Yolande Palaeologina of Montferrat
Yolande Palaiologina or Violant was the daughter of Theodore I, Marquess of Montferrat and Argentina Spinola, a Genoese lady, daughter of Opicino Spinola. She received the name Yolande from her paternal grandmother Irene of Montferrat. Yolande married on May 1, 1330 to Aimone, Count of Savoy, from her marriage she became Countess consort of Savoy and Moriana, her marriage was arranged to seal the newly found peace between her family and the Counts of Savoy, on the basis that the latter would succeed to Montferrato in case of extinction in the male line of the Palaeologus family. According to this act of inheritance in Montferatto, when the male line died out of the Palaeologus dynasty with the death of Bonifacio IV of Montferrat two centuries Charles III, Duke of Savoy laid claim to Montferrato through Yolande his great-great-great-great grandmother; however it was claimed by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor After failing to produce a child for the count in the first few years of marriage, she went to the shrine of the Virgin Mary at Bourg-en-Bresse, considered at the time to help marriages become fruitful.
Not long after, she conceived Amadeus. She returned to the shrine after his birth, was pleased to conceive a daughter, they had five children: Amadeus VI Bianca, married in 1350 to Galeazzo II Visconti, Lord of Milan. John, died young Catherine, died young Louis, died youngYolande herself died whilst giving birth to her son Louis on 24 December 1342, she was buried in a chapel at Hautecombe Abbey, her daughter Bianca was mother to Gian Galeazzo Violante Visconti. Among Yolande's descendants are Louis XII of France, Henry II of France and Henrietta Maria, Queen of England. Cox, Eugene L.. The Green Count of Savoy. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. LCCN 67-11030
House of Savoy
The House of Savoy is a royal family, established in 1003 in the historical Savoy region. Through gradual expansion, the family grew in power from ruling a small county in the Alps north-west of Italy to absolute rule of the kingdom of Sicily in 1713 to 1720. Through its junior branch, the House of Savoy-Carignano, it led the unification of Italy in 1861 and ruled the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 until 1946 and the Kingdom of Spain in the 19th century; the Savoyard kings of Italy were Victor Emmanuel II, Umberto I, Victor Emmanuel III, Umberto II. The last monarch ruled for a few weeks before being deposed following the Constitutional Referendum of 1946, after which the Italian Republic was proclaimed; the name derives from the historical region of Savoy in the Alpine region between what is now France and Italy. Over time, the House of Savoy expanded its territory and influence through judicious marriages and international diplomacy. From rule of a small region on the French/Italian border, the dynasty's realm grew to include nearly all of the Italian Peninsula by the time of its deposition.
The house descended from Count of Sabaudia. Humbert's family is thought to have originated near Magdeburg in Saxony, with the earliest recording of the family being two 10th century brothers and Humbert. Though Sabaudia was a poor county counts were diplomatically skilled, gained control over strategic mountain passes in the Alps. Two of Humbert's sons were commendatory abbots at the Abbey of St. Maurice, Agaunum, on the River Rhone east of Lake Geneva, Saint Maurice is still the patron of the House of Savoy. Humbert's son, Otto of Savoy succeeded to the title in 1051 after the death of his elder brother Amedeo and married the Marchioness Adelaide of Turin, passing the Marquessate of Susa, with the towns of Turin and Pinerolo, into the House of Savoy's possession; this diplomatic skill caused the great powers such as France and Spain to take the counts' opinions into account. They once had claims on the modern canton of Vaud, where they occupied the Château of Chillon in Switzerland, but their access to it was cut by Geneva during the Protestant Reformation, after which it was conquered by Bern.
Piedmont was joined with Sabaudia, the name evolved into "Savoy". The people of Savoy were descended from the Romans. By the time Amadeus VIII came to power in the late 14th century, the House of Savoy had gone through a series of gradual territorial expansions and he was elevated by the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund to the Duke of Savoy in 1416. In 1494, Charles VIII of France passed through Savoy on his way to Italy and Naples, which initiated the Italian War of 1494–98. During the outbreak of the Italian war of 1521-1526, Emperor Charles V stationed imperial troops in Savoy. In 1536, Francis I of France invaded Piedmont taking Turin by April of that year. Charles III, Duke of Savoy, fled to Vercelli; when Emmanuel Philibert came to power in 1553 most of his family's territories were in French hands, so he offered to serve France's leading enemy the House of Habsburg, in the hope of recovering his lands. He served Philip II as Governor of the Netherlands from 1555 to 1559. In this capacity he led the Spanish invasion of northern France and won a victory at St. Quentin in 1557.
