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Amadeus VI, Count of Savoy

Amadeus VI, nicknamed the Green Count was Count of Savoy from 1343 to 1383. He was Count of Savoy and Yolande Palaeologo of Montferrat. Though he started under a regency, he showed himself to be a forceful leader, continuing Savoy's emergence as a power in Europe politically and militarily, he participated in a crusade against the Turks. When his father died in 1343, Amadeus inherited the County of Savoy. Since he was only nine years old, his father's will left two cousins as co-regents: Amadeus III of Geneva and Louis II of Vaud; the two agreed to a document limiting their power as regents. Neither could make any significant decision without the other, the decisions of both were subject to review by the resident council of nobles representing all bailis in the county. Shortly after Amadeus took the county, his cousin Joan of Savoy renewed her claim on the county of Savoy, that she was descended from Amadeus's uncle Edward, Count of Savoy, though her claim had been denied under Savoy's Semi-Salic tradition.

Though she died the following year, in her will she left the county to Philip, Duke of Orléans to spite her cousins. In 1345, he negotiated a similar settlement to the one Joan reached with Aymon, yielding the claim in exchange for 5000 livres annually. Amadeus was educated both mentally, he enjoyed learning to ride. His education included classic works such as De Re Militari and more modern texts including De Regimine Principum, he showed religious devotion, requesting a portable altar and the right for his chaplain to say mass for him every morning wherever he may be. He took vows to fast more than was healthy for him, asked Pope Clement VI to release him from these vows; the pope agreed. When the young Angevin queen Joanna I of Naples took the throne, several in northern Italy sought to take advantage of her inexperience and seize her lands there. John II, Marquess of Montferrat led the first attacks, while James of Piedmont, a cousin and vassal of Amadeus, backed the queen. After her first army was defeated in 1345, the attackers moved next into the territory ruled by James.

In 1347, James asked Amadeus for help, Amadeus sent an army. That army swept the attackers back through July of that year, with Amadeus joining the fighting in the last few weeks. John recruited the help of Humbert II, Dauphin of Viennois, an old enemy of the Savoyards, Thomas II, Marquess of Saluzzo. Together, they conquered the Angevin lands. Pope Clement VI spent 1348 negotiating a truce to end the fighting, which none of the combatants were satisfied with. From 1348 through 1351, the Black Death ravaged the lands of Savoy, halving the population in some villages. In 1348, many of the peasants thought that it was caused by Jews poisoning fountains. Though the castellans in some places tried to protect them, quite a few were killed. In Chambéry, the Jews were locked in the castle for their protection, but a mob broke in and killed several. Court officers were pressured into finding the remainder guilty of poisoning, executing eleven and charging the remainder a fine of 160 florins per month for the next six years.

In 1349, Amadeus agreed to a treaty between himself, Amadeus of Geneva, James of Piedmont, the House of Visconti, rulers of Milan, for mutual defence and assistance. This treaty included provisions for Galeazzo II Visconti to marry Bianca of Savoy, sister of the count. To honor the marriage in 1350, Amadeus created the Order of the Black Swan. In 1349 Humbert II de La Tour du Pin, Dauphin de Viennois, the last Dauphin de Viennois, surrendered his title and principality to the future Charles V of France. At the time the new Dauphin was grandson of the current King Philip VI of France and son to his heir apparent, the John II of France. Humbert II retired into a Dominican monastery. In 1350, Guichard Tavel, the bishop of Sion and an ally of Savoy attempted to take the rights of some nobles in Valais, a frontier of Savoy, he and his staff were attacked in August 1351. Pope Clement VI excommunicated the rebels, Amadeus sent in thirty knights. Eight thousand peasants captured a couple of castles. One hundred knights were sent in, pushed the rebels back.

In March 1352, Amadeus assembled an army, including Amadeus of Geneva and John of Montferrat, the count swept through the valley in April. The rebels yielded and Amadeus re-established the authority over Sion that his uncle Edward had lost. In the summer of 1352, Hugh of Geneva, uncle of Amadeus of Geneva and a noble within the Dauphiné re-ignited the long-standing feud with Savoy; the count of Savoy insulted Amadeus of Geneva's honor related to the treaty he had negotiated between Savoy and the Dauphiné, so Amadeus of Geneva left the council, challenged one of the other William de la Baume, who had replaced Louis of Vaud on the council. On 6 Jun 1352, the count of Savoy made an alliance with Albert II, Duke of Austria for mutual aid in conflict. Amadeus of Savoy gathered an army from his Italian lands to bring to war; as they were crossing the Alps, the rebellion in Valais and Sion broke out anew. Amadeus turned his army there first, on 3 November defeated the rebels soundly. On the morning of the fourth, his advisor William knighted him.

