England, from 1236 until his death in 1272. She served as regent of England during the absence of her spouse in 1253. Although she was devoted to her husband, staunchly defended him against the rebel Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, she was much hated by the Londoners; this was. On one occasion, Eleanor's barge was attacked by angry citizens who pelted her with stones, pieces of paving, rotten eggs and vegetables. Eleanor had at least five children, including the future King Edward I of England, she was renowned for her cleverness, skill at writing poetry, as a leader of fashion. Born in Aix-en-Provence, she was the second daughter of Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence and Beatrice of Savoy, the daughter of Thomas I of Savoy and his wife Margaret of Geneva, she was well educated as a child, developed a strong love of reading. Her three sisters married kings. After her elder sister Margaret married Louis IX of France, their uncle William corresponded with Henry III of England to persuade him to marry Eleanor.
Henry sought a dowry of up to twenty thousand silver marks to help offset the dowry he had just paid for his sister Isabella, but Eleanor's father was able to negotiate this down to no dowry, just a promise to leave her ten thousand when he died. Like her mother and sisters, Eleanor was renowned for her beauty, she was a dark-haired brunette with fine eyes. Piers Langtoft speaks of her as "The erle's daughter, the fairest may of life". On 22 June 1235, Eleanor was betrothed to King Henry III. Eleanor was born latest in 1223. Eleanor was married to King Henry III of England on 14 January 1236, she had never seen him prior to the wedding at Canterbury Cathedral and had never set foot in his kingdom. Edmund Rich, Archbishop of Canterbury, officiated, she was dressed in a shimmering golden gown that fitted at the waist and flared out to wide pleats at her feet. The sleeves were long and lined with ermine. After riding to London the same day where a procession of citizens greeted the bridal pair, Eleanor was crowned queen consort of England in a ceremony at Westminster Abbey, followed by a magnificent banquet with the entire nobility in full attendance.
Her love for her husband grew from 1236 onward. Eleanor was a loyal and faithful consort to Henry, but she brought in her retinue a large number of uncles and cousins, "the Savoyards", her influence with the King and her unpopularity with the English barons created friction during Henry's reign, her uncle William of Savoy became a close advisor of her husband and displeasing English barons. Though Eleanor and Henry supported different factions at times, she was made regent of England when her husband left for Gascony in 1253. Eleanor was devoted to her husband's cause, stoutly contested Simon de Montfort, raising troops in France for Henry's cause. On 13 July 1263, she was sailing down the Thames. Eleanor stoutly hated the Londoners who returned her hatred. In addition to the queen-gold other such fines were levied on the citizens by the Queen on the thinnest of pretexts. In fear for her life as she was pelted with stones, loose pieces of paving, dried mud, rotten eggs and vegetables, Eleanor was rescued by Thomas Fitzthomas, the Mayor of London, took refuge at the bishop of London's home.
In 1272 Henry died, her son Edward, 33 years old, became Edward I, King of England. She remained in England as queen dowager, raised several of her grandchildren—Edward's son Henry and daughter Eleanor, Beatrice's son John; when her grandson Henry died in her care in 1274, Eleanor went into mourning and gave orders for his heart to be buried at the priory at Guildford which she founded in his memory. In 1275 Eleanor's two remaining daughters died: Beatrice 24 March, she retired to a convent. Eleanor died on 24/25 June 1291 in Amesbury, eight miles north of Salisbury, England, she was buried in Amesbury Abbey. The exact site of her grave at the abbey is unknown making her the only English queen without a marked grave, her heart was taken to London. Eleanor was renowned for her learning and skill at writing poetry, as well as her beauty, she wore parti-coloured cottes, gold or silver girdles into which a dagger was casually thrust, she favoured red silk damask, decorations of gilt quatrefoil, to cover her dark hair she wore jaunty pillbox caps.