He took advantage of various squabbles in Europe to regain territory from both the French and the Spanish, including the city of Turin. He moved the capital of the duchy from Chambéry to Turin; the 17th century brought about economic development to the Turin area and the House of Savoy took part in and benefitted from that. Charles Emmanuel II built a road through the Alps towards France, and through skillful political manoeuvres territorial expansion continued. In early 18th century in the War of the Spanish Succession Victor Amadeus switched sides to assist the Habsburgs and via the Treaty of Utrecht they rewarded him with large pieces of land in northeastern Italy, a Crown in Sicily. Savoy rule over Sicily lasted only seven years; the crown of Sicily, the prestige of being kings at last, the wealth of Palermo helped strengthen the House of Savoy further. In 1720 they were forced to exchange Sicily for Sardinia as a result of the War of the Quadruple Alliance. On the mainland, the dynasty continued its expansionist policies as well.
Through advantageous alliances during the War of the Polish Succession and War of the Austrian Succession, Charles Emmanuel III gained new lands at the expense of the Austrian-controlled Duchy of Milan. In 1792 Piedmont-Sardinia joined the First Coalition against the French First Republic, but was beaten in 1796 by Napoleon and forced to conclude the disadvantageous Treaty of Paris, giving the French army free passage through Piedmont. In 1798, Joubert occupied Turin and forced Charles Emmanuel IV to abdicate and leave for the island of Sardinia. In 1814 the kingdom was restored and enlarged with the addition of the former Republic of Genoa by the Congress of Vienna. In the meantime, nationalist figures such as Giuseppe Mazzini were influencing popular opinion. Mazzini believed that Italian unification could only be achieved through a popular uprising, but after the failure of the 1848 revolutions, the Italian nationalists began to look to the Kingdom of Sardinia and its prime minister Count Cavour as leaders of the unification movement.
In 1848, Charles Albert conceded a constitution known as the Statuto Albertino to Piedmont-Sardinia, which remained the basis of the Kingdom's legal system after Italian unification was achieved and the Kingdom of Sardinia became the Kingdom of Italy in 1861. The Kingdom of I
Charles, Count of Valois
Charles of Valois, the third son of Philip III of France and Isabella of Aragon, was a member of the House of Capet and founder of the House of Valois, whose rule over France would start in 1328. Charles ruled several principalities, he held in appanage the counties of Alençon and Perche. Through his marriage to Margaret of Anjou, he became Count of Maine. Through his marriage to Catherine I, titular empress of the Latin Empire, he was titular Latin Emperor of Constantinople from 1301–1307, although he ruled from exile and only had authority over Crusader States in Greece. Grandson of Saint Louis, Charles of Valois is a son, brother-in-law and son-in-law of kings or queens, his descendants, the House of Valois, would become the royal house of France three years after his death, beginning with his son Philip VI of France. Charles had as appanage the counties of Alençon and Perche, he became in 1290 count of Anjou and of Maine by his marriage with Margaret, eldest daughter of Charles II, titular king of Sicily.
But he was son, brother-in-law, son-in-law, uncle of kings or of queens, moreover, after his death, father of a king. Charles thus sought all his life for a crown he never obtained. In 1284, the pope recognized him as King of Aragon, as son of his mother, in opposition to King Peter III, who after the conquest of the island of Sicily was an enemy of the papacy. Charles married Marguerite of Sicily, daughter of the Neapolitan king, in order to re-enforce his position in Sicily, supported by the Pope. Thanks to this Aragonese Crusade undertaken by his father Philip III against the advice of his brother, the future Philip the Fair, he believed he would win a kingdom and won nothing but the ridicule of having been crowned with a cardinal's hat in 1285, which gave him the sobriquet of the "King of the Cap." He would never dare to use the royal seal, made on this occasion and would have to renounce the title. His principal quality was to be a good military leader, he commanded in Flanders in 1297. The king deduced that his brother could conduct an expedition in Italy against Frederick II of Sicily.
