Chambéry is a city in the department of Savoie, located in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in eastern France. It is the capital of the department and has been the historical capital of the Savoy region since the 13th century, when Amadeus V, Count of Savoy, made the city his seat of power. Together with other Alpine towns Chambéry engages in the Alpine Town of the Year Association for the implementation of the Alpine Convention to achieve sustainable development in the Alpine Arc. Chambéry was awarded Alpine Town of the Year 2006. Chambéry was founded at a crossroads of ancient routes through the Dauphiné, Burgundy and Italy, in a wide valley between the Bauges and the Chartreuse Mountains on the Leysse River; the metropolitan area has more than 125,000 residents, extending from the vineyard slopes of the fr:Combe de Savoie to the shores of the Lac du Bourget, the largest natural lake in France. The city is a major railway hub, at the midpoint of the Franco-Italian Turin–Lyon high-speed railway.
Chambéry is situated in southeast France, 523 kilometres from Paris, 326 kilometres from Marseille, 214 km from Turin, 100 kilometres from Lyon and 85 kilometres from Geneva. It is found in a large valley, surrounded by the Massif des Bauges to the east, Mont Granier and the Chaîne de Belledonne to the south, the Chaîne de l'Épine to the west and the Lac du Bourget to the north; the towns surrounding Chambéry are Barberaz, Cognin, Jacob-Bellecombette, La Motte-Servolex, La Ravoire, Saint-Alban-Leysse and Sonnaz. The history of Chambéry is linked to the House of Savoy and was the Savoyard capital from 1295 to 1563. During this time, Savoy encompassed a region that stretched from Bourg-en-Bresse in the west, across the Alps to Turin, north to Geneva, south to Nice. To insulate Savoy from provocations by France, Duke Emmanuel Philibert moved his capital to Turin in 1563, Chambéry declined. France annexed the regions that constituted the Duchy of Savoy west of the Alps in 1792; the need for urban revitalization was met by the establishment of the Société Académique de Savoie in 1820, devoted to material and ethical progress, now housed in an apartment of the ducal Château.
Chambéry and lands of the former Duchy, as well as The County of Nice, were ceded to France by Piedmont in 1860, under the reign of Napoleon III. The town known as Lemencum first changed its name in the Middle Ages during the period that the Duc de Savoie erected his castle, it was called Camefriacum in 1016, Camberiaco in 1029, Cambariacum in 1036, Cambariaco in 1044. In the next century, Cambariaco changed to Chamberium becoming Chamberi in 1603; the actual name comes from the Gaulois term camboritos. The Latin name cambarius, meaning beer brewer, may explain the name. Another hypothesis is that the Gallo-Roman name Camberiacum suggests the idea of currency changing or trade, or a room where the toll taxes are collected. Chambéry is right on the boundary between the humid subtropical and oceanic climates under the Köppen system. In spite of this it is influenced by its interior position within France, resulting in quite hot summers, winters with frequent temperatures below freezing at night.
The first counts of Savoy settled into an existing fortress in 1285 and expanded it in the early-14th century to serve as a residence, seat of power and administration, as stronghold for the House of Savoy. However, it became obsolete as a serious fortification genuinely capable of resisting a siege. Due to constant French hostilities on the château, Duke Emmanuel Philibert decided to move his capital to Turin; the château remained purely an administrative centre until Christine Marie of France, Duchess of Savoy, returned to hold court in 1640. It was the site of the 1684 marriage between Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia and Anne Marie d'Orléans, niece of Louis XIV. Victor Amadeus II, having abdicated, lived here with his second wife Anna Canalis di Cumiana before they were imprisoned at the Castle of Rivoli for trying to reclaim the throne. In 1786, Victor Amadeus III enlarged it. Under Napoleon Bonaparte, the Aile du Midi was rebuilt and redecorated to house the imperial prefecture of the department of Mont-Blanc.