Eleanor introduced a new type of wimple to England, high, "into which the head receded until the face seemed like a flower in an enveloping spathe". She had developed a love for the songs of the troubadors as a child, continued this interest, she bought many romantic and historical books, covering stories from ancient times to contemporary romances written in the period. Eleanor is the protagonist of The Queen From Provenc
Beatrice of Provence
Beatrice of Provence, was ruling Countess of Provence and Forcalquier from 1245 until her death, as well as Countess of Anjou and Maine, Queen of Sicily and Naples by marriage to Charles I of Naples. She was the fourth and youngest daughter of Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence and Forcalquier by his wife Beatrice, in turn daughter of Count Thomas I of Savoy and Margaret of Geneva. Beatrice, like her sisters and grandmother was known for her beauty. A description of Beatrice said she "set men's hearts thumping and the fingers of troubadours to fevered twanging of lyres. Two of the balladists at the Provencal court were temporarily deprived of reason for love of the entrancing Beatrice" All Ramon Berenguer IV's three older daughters married to titles of status: The eldest, was Queen of France by marriage to Louis IX. King Louis IX's marriage to Margaret had been arranged by his mother, Blanche of Castile, with the hopes that he would inherit Provence and Forcalquier when her father died. However, in his will signed on 20 June 1238 at Sisteron, Ramon Berenguer IV unexpectedly left the Counties of Provence and Forcalquier to his youngest and still unmarried daughter, Beatrice.
Ramon Berenguer IV died on 19 August 1245 at Aix-en-Provence, according to his will, Beatrice became Countess of Provence and Forcalquier in her own right, with the provision that the Dowager Countess could retain the usufruct of the County of Provence for her lifetime. Now, Beatrice became one of the most attractive heiresses in medieval Europe, soon several suitors appeared for her hand. Firstly, the neighboring rulers of her domains began their claims: the twice-divorced Raymond VII, Count of Toulouse and King James I of Aragon, despite being married to Violant of Hungary, invaded Provence and seized the residence of the Countess. In addition, Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, dispatched the imperial navy to Provence to ensure Beatrice could marry one of his sons. In such a difficult situation, the Dowager Countess decided to act placing herself and Beatrice in a safe fortress in Aix, secured the trust of its people and asked Pope Innocent IV for his protection. In Cluny during December 1245, a secret meeting between Pope Innocent IV, Louis IX of France, his mother Blanche of Castile, his youngest brother Charles took place.
It was decided that in return for Louis IX supporting the Pope militarily against Frederick II, the Pope would allow that Charles marry Beatrice. Mother and daughter were satisfied with this selection, but under the terms of the treaty, Provence was to never go to France outright through Charles, it was agreed that if Beatrice had children, the Counties would go to them. Henry III of England protested these terms, arguing that he had not yet received the full dowry for his wife Eleanor nor his brother for Sanchia, he still had the castles in Provence against the loan he had made to the late Count. Charles, along with five hundred knights, rode from Lyon to Provence. On their way, they ran into Raymond VII of Toulouse, who had an army on the way to Provence. However, Raymond VII had been deceived by knights in favour of Charles and for that reason he had brought fewer men, Charles and his army were quicker; when Charles got to Aix-en-Provence, James I of Aragon, there all along but was not allowed to see Beatrice, had his soldiers surrounding the castle in which the young Beatrice and her mother were.
There was a brief struggle. To the young Beatrice, Charles was a satisfactory resolution to her problems, their marriage took place on 31 January 1246 at Aix-en-Provence. They had soldiers on guard and the bride was escorted down the aisle by her uncle, Count of Flanders; the inheritance of Beatrice caused conflicts with her older sisters, who hoped that once their father had died, his domains would be divided between the four. In consequence, the relationship of Charles and Beatrice with the three sisters, who felt cheated by their father's will, remained always tense; as soon as Charles became Count of Provence, he brought in his own team of French lawyers and accountants. He excluded his mother-in-law from the running of the county and began taking castles and fees away from the nobles who had enjoyed a certain degree of independence in the running of their cities. Charles made himself unpopular; the Dowager Countess moved herself to Forcalquier in protest, in Marseille, Charles's officials were thrown out of the city.