He had part of the wall of Sion torn down, his army pillaged the city. He fined the citizens heavily, he earned the nickname the Green Count when, in celebration of his 19th birthday, he appeared in a series of tournaments dressed with green plumes upon his helm, a green silk tabard over his armor, his horse bearing green caparisons

Frequentist probability

Frequentist probability or frequentism is an interpretation of probability. Probabilities can be found by a repeatable objective process; this interpretation supports the statistical needs of pollsters. It does not support all needs, however; the development of the frequentist account was motivated by the problems and paradoxes of the dominant viewpoint, the classical interpretation. In the classical interpretation, probability was defined in terms of the principle of indifference, based on the natural symmetry of a problem, so, e.g. the probabilities of dice games arise from the natural symmetric 6-sidedness of the cube. This classical interpretation stumbled at any statistical problem that has no natural symmetry for reasoning. In the frequentist interpretation, probabilities are discussed only when dealing with well-defined random experiments; the set of all possible outcomes of a random experiment is called the sample space of the experiment. An event is defined as a particular subset of the sample space to be considered.

For any given event, only one of two possibilities may hold: it occurs or it does not. The relative frequency of occurrence of an event, observed in a number of repetitions of the experiment, is a measure of the probability of that event; this is the core conception of probability in the frequentist interpretation. A claim of the frequentist approach is that, as the number of trials increases, the change in the relative frequency will diminish. Hence, one can view a probability as the limiting value of the corresponding relative frequencies; the frequentist interpretation is a philosophical approach to the definition and use of probabilities. It does not claim to capture all connotations of the concept'probable' in colloquial speech of natural languages; as an interpretation, it is not in conflict with the mathematical axiomatization of probability theory. It offers distinct guidance in the construction and design of practical experiments when contrasted with the Bayesian interpretation; as to whether this guidance is useful, or is apt to mis-interpretation, has been a source of controversy.

When the frequency interpretation of probability is mistakenly assumed to be the only possible basis for frequentist inference. So, for example, a list of mis-interpretations of the meaning of p-values accompanies the article on p-values; the Jeffreys–Lindley paradox shows how different interpretations, applied to the same data set, can lead to different conclusions about the'statistical significance' of a result. As William Feller noted: There is no place in our system for speculations concerning the probability that the sun will rise tomorrow. Before speaking of it we should have to agree on an model which would run along the lines "out of infinitely many worlds one is selected at random..." Little imagination is required to construct such a model, but it appears both uninteresting and meaningless. Feller's comment was criticism of Laplace, who published a solution to the sunrise problem using an alternative probability interpretation. Despite Laplace's explicit and immediate disclaimer in the source, based on expertise in astronomy as well as probability, two centuries of criticism have followed.

The frequentist view may have been foreshadowed by Aristotle, in Rhetoric, when he wrote: the probable is that which for the most part happens Poisson distinguished between objective and subjective probabilities in 1837. Soon thereafter a flurry of nearly simultaneous publications by Mill, Ellis and Fries introduced the frequentist view. Venn provided a thorough exposition two decades later; these were further supported by the publications of Bertrand. By the end of the 19th century the frequentist interpretation was well established and dominant in the sciences; the following generation established the tools of classical inferential statistics all based on frequentist probability. Alternatively, Jacob Bernoulli understood the concept of frequentist probability and published a critical proof posthumously in 1713, he is credited with some appreciation for subjective probability. Gauss and Laplace used frequentist probability in derivations of the least squares method a century a generation before Poisson.