Elaborate modification to the structure were made again after Savoy was annexed by France in 1860. Today, the political administration of the department of Savoie is located in the castle, it is open for tours and concerts; the Fontaine des Éléphants is the most famous landmark in Chambéry. It was built in 1838 to honour Benoît de Boigne's feats; the monumental fountain has strikingly realistic sculptures of the head and forelimbs of four lifesize elephants truncated into the base of a tall column in the shape of the savoyan cross, topped by a statue of de Boigne. At first, the landmark was mocked by the local residents who were annoyed by it, but it now is accepted as one of the city's symbols. Since the early controversy, the statue kept its nickname of les quatre sans culs. A total restoration was done betwe
Yolande Palaeologina of Montferrat
Yolande Palaiologina or Violant was the daughter of Theodore I, Marquess of Montferrat and Argentina Spinola, a Genoese lady, daughter of Opicino Spinola. She received the name Yolande from her paternal grandmother Irene of Montferrat. Yolande married on May 1, 1330 to Aimone, Count of Savoy, from her marriage she became Countess consort of Savoy and Moriana, her marriage was arranged to seal the newly found peace between her family and the Counts of Savoy, on the basis that the latter would succeed to Montferrato in case of extinction in the male line of the Palaeologus family. According to this act of inheritance in Montferatto, when the male line died out of the Palaeologus dynasty with the death of Bonifacio IV of Montferrat two centuries Charles III, Duke of Savoy laid claim to Montferrato through Yolande his great-great-great-great grandmother; however it was claimed by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor After failing to produce a child for the count in the first few years of marriage, she went to the shrine of the Virgin Mary at Bourg-en-Bresse, considered at the time to help marriages become fruitful.
Not long after, she conceived Amadeus. She returned to the shrine after his birth, was pleased to conceive a daughter, they had five children: Amadeus VI Bianca, married in 1350 to Galeazzo II Visconti, Lord of Milan. John, died young Catherine, died young Louis, died youngYolande herself died whilst giving birth to her son Louis on 24 December 1342, she was buried in a chapel at Hautecombe Abbey, her daughter Bianca was mother to Gian Galeazzo Violante Visconti. Among Yolande's descendants are Louis XII of France, Henry II of France and Henrietta Maria, Queen of England. Cox, Eugene L.. The Green Count of Savoy. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. LCCN 67-11030
Louis III of Naples
Louis III was titular King of Naples from 1417 to 1426, Count of Provence, Forcalquier and Maine and Duke of Anjou from 1417 to 1434, Duke of Calabria from 1426 to 1434. He was heir of Louis II of Anjou and Yolande of Aragon; the throne of Aragon fell vacant in 1410. Louis' mother Yolande was the surviving daughter of sonless King John I of Aragon, Martin's predecessor, they claimed the throne of Aragon for the young Louis. However, unclear though they were, the succession rules of Aragon and Barcelona at that time were understood to favor all male relatives before any female. Martin died without surviving issue in 1410, after two years without a king, the Estates of Aragon by Compromise of Caspe in 1412 elected Infante Ferdinand of Castile as the next King of Aragon. Ferdinand was the second son of John I of Castile; the family however had secured some Aragonese lands in Roussillon. Yolande and her sons regarded themselves as heirs of higher claim and began to use the title of Kings of Aragon.
From this "inheritance" forward and Yolande were called the King and Queen of Four Kingdoms, those four being Sicily, Jerusalem and Majorca. Of those, only the mainland part of Sicily was directly held by Louis, only briefly. Louis had claims on the title Latin Emperor, which his grandfather Louis I had purchased in 1383, but he never appears to have used this title. Pope Martin V invested Louis III on 4 December 1419 as King of Sicily; this was in contrast with the will of the childless and aged queen of the Italian kingdom, Joanna II, who had adopted Alfonso V of Aragon as her heir. In 1420 Louis disembarked in Campania and besieged Naples, but had to flee at the arrival of an Aragonese fleet. Alfonso entered the city in 1421 and Louis lost the support of the Pope, tired by the costs of the war. However, when the relationships between Alfonso and the queen worsened after the arrest of Joanna's lover and prime minister, Gianni Caracciolo, the queen moved to Aversa where Louis joined her, he was named heir in lieu of Alfonso, giving him the title of Duke of Calabria.
When Alfonso had to return to Aragon, the kingdom was pacified. Louis moved to his feudal possession in Calabria, where he lived with Margaret of Savoy, daughter of Amadeus VIII, Duke of Savoy, they had no children. Louis could never become king as he died of malaria at Cosenza in 1434. After Joanna's death the following year, his brother René of Anjou was named King of Naples. Kekewich, Margaret L.. The Good King: René of Anjou and Fifteenth Century Europe. Palgrave Macmillan. Amedeo Miceli di Serradileo, "Una dichiarazione di Luigi III d'Angiò dalla città di San Marco", Archivio Storico per la Calabria e la Lucania, Rome, XLIII,1976, pp. 69–83
Filippo Maria Visconti
Filippo Maria Visconti was the duke of Milan from 1412 to 1447. Filippo Maria Visconti, who had become nominal ruler of Pavia in 1402, succeeded his assassinated brother Gian Maria Visconti as Duke of Milan in 1412, they were the sons of Gian Galeazzo Visconti, Gian Maria's predecessor, by his second wife, Caterina Visconti. From Filippo's marriage to Beatrice Lascaris di Tenda, Countess of Biandrate and the unhappy widow of Facino Cane—the condottiere who had fomented strife between the factions of Filippo's elder brother and his mother, Caterina Visconti, the regent—Filippo Maria received a dowry of nearly half a million florins. Cruel and sensitive about his personal ugliness, he was a great politician, by employing such powerful condottieri as Carmagnola, Piccinino—who unsuccessfully led his troops at the Battle of Anghiari, 1440— and Francesco Sforza, he managed to recover the Lombard portion of his father's duchy. At the death of Giorgio Ordelaffi, lord of Forlì, he took advantage of his guardianship of the boy heir, Tebaldo Ordelaffi, to attempt conquests in Romagna, provoking war with Florence, which could not permit his ambitions to go uncontested.