In the family conflict Beatrice sided with her husband. In May 1247, Charles and Beatrice were recorded as being in Melun, where Charles was knighted by his brother Louis. Beatrice accompanied Charles on the seventh crusade in 1248. Led by Louis IX, the crusaders made an extended procession through France. Before they left and Beatrice met with the Dowager Countess in Beaucaire to try to come to some terms of agreement concerning Provence. Whilst the more important matters were left until Charles and Beatrice returned, it was decided that Beatrice of Savoy would give up the rights to "the castle at Aix in exchange for a percentage of the county's revenue." In Nicosia Beatrice gave birth to her first child, "a elegant and wellformed son", as her brother-in-law Robert of Artois wrote home
Pope Innocent IV
Pope Innocent IV, born Sinibaldo Fieschi, was the head of the Catholic Church from 25 June 1243 to his death in 1254. Born in Genoa in an unknown year, Sinibaldo was the son of Beatrice Grillo and Ugo Fieschi, Count of Lavagna; the Fieschi were a noble merchant family of Liguria. Sinibaldo received his education at the universities of Parma and Bologna and, for a time, taught canon law at Bologna, it is pointed out by Agostino Paravicini-Bagliani, that there is no documentary evidence of such a professorship. From 1216-1227 he was Canon of the Cathedral of Parma, he was considered one of the best canonists of his time, was called to serve Pope Honorius III in the Roman Curia as Auditor causarum, from 11 November 1226 to 30 May 1227. He was promoted to the office of Vice-Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church, though he retained the office and the title for a time after he was named Cardinal. Vice-Chancellor Sinibaldo Fieschi was created Cardinal Priest of San Lorenzo in Lucina on 18 September 1227 by Pope Gregory IX.
He served as papal governor of the March of Ancona, from 17 October 1235 until 1240. It is repeated, from the 17th century on, that he became bishop of Albenga in 1235, but there is no foundation to this claim. Innocent's immediate predecessor was Pope Celestine IV, elected 25 October 1241, whose reign lasted a mere fifteen days; the events of Innocent IV's pontificate are therefore inextricably linked to the policies dominating the reigns of popes Innocent III, Honorius III and Gregory IX. Gregory had been demanding the return of portions of the Papal States taken over by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II when he died; the Pope had called a general council so he could depose the emperor with the support of Europe's spiritual leaders, but Frederick had seized two cardinals traveling to the council in hopes of intimidating the curia. The two prelates remained incarcerated and missed the conclave that elected Celestine; the conclave that reconvened after his death fell into camps supporting contradictory policies about how to treat with the emperor.
After a year and a half of contentious debate and coercion, a papal election reached a unanimous decision. Cardinal de' Fieschi reluctantly accepted election as Pope 25 June 1243, taking the name Innocent IV; as Cardinal de' Fieschi, Sinibaldo had been on friendly terms with Frederick after his excommunication. The Emperor greatly admired the cardinal's wisdom, having enjoyed discussions with him from time to time. Following the election the witty Frederick remarked that he had lost the friendship of a cardinal but made up for it by gaining the enmity of a pope, his jest notwithstanding, Frederick's letter to the new pontiff was couched in respectful terms, offering Innocent congratulations and success expressing hope for an amicable settlement of the differences between the empire and the papacy. Negotiations leading to this objective proved abortive. Innocent refused to back down from his demands, Frederick II refused to acquiesce, the dispute continued, its major point of contention being the reinstatement of Lombardy to the Patrimony of St Peter.