Laplace considered the probabilities of testimonies, tables of mortality, judgments of tribunals, etc. which are unlikely candidates for classical probability. In this view, Poisson's contribution was his sharp criticism of the alternative "inverse" probability interpretation. Any criticism by Gauss and Laplace was implicit. Major contributors to "classical" statistics in the early 20th century included Fisher and Pearson. Fisher contributed to most of statistics and made significance testing the core of experimental s

Esplanade Park, Fremantle

Esplanade Park is a public reserve in Fremantle, Western Australia. Situated on Marine Terrace and opposite the Esplanade Hotel, the reserve features about 100 mature Norfolk Island pines and the Explorers' Monument; the park has been called Fremantle Esplanade as well as Fremantle Oval. The latter conflicts with the current name of nearby Fremantle Oval, known as'Barracks Green Field'; the park known as ` Fremantle Park' is located between Fremantle. Prior to the founding of the Swan River Colony, the southern Fremantle foreshore followed the line of where Marine Terrace is today. In 1831, two years after settlement, Henry Reveley built a stone jetty nearby from Anglesea Point near Bathers Beach. A second jetty was built in 1854 on the same site. Winter storms continued to cause damage to the foreshore buildings and a sea wall was built by convicts which alleviated the problem, but encroachment from the sea and sand drift persisted. In 1873 the kilometre-long Long Jetty was built nearby. In 1902 more land was reclaimed from the sea and the Esplanade was created thanks to funds provided by the state government and the resumption of an area of private land owned by J. Briggs M.

L. C. A bandstand was opened in 1906; the first Norfolk Island Pines were planted in 1908. The popular Fremantle Sardine Festival is staged on the park each January; the former The Esplanade railway station is to the west of the Esplanade on the far side of the Fremantle railway line, between the park and Little Creatures Brewery

English Opera Group

The English Opera Group was a small company of British musicians formed in 1947 by the composer Benjamin Britten for the purpose of presenting his and other British, composers' operatic works. The group expanded to present larger-scale works, was renamed the English Music Theatre Company; the organisation produced its last opera and ceased to run in 1980. Fleeing internal politics at Sadler's Wells Opera at the end of 1945, Britten and singers Joan Cross, Anne Wood, Peter Pears joined with designer Piper and producer Crozier to found the English Opera Group; the new company's goal was to première Britten's operas, to present other British, small-scale operas. The company's first project was to première Britten's chamber opera Albert Herring and give further performances of his opera The Rape of Lucretia during a tour of British and continental European venues, it commissioned and premièred a new piece by Lennox Berkeley, a setting of the Stabat Mater. Despite heavy subsidies, the costs of touring could not be recouped, so Britten and the group's other directors decided that it should be based at a home venue.

This was the prime reason for the inauguration of the Aldeburgh Festival in 1948. The first opera commissioned by the group, Brian Easdale's The Sleeping Children, was premièred in 1951, it gave the North American première of Britten's The Turn of the Screw at Canada's Stratford Festival in 1957. Aside from other new works by Britten, the group commissioned and produced eleven other new operas by British composers, it gave the British première of Francis Poulenc's opera Les mamelles de Tirésias in 1958. The group performed older operas, such as Acis and Galatea, The Beggar's Opera, Iolanta, La rondine and Trial by Jury, works by Henry Purcell and Gustav Holst; the Royal Opera, London took over management of the group in 1961. In 1971 Steuart Bedford was appointed musical director, Colin Graham became director of productions. In 1975 the group was enlarged to be able to produce works such as operettas and musicals in addition to opera; as well as appearing at festivals such as Aldeburgh, the company undertook regional tours and yearly performance seasons at the Sadler's Wells Theatre in London.

The founder and leader of the company was Colin Graham. One of their 1976 productions was The Threepenny Opera by Kurt Weill, conducted by the young Simon Rattle. After a final production of Britten's A Midsummer Night's Dream in 1980, the company was disbanded. Notes Sources Gilbert, Susie. Opera for Everybody. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-22493-7. Matthews, David. Britten. Haus Publishing. ISBN 1-904341-21-7 Sadie, Stanley; the New Grove Dictionary of Opera. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-522186-2. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list Seymour, Claire; the Operas of Benjamin Britten: Expression and Evasion. Boydell Press. ISBN 1-84383-314-X White, Eric Walter. Benjamin Britten, His Life and Operas. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-04894-6 Complete list of productions