The affair was ended by the peace of Caltabellotta. Charles dreamed at the same time of the imperial crown and married in 1301 Catherine de Courtenay, a titular empress, but it needed the connivance of the Pope, which he obtained by his expedition to Italy, where he supported Charles II of Anjou against Frederick II of Sicily, his cousin. Named papal vicar, he lost himself in the imbroglio of Italian politics, was compromised in a massacre at Florence and in sordid financial exigencies, reached Sicily where he consolidated his reputation as a looter and returned to France discredited in 1301–1302. Charles was back in shape to seek a new crown when the German king Albert of Habsburg was murdered in 1308. Charles's brother, who did not wish to take the risk himself of a check and thought that a French puppet on the imperial throne would be a good thing for France, encouraged him; the candidacy was defeated with the election of Henry VII as German king, for the electors did not want France to become more powerful.
Charles continued to dream of the eastern crown of the Courtenays. He did benefit from the affection which Philip the Fair, who had suffered from the remarriage of their father, brought to his only full brother, he found himself given responsibilities which exceeded his talent, thus it was he who directed in 1311 the royal embassy to the conferences of Tournai with the Flemish. Charles did not pardon the affront and would continue the vendetta against Marigny after the king's death, he was doggedly opposed to the torture of Jacques de Molay, grand master of the Templars, in 1314. The premature death of Louis X in 1316 gave Charles hopes for a political role, but he could not prevent his nephew Philip, from taking the regency while awaiting the birth of Louis X's posthumous son; when that son died after a few days, Philip took the throne as Philip V. Charles was opposed to Philip's succession, for Louis X had left behind a daughter, Joan. However, he switched sides and backed Philip V realizing that Philip's precedent would bring him and his line closer to the throne.
In 1324, he commanded with success the army of his nephew Charles IV to take Guyenne and Flanders from King Edward II of England. He contributed, by the capture of several cities, to accelerate the peace, concluded between the king of France and his niece, queen-consort of England; the Count of Valois died 16 December 1325 at Nogent-le-Roi, leaving a son who would take the throne of France under the name of Philip VI and commence the branch of the Valois: a posthumous revenge for the man of whom it was said, "Son of a king, brother of a king, uncle of three kings, father of a king, but never king himself." Had he survived for three more years and outlived his nephew, Charles would have become King of France in his own right. Charles was buried in the now-demolished church of the Couvent des Jacobins in Paris – his effigy is now in the Basilica of St Denis. Charles was married three times, his first marriage, in 1290, was to his double second cousin Margaret, Countess of Anjou, daughter of King Charles II of Naples.
They had the fol
Chambéry is a city in the department of Savoie, located in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in eastern France. It is the capital of the department and has been the historical capital of the Savoy region since the 13th century, when Amadeus V, Count of Savoy, made the city his seat of power. Together with other Alpine towns Chambéry engages in the Alpine Town of the Year Association for the implementation of the Alpine Convention to achieve sustainable development in the Alpine Arc. Chambéry was awarded Alpine Town of the Year 2006. Chambéry was founded at a crossroads of ancient routes through the Dauphiné, Burgundy and Italy, in a wide valley between the Bauges and the Chartreuse Mountains on the Leysse River; the metropolitan area has more than 125,000 residents, extending from the vineyard slopes of the fr:Combe de Savoie to the shores of the Lac du Bourget, the largest natural lake in France. The city is a major railway hub, at the midpoint of the Franco-Italian Turin–Lyon high-speed railway.
Chambéry is situated in southeast France, 523 kilometres from Paris, 326 kilometres from Marseille, 214 km from Turin, 100 kilometres from Lyon and 85 kilometres from Geneva. It is found in a large valley, surrounded by the Massif des Bauges to the east, Mont Granier and the Chaîne de Belledonne to the south, the Chaîne de l'Épine to the west and the Lac du Bourget to the north; the towns surrounding Chambéry are Barberaz, Cognin, Jacob-Bellecombette, La Motte-Servolex, La Ravoire, Saint-Alban-Leysse and Sonnaz. The history of Chambéry is linked to the House of Savoy and was the Savoyard capital from 1295 to 1563. During this time, Savoy encompassed a region that stretched from Bourg-en-Bresse in the west, across the Alps to Turin, north to Geneva, south to Nice. To insulate Savoy from provocations by France, Duke Emmanuel Philibert moved his capital to Turin in 1563, Chambéry declined. France annexed the regions that constituted the Duchy of Savoy west of the Alps in 1792; the need for urban revitalization was met by the establishment of the Société Académique de Savoie in 1820, devoted to material and ethical progress, now housed in an apartment of the ducal Château.