The Emperor's machinations caused a good deal of anti-papal feeling to rise in Italy in the Papal States, imperial agents encouraged plots against papal rule. Realizing how untenable his position in Rome was growing, Innocent IV secretly and hurriedly withdrew, fleeing Rome on 7 June 1244. Traveling in disguise, Innocent made his way to Sutri and Civitavecchia, to Genoa, his birthplace, where he arrived on 7 July. From there, on 5 October, he fled to France. Making his way to Lyon, where he arrived on November 29, 1244, Innocent was greeted by the magistrates of the city. Finding himself now in secure surroundings and out of the reach of Frederic II, Innocent summoned, in a sermon preached on December 27, 1244, as many bishops as could get to Lyon, to attend what became the 13th General Council of the Church, the first to be held in Lyon; the bishops met for three public sessions: 28 June, 5 July, 17 July 1245. Their principal business was to subjugate the Emperor Frederick II. An earlier pope, Gregory IX, had issued letters on 9 June 1239, ordering all the bishops of France to confiscate all Talmuds in the possession of the Jews.
Agents were to raid each synagogue on the first Saturday of Lent of 1240, seize the books, placing them in the custody of the Dominicans or the Franciscans. The Bishop of Paris was ordered to see to it that copies of the Pope's mandate reached all the bishops of France, Aragon, Castile and León, Portugal. On 20 June 1239, there was another letter, addressed to the Bishop of Paris, the Prior of the Dominicans and the Minister of the Franciscans, calling for the burning of all copies of the Talmud, any obstructionists to be visited with ecclesiastical censures. On the same day he wrote to the King of Portugal ordering him to see to it that all copies of the Talmud be seized and turned over to the Dominicans or Franciscans. Louis IX, King of France, on account of these letters held a trial in Paris in 1240, which found the Talmud guilty of 35 alleged charges. Twenty-four cartloads of the Talmud were burned. Innocent IV continued Gregory IX's policy. In a letter of 9 May 1244, he wrote to King Louis IX, ordering the Talmud and any books with Talmudic glosses to be examined by the Regent Doctors of the University of Paris, if condemned by them, to be burned.
However, an argument was presented that this policy was a negation of the Church’s tradition
Parma is a city in the northern Italian region of Emilia-Romagna famous for its architecture, art, prosciutto and surrounding countryside. It is home to the University of Parma, one of the oldest universities in the world. Parma is divided into two parts by the stream of the same name; the district on the far side of the river is Oltretorrente. Parma's Etruscan name was adapted by Romans to describe the round shield called Parma; the Italian poet Attilio Bertolucci wrote: "As a capital city it had to have a river. As a little capital it received a stream, dry". Parma was a built-up area in the Bronze Age. In the current position of the city rose a terramare; the "terramare" were ancient villages built of wood on piles according to a defined scheme and squared form. During this age the first necropolis were constructed; the city was most founded and named by the Etruscans, for a parma was a Latin borrowing, as were many Roman terms for particular arms, Parmeal and Parmnial are names that appear in Etruscan inscriptions.
Diodorus Siculus reported that the Romans had changed their rectangular shields for round ones, imitating the Etruscans. Whether the Etruscan encampment was so named because it was round, like a shield, or whether its situation was a shield against the Gauls to the north, is uncertain; the Roman colony was founded in 183 BC, together with Mutina. Parma had a certain importance as a road hub over the Via Claudia, it had a forum, in. In 44 BC, the city was destroyed, Augustus rebuilt it. During the Roman Empire, it gained the title of Julia for its loyalty to the imperial house; the city was subsequently sacked by Attila, given by the Germanic king Odoacer to his followers. During the Gothic War, Totila destroyed it, it was part of the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna and, from 569, of the Lombard Kingdom of Italy. During the Middle Ages, Parma became an important stage of the Via Francigena, the main road connecting Rome to Northern Europe. Under Frankish rule, Parma became the capital of a county. Like most northern Italian cities, it was nominally a part of the Holy Roman Empire created by Charlemagne, but locally ruled by its bishops, the first being Guibodus.