Gwalior Municipal Corporation

Gwalior Municipal Corporation is the Municipal Corporation established in 1887,it is responsible for the civic infrastructure and administration of the city of Gwalior, located in Madhya Pradesh, India. This civic administrative body administers an area of 289km²; the GMC is headed by present Mayor of Gwalior. The city is divided into 66 wards; each ward elects a corporator. The winning party elects a council of members; the council members chose the Mayor among themselves. At present, there are sixty one members in the council; the Commissioner of Gwalior is the highest officer of Municipal Corporate Office, responsible for the departments of public works and tax, water supply and development, fire brigade and sanitation, finance and accounts etc. The current Municipal Commissioner of Gwalior is Vinod Sharma, while the current Mayor is Vivek Narayan Shejwalkar. Gwalior Municipal Corporation came into existence on 6 June 1887, it was established by the Council of Regency, responsible for administration of the Gwalior Estate.

In 1904, general functions of urban local bodies like city planning, sanitation etc. were assigned to the Gwalior Municipal Corporation along with establishment of a separate Municipal Corporation for Old Gwalior. In the year 1912, yet another Municipal Corporation was established for Morar Nagar, it functioned in accordance with the Municipal Act, formulated in 1911 but was implemented in 1912. After the implementation of Municipal Corporation Act in the year 1913, a separate Governing body was established by the elected members of board and His Highness, Madhavrao Scindia resigned from the post of Chairperson which he occupied until 1912. In the year 1922, a new board was formed with 45 members, where 30 members were elected, 15 members were nominated from different parts of the city. During the governance of this board, Gwalior city saw many remarkable changes, most remarkable being the establishment of a Power House at Motijheel and Water Supply Plant to supply water to the entire city.

The Municipal Corporation Act, implemented in the year 1912 saw some amendments in the year 1936 and was implemented with fresh rules for governance in the year 1937. Salient features of this amendment included the power to select Chairperson through voting by the members of the Council. Before this amendment the Chairperson was elected by nomination. After independence the Municipal Corporation Act was revised yet again and this paved way for establishment of Central India Municipal Corporation Act in the year 1954; this led to an increase in the limits of Gwalior Municipal Corporation to include another 18 square miles. In 1956, the reorganizing of states of India led to creation of Madhya Pradesh; this resulted in Gwalior and Indore Municipalities being awarded the status of Municipal Corporations and the implementation of new Municipal Corporation Act. GMC was divided into 34 blocks and was governed by 40 elected members and 10 members of Central India Municipal Corporation who were transferred by voting method.

The elections of Municipal Council were again held in 1969 in which out of the 52 councilors, 42 councilors were elected and 10 councilors were nominated by the elected members. Gwalior Municipal Corporation extended its scope of work and included another 75 villages in its limit to extend its jurisdiction to an area of 289 square kilometres. Gwalior Municipal Corporation was again restructured on 24 May 1983 and the number of elected members was increased to 52 with 10 nominated members and Mayor of the Gwalior Municipal Corporation; the term of the Council ended in 1987 which led to the State Government taking charge of the Corporation for 7 years. In the year 1994, elections were held and the number of members was increased to 67 members, 60 of which were elected and 6 councilors were nominated by the Government. In 1994, State Government created the post of Chairperson of the council, elected by the councilors. In the year 2000, the process of election was changed and the Councilors and Mayor were elected directly by the public to create a council for the term of 5 years.

In the year 2004 the election were held again and the Council is still in term with 60 elected councilors, 6 members nominated by the Government and the Mayor. Fire Brigade Property Dayara Udyan Zoo Revenue Dukan Sansthan Building Permission Colony Layout G. A. D. Legal Section Pension Payroll Workshop Accounts Complaints PHE Property Birth Death Central Purchase Parishad List of municipal corporations of India official website

José Hamilton Ribeiro

José Hamilton Ribeiro is a Brazilian journalist and author. He has worked as a reporter and editor for the magazines Realidade and Quatro Rodas, the newspaper Folha de S. Paulo, the programs Globo Repórter, Fantástico, Globo Rural, is the author of fifteen books. In December 2012, a study by the news bulletin Jornalistas & Cia concluded that Ribeiro, as measured by the number and importance of prizes won, is the most decorated journalist in Brazilian history. Ribeiro's father was his mother a housewife, he studied in a public school. In 1955 Ribeiro went to Rio de Janeiro to attend the Cásper Líbero School of Journalism, he was expelled from the school during his last year because of a strike. He spent several years teaching at Casper Libero, he taught at the Faculty Armando Álvares Penteado and served as a member of the Evaluation Committee of the School of Communication and Arts at the University of São Paulo. Ribeiro began his career in journalism in 1955 at Radio Bandeirantes in São Paulo, where he worked the night shift and spent significant time accompanying leading capoeira musicians.