Chambéry and lands of the former Duchy, as well as The County of Nice, were ceded to France by Piedmont in 1860, under the reign of Napoleon III. The town known as Lemencum first changed its name in the Middle Ages during the period that the Duc de Savoie erected his castle, it was called Camefriacum in 1016, Camberiaco in 1029, Cambariacum in 1036, Cambariaco in 1044. In the next century, Cambariaco changed to Chamberium becoming Chamberi in 1603; the actual name comes from the Gaulois term camboritos. The Latin name cambarius, meaning beer brewer, may explain the name. Another hypothesis is that the Gallo-Roman name Camberiacum suggests the idea of currency changing or trade, or a room where the toll taxes are collected. Chambéry is right on the boundary between the humid subtropical and oceanic climates under the Köppen system. In spite of this it is influenced by its interior position within France, resulting in quite hot summers, winters with frequent temperatures below freezing at night.
The first counts of Savoy settled into an existing fortress in 1285 and expanded it in the early-14th century to serve as a residence, seat of power and administration, as stronghold for the House of Savoy. However, it became obsolete as a serious fortification genuinely capable of resisting a siege. Due to constant French hostilities on the château, Duke Emmanuel Philibert decided to move his capital to Turin; the château remained purely an administrative centre until Christine Marie of France, Duchess of Savoy, returned to hold court in 1640. It was the site of the 1684 marriage between Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia and Anne Marie d'Orléans, niece of Louis XIV. Victor Amadeus II, having abdicated, lived here with his second wife Anna Canalis di Cumiana before they were imprisoned at the Castle of Rivoli for trying to reclaim the throne. In 1786, Victor Amadeus III enlarged it. Under Napoleon Bonaparte, the Aile du Midi was rebuilt and redecorated to house the imperial prefecture of the department of Mont-Blanc.
Elaborate modification to the structure were made again after Savoy was annexed by France in 1860. Today, the political administration of the department of Savoie is located in the castle, it is open for tours and concerts; the Fontaine des Éléphants is the most famous landmark in Chambéry. It was built in 1838 to honour Benoît de Boigne's feats; the monumental fountain has strikingly realistic sculptures of the head and forelimbs of four lifesize elephants truncated into the base of a tall column in the shape of the savoyan cross, topped by a statue of de Boigne. At first, the landmark was mocked by the local residents who were annoyed by it, but it now is accepted as one of the city's symbols. Since the early controversy, the statue kept its nickname of les quatre sans culs. A total restoration was done betwe
Thomas, Count of Flanders
Thomas II was the Lord of Piedmont from 1233 to his death, Count of Flanders jure uxoris from 1237 to 1244, regent of the County of Savoy from 1253 to his death, while his nephew Boniface was fighting abroad. He was the son of Thomas I of Margaret of Geneva. Thomas started his career in the church, as a canon at Lausanne and became prévôt of Valence by 1226. In 1233, when Thomas I of Savoy died, being a younger son, inherited only the lordship of Piedmont, which he raised to the status of a county. In 1235, when Thomas left his ecclesiastical career, he sought to divide his lands from the County of Savoy, his elder brother, Amadeus IV, negotiated with him to grant Thomas additional lands within the county, but that all lands would stay part of the county. Further, Thomas was encouraged like his other brothers to expand his holdings outside of Savoy. In 1234, Thomas and his brother William escorted his niece, Margaret of Provence to her wedding with Louis IX of France. While Thomas hoped to stay with her at the French court, the king's mother, Blanche of Castile, wanted greater control over the new queen, so dismissed all who came with her before the couple reached Paris.