In the subsequent struggles between the Papacy and the Empire, Parma was a member of the Imperial party. Two of its bishops became antipopes: Càdalo, founder of the cathedral, as Honorius II. An independent commune was created around 1140. After the Peace of Constance confirmed the Italian communes' rights of self-governance, long-standing quarrels with the neighbouring communes of Reggio Emilia and Cremona became harsher, with the aim of controlling the vital trading line over the Po River; the struggle between Guelphs and Ghibellines was a feature of Parma too. In 1213, her podestà was the Guelph Rambertino Buvalelli. After a long stance alongside the emperors, the Papist families of the city gained control in 1248; the city was besieged in 1247–48 by Emperor Frederick II, however crushed in the battle that ensued. Parma fell under the control of Milan in 1341. After a short-lived period of independence under the Terzi family, the Sforza imposed their rule through their associated families of Pallavicino, Sanvitale and Da Correggio.
These created a kind of new feudalism, building castles throughout the city and the land. These fiefs evolved into independent states: the Landi governed the higher Taro's valley from 1257 to 1682; the Pallavicino seignory extended over the eastern part of today's province, with the capital in Busseto. Parma's territories were an exception for Northern Italy, as its feudal subdivision continued until more recent years. For example, Solignano was a Pallavicino family possession until 1805, San Secondo belonged to the Rossi well into the 19th century. Between the 14th and the 15th centuries, Parma was at the centre of the Italian Wars; the Battle of Fornovo was fought in its territory. The French held the city in 1500–1521, with a short Papal parenthesis in 1512–1515. After the foreigners were expelled, Parma belonged to the Papal States until 1545. In that year the Farnese pope, Paul III, detached Parma and Piacenza from the Papal States and gave them as a duchy to his illegitimate son, Pier Luigi Farnese, whose descendants ruled in Parma until 1731, when Antonio Farnese, last male of the Farnese line, died.
In 1594 a constitution was promulgated, the University enhanced and the Nobles' College founded. The war to reduce the barons' power continued for several years: in 1612 Barbara Sanseverino was executed in the central square of Parma, together with six other nobles charged of plotting against the duke. At the end of the 17th century, after the defeat of Pallavicini and Landi the Farnese duke could hold with firm hand all Parmense territor
Provence is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône River to the west to the Italian border to the east, is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It corresponds with the modern administrative région of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, includes the départements of Var, Bouches-du-Rhône, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence and parts of Alpes-Maritimes and Vaucluse; the largest city of the region is Marseille. The Romans made the region the first Roman province beyond the Alps and called it Provincia Romana, which evolved into the present name; until 1481 it was ruled by the Counts of Provence from their capital in Aix-en-Provence became a province of the Kings of France. While it has been part of France for more than five hundred years, it still retains a distinct cultural and linguistic identity in the interior of the region; the coast of Provence has some of the earliest known sites of human habitation in Europe. Primitive stone tools dating back 1 to 1.05 million years BC have been found in the Grotte du Vallonnet near Roquebrune-Cap-Martin, between Monaco and Menton.
More sophisticated tools, worked on both sides of the stone and dating to 600,000 BC, were found in the Cave of Escale at Saint Estėve-Janson, tools from 400,000 BC and some of the first fireplaces in Europe were found at Terra Amata in Nice. Tools dating to the Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic were discovered in the Observatory Cave, in the Jardin Exotique of Monaco; the Paleolithic period in Provence saw great changes in the climate. Two ice ages came and went, the sea level changed dramatically. At the beginning of the Paleolithic, the sea level in western Provence was 150 meters higher than today. By the end of the Paleolithic, it had dropped to 100 to 150 metres below the sea level today; the cave dwellings of the early inhabitants of Provence were flooded by the rising sea or left far from the sea and swept away by erosion. The changes in the sea level led to one of the most remarkable discoveries of signs of early man in Provence. In 1985, a diver named Henri Cosquer discovered the mouth of a submarine cave 37 metres below the surface of the Calanque de Morgiou near Marseille.