Soon afterwards he went to work in print journalism, becoming a cub reporter for O Tempo in 1955 and a staffer for the Folha de S. Paulo in June 1956. In 1957, he covered the first Mass held in Brasilia, he went to work in 1962 for Editora Abril in 1962, where he was made editor-in-chief of the magazine Quatro Rodas where he gained attention and notoriety. In 1966, he moved onto the monthly Realidade published by Editora Abril, where, he recalled, the articles were “long and ambitious,” involving three or four months of investigative reporting. Ribeiro went to Vietnam in 1968 to cover the war, lost the lower part of his left leg in a mine explosion near Quang Tri, he was transported by helicopter to the American hospital in Qui Nhon, where his left leg was amputated just above the ankle, from there was transferred to the United States for further treatment. He reacted to this incident with equanimity, telling a reporter at Qui Nhon that as soon as he had been able to sit up in bed he had begun writing his story.

A photograph of him after the accident appeared on the cover of Realidade. Among the stories Ribeiro went on to cover after his accident was the assassination of Robert F. Kennedy. After serving as editor-in-chief of Realidades, he worked from 1973 to 1975 as a reporter for the magazine Veja published by Editora Abril. In the 1970s, tired of government censorship, Ribeiro stopped writing journalism for a while and instead focused on helping news organizations in São Paulo to modernize their newsrooms, he was director of El Diario, in Ribeirão Preto, in 1975, of Day and Night, in São José do Rio Preto, in 1977, where he won another Esso Award in the category Regional/Southeast. He returned to São Paulo in 1978 to become editor-in-chief of journalism for TV Tupi, general director of its program Pinga Fogo. At the same time he managed the newsroom of the Jornal de Hoje in Campinas. In 1981, working as a freelancer, Ribeiro did his first work for TV Globo, his report on the Pantanal region was well received and discussed and was invited to work full-time in Rio on the Globo Reporter.

His first report, aired on 10 June 1982, was about mining in Serra Pelada, Pará, was the first on that series in which the reporter was seen on-screen rather than just being an off-screen voice. O Gosto da Guerra: a report about the War in Vietnam, recounts the land-mine incident that led to the loss of part of his left leg Pantanal Amor Bágua: named Best Book for Youth by the São Paulo Association of Art Critics in 1978 Senhor Jequitibá Gota de Sol: a book about the history of the orange, from ancient Chinese gardens to the present, with pictures by Amilton Vieira Vingança do Índio Cavaleiro Jornalistas 37/97: a historical account published on the occasion of the sixtieth anniversary of the Journalists' Union of São Paulo Música Caipira as 270 Maiores Modas de Todos os Tempos: a celebration of 270 of the best capoeira songs O Repórter do Século Os Tropeiros Diário da Marcha Asked in a 2012 interview if it is a good idea for journalists to study journalism, Ribeiro answered the more education, the better.

“A country is made by good professionals in all areas.” He lamented that “almost 70% of the adult population in Brazil can not understand ten lines of text” and that Brazilian universities, which given the country's population should be represented among the world's top ten, are not in the top hundred. “In a country so backward and so needy,” he said, “to be opposed to journalism school, any school, is cynicism or malice.” Esso Journalism AwardRibeiro has won the Esso Journalism Award, the most important of Brazilian journalism awards, seven times, a record that has yet to be surpassed. He won his first Esso Award in 1963 and his second in 1964. While at Realidades, he won four more Esso Awards. Three of them, in 1967, 1968, 1973, were in the category Scientific Information, he won a seventh Esso Award in 1977 while serving as editor of Dia e Noite. Maria Moors Cabot PrizeThe School of Journalism at Columbia University awarded Ribeiro the Maria Moors Cabot Prize in 2006. “Long after most reporters burn out,” the citation read, Ribeiro “is still out there working,” reporting on “the most isolated areas of Brazil and the rampant development that threatens them.”

Describing him as “a role model for generations of young Brazilian journalists” and “a hero to the many viewers of TV Globo,” the citation praised