At the urging of Louis IX of France, Thomas married Joanna, Countess of Flanders and Hainaut, widow of Ferdinand, Count of Flanders and daughter of the Latin Emperor Baldwin I, in 1237. His loyalties as Count of Flanders were divided between the kings of England. In 1239, Thomas traveled to England to pay homage to King of England. While there, his niece, Eleanor of Provence, gave birth to Edward. After recognizing Henry as his suzerain, Thomas received an annual stipend of 500 marks, he returned to visit the family around Easter of 1240 and was given a gift which Henry III of England extracted from the lands of Simon de Montfort. The count and countess were generous toward local churches, Thomas followed his wife's lead on such matters. Thomas understood the needs of the emerging merchant class, worked to provide better rights for them; this included granting new charters and restructuring the governance in key cities such as Damme and Bruges. In July 1243, Thomas and his brother Amadeus were ordered by Enzo of Sardinia to join in a siege of Vercelli, which had switched allegiances from the Empire to the Pope.
Not only was the attack on the city unsuccessful, but the brothers were excommunicated for it. When the brothers wrote to the new Pope Innocent IV to appeal, he granted their request, further indicated that Thomas would be protected from excommunication without papal authorization. Thomas and Joanna had no issue and she died in 1244. In 1255, Thomas was protecting his territories in the Piedmont region against the town of Asti. In a battle at Moncalieri, he was held in Turin; the two cities were seeking to force Thomas to acknowledge their independence from Savoy control. In response, Pope Alexander IV placed an interdict against Turin and Asti, King Henry III of England imprisoned all Lombards in his kingdom. Louis IX of France arrested 150 Asti merchants at the urging of his wife Margaret. Beatrice of Savoy did the same in her territories in Provence. Thomas's brothers and Philip led an army down from Savoy in 1256, were able to force a negotiated settlement by the end of the year. In that settlement, the cities were recognized as independent, though they did not achieve the territorial or economic benefits they were seeking.
Although he was the next brother of Amadeus IV, he never became the Count of Savoy because he predeceased his nephew, who himself died without sons to succeed him. Thomas did act as regent for Boniface during the early years of his reign. Although Thomas left sons, upon Boniface' death the remaining uncles, younger brothers of Thomas, ruled the County of Savoy. Thomas' eldest son and heir Thomas III thought it to be an injustice and unsuccessfully claimed Savoy. However, it so happened that Philip I, the last surviving brother of Thomas, made Thomas' younger son Amadeus his heir in Savoy, leaving the elder son and the genealogically senior line descending from him out of the Savoy succession. In 1252, Thomas married Beatrice Fieschi, niece of Pope Innocent IV. Thomas and Beatrice had six children: Thomas, his successor and pretender to the County of Savoy Amadeus, who inherited Savoy Louis Ι, Baron of Vaud Eleanor, married Louis I of Beaujeu Margaret, married first Baldwin de Redvers, 7th Earl of Devon and after his death Sir Robert II Aguillon Alice He had at least three illegitimate children.
Cognasso, Francesco. Tommaso I ed Amedeo IV. Turin. Cox, Eugene L.. The Eagles of Savoy. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691052166. Jobson, Adrian; the First English Revolution: Simon de Montfort, Henry III and the Barons' War. Bloomsbury Academic. Williams, George L.. Papal Genealogy: The Families and Descendants of the Popes. McFarland & Company, Inc
Peter I, Duke of Bourbon
Peter I of Bourbon was the second Duke of Bourbon, from 1342 to his death. Peter was son of Louis I of Bourbon, whom he succeeded as Grand Chamberlain of France, Mary of Avesnes. Duke Peter is reported to have been somewhat mentally unstable, a trait of nervous breakdowns hereditary that showed for example in his daughter Joan of Bourbon, the queen, in her son, king Charles VI of France, as well as in Peter's only surviving son, Duke Louis II. Peter I took part in several of the early campaigns of the Hundred Years War which broke out in 1337. In the summer of 1339 he took part in Jean de Marigny, Bishop of Beauvais's failed attack on Bordeaux. In autumn 1341 he took part in the Duke of Normandy's campaign in Brittany, he was present at the coronation of Pope Clement VI at Avignon 19 May 1342. Summer 1342 he was together with the Raoul I of Brienne, Count of Eu given command of the covering force protecting France from attacks from the north while king Philip VI campaigned in Brittany. In August 1343 he and the Dauphin of Viennois were the French ambassadors at a peace conference at Avignon, but the negotiations were fruitless as Edward III of England declined to send any but the most junior members of the embassy.