The entrance led to a cave above sea level. Inside, the walls of the Cosquer Cave are decorated with drawings of bison, auks and outlines of human hands, dating to between 27,000 and 19,000 BC; the end of the Paleolithic and beginning of the Neolithic period saw the sea settle at its present level, a warming of the climate and the retreat of the forests. The disappearance of the forests and the deer and other hunted game meant that the inhabitants of Provence had to survive on rabbits and wild sheep. In about 6000 BC, the Castelnovian people, living around Châteauneuf-les-Martigues, were among the first people in Europe to domesticate wild sheep, to cease moving from place to place. Once they settled in one place they were able to develop new industries. Inspired by pottery from the eastern Mediterranean, in about 6000 BC they created the first pottery made in France. Around 6000 BC, a wave of new settlers from the east, the Chasséens, arrived in Provence, they were farmers and warriors, displaced the earlier pastoral people from their lands.
They were followed about 2500 BC by another wave of people farmers, known as the Courronniens, who arrived by sea and settled along the coast of what is now the Bouches-du-Rhône. Traces of these early civilisations can be found in many parts of Provence. A Neolithic site dating to about 6,000 BC was discovered in Marseille near the Saint-Charles railway station, and a dolmen from the Bronze Age can be found near Draguignan. Between the 10th and 4th century BC, the Ligures were found in Provence from Massilia as far as modern Liguria, they were of uncertain origin. Strabo distinctly states they were not of a different race from the Gauls, they did not have their own alphabet, but their language remains in place names in Provence ending in the suffixes -asc, -osc. -inc, -ates, -auni. The ancient geographer Posidonios wrote of them: "Their country is dry; the soil is so rocky. The men compensate for the lack of wheat by hunting... They climb the mountains like goats." They were warlike. Traces of the Ligures remain today in the dolmens and other megaliths found in eastern Provence, in the primitive stone shelters called'Bories' found in the Luberon and Comtat, in the rock carvings in the Valley of Marvels near Mont Bégo in the Alpes-Maritimes, at an altitude of 2,000 meters.
Between the 8th and 5th centuries BC, tribes of Celtic peoples coming from Central Europe began moving into Provence. They had weapons made of iron, which allowed them to defeat the local tribes, who were still armed with bronze weapons. One tribe, called the Segobriga, settled near modern-day Marseille; the Caturiges and Cavares settled to the west of the Durance river. Celts and Ligurians spread throughout the area and the Celto-Ligures shared the territory of Provence, each tribe in its own alpine valley or settlement along a river, each with its own king and dynasty, they built hilltop forts and settlements given the Latin name oppida. Today the traces 165 oppida are found in the Var, as many as 285 in the Alp
Charles I of Anjou
Charles I called Charles of Anjou, was a member of the royal Capetian dynasty and the founder of the second House of Anjou. He was Count of Provence and Forcalquier in the Holy Roman Empire, Count of Anjou and Maine in France. In 1272, he was proclaimed King of Albania. Being the youngest son of Louis VIII of France and Blanche of Castile, he was destined for a Church career until the early 1240s, he acquired Forcalquier through his marriage to their heiress, Beatrice. His attempts to secure comital rights brought him into conflict with his mother-in-law and the nobility, he received Maine from his brother, Louis IX of France, in appanage. He accompanied Louis during the Seventh Crusade to Egypt. Shortly after he returned to Provence in 1250, Charles forced three wealthy free imperial cities—Marseilles and Avignon—to acknowledge his suzerainty. Charles supported Margaret II, Countess of Flanders and Hainaut against her eldest son in exchange for Hainaut in 1253. Two years Louis IX persuaded him to renounce the county, but compensated him by instructing Margaret to pay him 160,000 marks.
Charles forced the rebellious Provençal nobles and towns into submission and expanded his suzerainty over a dozen towns and lordships in the Kingdom of Arles. In 1263, after years of negotiations, he accepted the offer of the Holy See to seize the Kingdom of Sicily from the Hohenstaufens; this kingdom included, in addition to the island of Sicily, southern Italy to well north of Naples and was known as the Regno. Pope Urban IV declared a crusade against the incumbent Manfred of Sicily and assisted Charles to raise funds for the military campaign. Charles was crowned king in Rome on 5 January 1266, he annihilated Manfred's army and occupied the Regno without resistance. His victory over Manfred's young nephew, Conradin, at the Battle of Tagliacozzo in 1268 strengthened his rule. In 1270 he took part in the Eighth Crusade and forced the Hafsid caliph of Tunis to pay a yearly tribute to him. Charles's victories secured his undisputed leadership among the popes' Italian partisans, but his influence on papal elections and his strong military presence in Italy disturbed the popes.
They tried to channel his ambitions towards other territories and assisted him in acquiring claims to Achaea and Arles through treaties. In 1281 Pope Martin IV authorised Charles to launch a crusade against the Byzantine Empire. Charles' ships were gathering at Messina, ready to begin the campaign when a riot—known as the Sicilian Vespers—broke out on 30 March 1282, it put an end to Charles' rule on the island of Sicily, but he was able to defend the mainland territories with the support of France and the Holy See. Charles was the youngest child of Louis VIII of Blanche of Castile; the date of his birth was not recorded, but he was a posthumous son, born in early 1227. Charles was Louis's only surviving son to be "born in the purple", a fact he emphasised in his youth, according to Matthew Paris, he was the first Capet to be named for Charlemagne. Louis willed; the details of Charles' tuition are unknown. He could identify errors in Latin texts, his passion for poetry, medical sciences and law is well documented.
Charles said. In reality, Blanche was engaged in state administration, could spare little time for her youngest children. Charles lived at the court of a brother, Robert I, Count of Artois, from 1237. About four years he was put into the care of his youngest brother, Count of Poitiers, his participation in his brothers' military campaign against Hugh X of Lusignan, Count of La Marche, in 1242 showed that he was no longer destined for a Church career. Raymond Berengar V of Provence died in August 1245, bequeathing Provence and Forcalquier to his youngest daughter, Beatrice because he had given generous dowries to her three sisters; the dowries were not discharged, causing two of her sisters and Eleanor, to believe that they had been unlawfully disinherited. Their mother, Beatrice of Savoy, claimed that Raymond Berengar had willed the usufruct of Provence to her. Emperor Frederick II, Count Raymond VII of Toulouse and other neighbouring rulers proposed themselves or their sons as husbands for the young countess.
Her mother put her under the protection of the Holy See. Louis IX and Margaret suggested. To secure the support of France against Frederick II, Pope Innocent IV accepted their proposal. Charles hurried to Aix-en-Provence at the head of an army to prevent other suitors from attacking, he married Beatrice on 31 January 1246. Provence was a part of the Kingdom of Arles and so of the Holy Roman Empire, but Charles never swore fealty to the emperor, he ordered a survey of the counts' rights and revenues, outraging both his subjects and his mother-in-law, who regarded this action as an attack against her rights. Being a younger child, destined for a church career, Charles had not received an appanage from his father. Louis VIII had willed that his fourth son, should receive Anjou and Maine upon reaching the age of majority, but John died in 1232. Louis IX knighted Charles at Melun in May 1
Savoie is a department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of France. Its prefecture is Chambéry. In 2016, it had a population of 429,681. Together with Haute-Savoie, Savoie is one of the two departments of the historic region of Savoy. Savoie is known for its contribution to French cuisine with culinary specialities such as fondue savoyarde, génépi, as well as various sorts of saucisson, it is accepted that Savoie takes its name from the Latin Sapaudia or Sabaudia, meaning land covered in fir trees. Savoie was long part of the states of Savoy, it was integrated into the Mont-Blanc department from 1792 to 1815. The province was annexed by France in 1860; the former Duchy of Savoy became the two departments of Haute-Savoie. Moûtiers, capital of the former province of Tarentaise Valley ceased to be the prefecture after a law passed on September 10, 1926. Savoie hosted the 1992 Winter Olympics, based in Albertville with ski events at Tarentaise and Beaufortain; the coat of arms for Savoie was used as a pattern for the flames in the official emblem of the games.