On 8 August 1345 Peter I was appointed by Philip VI as his lieutenant on the south-west march. His opponent was to be Henry, Earl of Derby who completed disembarking his army at Bordeaux the day after Peter I's appointment. Peter I arrived to take up his lieutenancy in Languedoc in September. By the Earl of Derby had opened his campaign, throwing the French defences into disarray with the capture of Bergerac and the destruction of the French army present there the previous month. Bourbon set up headquarters at Angoulême and begun an extensive recruitment campaign to raise a new army, command of which fell to the Duke of Normandy; however on 21 October the Earl of Derby won another crushing victory outside Auberoche over parts of this force. The Duke of Normandy abandoned his campaign. In early November he left for the north; the Earl of Derby exploited the absence of a French commander in the field to lay siege to the important fortress-city of La Réole. Bourbon proclaimed the arrière-ban in Languedoc and the march provinces in an attempt to find troops to relieve the siege.
However the results were poor as many of the potential recruits were still on their way home from the army just disbanded by John of Normandy. Attempts by John I, Count of Armagnac to raise troops from his domains in the Rouergue produced little. Early January 1346 the garrison of La Réole marched away under truce. Winter 1346 Bourbon kept his winter quarters at the provincial capital of Agen, a city, becoming isolated as many of the lesser towns were captured or defected to the English. Spring however opened with the so far greatest French effort in the south-west. Bourbon and the Bishop of Beauvais raised a new army at Toulouse, in part financed by the Pope whose nephew had been captured by Derby the previous year, while John of Normandy brought with him a substantial number of nobles from the north including such dignitaries as the Eudes IV, Duke of Burgundy, Raoul II of Brienne, Count of Eu the Constable of France, both Marshals and the Master of Crossbowmen. In April Normandy laid siege to the town of Aiguillon which controlled the confluence between the Lot and the Garonne.
There they still remained in August when John of Normandy was urgently recalled to the north to help stop Edward III who had landed in Normandy. And so the French 1346 campaign in the south ended having accomplished nothing. In July 1347 he took part in fruitless negotiations with the English outside Calais in the days just before that city's capitulation. On 8 February 1354 he was together with the Guy, Cardinal of Boulogne appointed as King John II's commissioners to King Charles II of Navarre, empowered to offer whatever Charles wanted; the two met the King of Navarre in the castle of Mantes, accompanied by the two dowager Queens and droves of courtiers and ministers, most of who more or less sympathized with Charles of Navarre. The treaty concluded 22 February granted to Charles of Navarre a considerable part of Lower Normandy which he was to hold with the same rights as the Duke of Normandy. In January 1355 he was sent together with the Chancellor of France Pierre de la Forêt on a diplomatic mission to Avignon where they were to meet with an English embassy led by Henry of Lancaster and Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel.
The purpose of the mission was to formally ratify a peace treaty based on a draft drawn up at Guînes the previous year. However since French policy had changed, the French ambassadors had only come to reject the English demands and had nothing new to offer. Negotiations therefore broke down and the conference ended having accomplished nothing except prolonging the existing truce a few more months until 24 June. May 1355 when it became apparent that open war was about to break out between the King of France and a King of Navarre allied to England the Duke of Bourbon belonged to the party fronted by the Dowager Queens who lobbied John II on Charles of Navarre's behalf. In the end John II gave way and on 31 May agreed to pardon Charles of Navarre. In July the Duke of Bourbon and the Chancellor met with English ambassadors to negotiate the extension of the truce; as both the French and English governments had decided to resume the war these negotiations were quite empty and fruitless. Peter was killed in the Battle of Poitiers 19 September 1356 and buried in the now-demolished church of the Couvent des Jacobins in Paris.