The other main alpine valley is the Maurienne, connected to the Tarentaise valley by two passes, the col de la Madeleine and the highest pass in Europe, the col de l'Iseran. The Maurienne valley was through the col du Mont Cenis, the major commercial route between France and Italy, it is one of the longest intra-alpine valleys in the Alps. Savoie is part of the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes région, it borders the departments of Haute-Savoie, Ain, Isère and Hautes-Alpes in addition to Aosta Valley and Metropolitan City of Turin in Italy. Much of Savoie is covered by mountains: Mont Blanc Massif Belledonne Massif Lauzière massif Aiguilles d'Arves Massif Massif des Cerces Aravis Range Mont Cenis Massif Bauges Massif Chartreuse Massif Vanoise Massif Beaufortain MassifThe department is crossed by the Isère river, which has its source in the Iseran pass, its two main lakes are Lac du Bourget and Lac d'Aiguebelette, one of the least polluted in France due to a 1976 law forbidding any use of motorboats on the lake.
According to the Chambéry chamber of commerce, close to 50% of the department's wealth comes from tourism. Each year, Savoie hosts over 30 million visitor-nights of tourists. Savoie profits from its natural resources with particular strengths in ore processing and hydroelectric power. Savoie had an exceptionally high export/import ratio of 214% in 2005, its exports rose to € 1.768 € 825 million in imports. Its leading exports were steel and electric and electronic components. Savoie is famous for its cows, which produce numerous cheeses, some of them are: Beaufort Savoie Gruyère Reblochon Tamié Tome des Bauges Tomme de SavoieNumerous wine grapes are grown in Savoie; the most famous wines are made of Pinot noir and Mondeuse grapes. Fruit production is the third largest component of agriculture in Savoie. Apples and pears are produced in the region and are well known for their qualities. Residents of Savoie are known as Savoyards, though they can be called Savoisiens or Savoyens. Main cities: Chambéry: pop.
56,835 Aix-les-Bains: pop. 27,095 Albertville: pop. 18,906 Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne: pop. 8,507 The "average" population density is not a good indicator: the valleys tend to be much more densely populated, whereas the mountains tend to be near-completely uninhabited. The Catholic Church in Savoie is divided into three dioceses: Chambéry, Tarentaise. Together, they form an archdiocese. Tourism, quite important to Savoie, began to develop towards the end of the 19th century summer oriented; the increase in the popularity of skiing in the 20th century made Savoie home to the largest number of ski hills in France, including many famous ones: Val-d'Isère Tignes Les Arcs La Plagne Courchevel Méribel Valmorel Les Menuires Val Thorens Les Saisies Savoie Grand Revard Bramans Bessans ValloireHydrotherapy, practised in the region since antiquity, is quite developed. There are four locations that are still active: Aix-les-Bains Challes-les-Eaux Brides-les-Bains La Léchère Savoy - Historical region House of Savoy - Ruling dynasty of Savoy from 1032 to 1860 Duchy of Savoy - Rulers of Savoy region from 1416 to 1720 Kingdom of Sardinia - 1720 to 1860.
French language Franco-Provençal language Communes of the Savoie department Arrondissements of the Savoie department Cantons of the Savoie department Chambéry - Capital Aix-les-Bains Lac du Bourget The largest lake in France. French wine - AOC wine of Savoie Savoy wine or Wine of Savoie Allobrogie General Council website Prefecture website Regional Tourism Agency Gallery Photos and pictures of Savoie Photos of Savoie mountains