On 25 January 1336 he married Isabella of Valois, daughter of Charles, Co
Thomas, Count of Savoy
Thomas was Count of Savoy from 1189 to 1233. He is sometimes numbered "Thomas I" to distinguish him from his son of the same name, who governed Savoy but was not count. Thomas was born in the son of Humbert III of Savoy and Beatrice of Viennois, his birth was seen as miraculous. Count Humbert sought counsel from St. Anthelm, who blessed Humbert three times, it was seen as a prophecy come true when Thomas was born shortly before Anthelm himself died on 26 June 1178, he was named in honour of Saint Thomas Becket. Thomas was still a minor when his father died on 4 March 1189, a council of regency was established, composed of his mother Beatrice, his father's cousin Boniface I of Montferrat, the Bishop of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne, he had reached his majority by August 1191. Thomas possessed the martial abilities and brilliance that his father lacked, Savoy enjoyed a golden age under his leadership. Despite his youth he began the push northwest into new territories. In the same year he granted Aosta Valley the "Charte des Franchises", recognising the right to administrative and political autonomy.
This right was maintained until the eve of the French Revolution. He conquered Vaud and Carignano, he supported the Hohenstaufens, was known as "Thomas the Ghibelline" because of his career as Imperial Vicar of Lombardy. Thomas worked throughout his career to expand the influence of the County of Savoy. One of the key tools that he used was his large number of children, who he worked to get into positions of influence in neighboring regions. In part, this was done by getting many of his sons into episcopal offices in surrounding territories, in a time when bishops had temporal as well as spiritual authority. In addition to Guglielmo and Bonifacio, who made their careers in the clergy, their brother Thomas started out as a canon at Lausanne and became prévôt of Valence by 1226. Pietro was a canon at Lausanne and served as acting bishop there until he was replaced in 1231. In 1219 he worked to get his daughter Beatrice married to the fourteen-year-old Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence; this established a close relationship between the two adjoining counties which would help cement Savoy control over trade between Italy and France.
Thomas fought many battles to expand his control. In 1215, his troops fought in an alliance with Milan against Monferrato, destroying the town of Casale. In 1222, he captured Cavour. Thomas worked through diplomatic and economic means to expand his control; the county of Savoy long enjoyed control over critical passes through the Alps. In his quest to gain more control over Turin, Thomas made an agreement with their rival Asti to reroute their French trade around Turin through Savoyard lands in a treaty on 15 September 1224. In 1226, Emperor Frederick II named Thomas Imperial Vicar of Lombardy. In this role, he mediated in a Genoese rebellion and a dispute between the town of Marseille and their bishop. Thomas made a policy of granting franchises and charters to towns on key trade routes which enabled the merchant class to develop more wealth and built support for his rule. Thomas died at Savoy. In 1195 he ambushed the party of Count William I of Geneva, escorting the count's daughter, Margaret of Geneva, to France for her intended wedding to King Philip II of France.
Thomas married her himself, producing some eight sons and six daughters. Amedeo, his immediate successor Umberto, d. between March and November 1223 Tommaso and count in Piedmont and founder of a line that became the Savoy-Achaea Aimone, d. 30 August 1237, Lord of Chablais Guglielmo, Bishop of Valence and Dean of Vienne Amadeo of Savoy, Bishop of Maurienne Pietro, who resided much in England, became Earl of Richmond, in 1263 became the disputed count of Savoy Filippo, archbishop of Lyon, who resigned, through marriage became Count Palatine of Burgundy and in 1268 became the disputed count of Savoy Bonifacio who became archbishop of Canterbury Beatrice of Savoy, d. 1265 or 1266, married in December 1219 to Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence and was mother of four Queens-consort Alasia of Savoy, abbess of the monastery of St Pierre in Lyon Ágatha of Savoy, abbess of the monastery of St Pierre in Lyon following her sister's death Margherita of Savoy, d. 1273, married in 1218 to Hartmann IV of Kyburg Avita of Savoy He had illegitimate children too: Aymon, Count of Larches, married Beatrice of Grisel Thomas, "the big", count of Lioches Giulio Chevalier, J..
Quarante années de l'histoire des évêques de Valence. Paris. Cognasso, Francesco. Il Piemonte nell’Età Sveva. Turin. Cognasso, Francesco. Tommaso I ed Amedeo IV. Turin. Cox, Eugene L.. The Eagles of Savoy. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691052166. Vaillant, P.. "La Politique d'affranchisement des comtes de Savoie". Etudes historiques à la mémoire de Noël Didier. Paris