Venice, urged on by Francesco Bussone da Carmagnola, decided to intervene on the side of Florence and the war spread to Lombardy. In March 1426 Carmagnola fomented riots in Brescia, which he had conquered for Visconti just five years previously. After a long campaign, Venice conquered Brescia, extending its mainland possessions to the eastern shores of Lake Garda. Filippo Maria unsuccessfully sought imperial aid but was constrained to accept the peace proposed by Pope Martin V, favoring Venice and Carmagnola; the terms were grudgingly accepted by the emperor. The following year the duke married his second wife Marie of Savoy, Duchess of Milan, daughter of Duke Amadeus VIII of Savoy, a potent ally. With Visconti's support, Amadeus reigned as antipope Felix V from November 1439 to April 1449, he invited the famous scholar Gasparino Barzizza to establish a school at Milan. Barzizza served as his court orator, he died in 1447, the last of the Visconti in direct male line, he was succeeded in the duchy, after the short-lived Ambrosian republic, by Francesco Sforza, who had married in 1441 Filippo Maria's only heir, his natural daughter Bianca Maria by his mistress Agnese del Maino.
The oldest extant Tarot decks called carte da trionfi, were commissioned by Filippo Maria Visconti. Montechino Castle Wars in Lombardy Vincenzo Bellini's 1833 opera Beatrice di Tenda Marina, Areli. "The Langobard Revival of Matteo il Magno Visconti, Lord of Milan". I Tatti Studies in the Italian Renaissance. University of Chicago Press. Vol. 16, No. 1/2 September. Wilkins, David G.. The Search for a Patron in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. E. Mellen Press; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Visconti". Encyclopædia Britannica. 28. Cambridge University Press. P. 129
Aymon, Count of Savoy
Aymon, nicknamed the Peaceful, was Count of Savoy from 1329 to 1343. Aymon was born in Chambéry, his father was Amadeus V, Count of Savoy, he was the younger brother of Edward, Count of Savoy. In 1321, Aymon oversaw the siege engines at the siege of Corbières. On the death of Amadeus V in 1323, Aymon was lord of Bresse under Edward; as a younger son of a noble family, Aymon had planned on a life in the church. When Edward died in 1329, Aymon was in Avignon at the court of Pope John XXII. In 1329, shortly after becoming count, Aymon established a committee to settle the territorial disputes with his cousin, Amadeus III of Geneva; these disputes had been an ongoing feud between the families for generations, but they were able to resolve them through years of negotiations without resorting back to war. This was how Aymon earned his nickname of'The Peaceful', he contested the title Count of Savoy with his niece, Joan of Savoy since Savoy operated under Salic law and had never had a female ruler. Joan with the support of her husband, John III, Duke of Brittany defended Joan's claim.
John and Joan had no issue. A settlement was reached whereby Aymon obtained the Countship in return for providing a monetary payment to Joan, he spent much of his first few years as count at war with the Dauphin, Guigues VIII of Viennois, continuing a feud which went back for generations in their families. After Guigues was killed besieging La Perrière in 1333, Philip VI of France was able to broker a truce between Aymon and the new Dauphin, Humbert II of Viennois, brother of Guigues. In August 1334, in the buildup to the Hundred Years' War, Edward III of England sent an embassy to Aymon to convince him to join the impending conflict on the side of the English. Aymon declined to commit, as he held lands both in England and in Normandy, so was technically a subject of both kings. In April 1337, Philip sent similar messages on the other side. Aymon replied that he could not go abroad to fight as he still had territorial disputes with the Dauphiné. Philip settled a more lasting peace, as Humbert was trying to sell the Dauphiné.
Aymon led his forces as part of the French war effort from 1339 to 1342. He fought alongside Amadeus III of Geneva. In 1330, Aymon established a chancellor's office to manage official documents, he financed the expansion of a burial chapel at the Hautecombe Abbey, constructed from 1331 to 1342. In 1340, he set up judges to handle appeals at a level between the castellans and himself, to ease his workload in such cases. Prior to his marriage, Aymon fathered several illegitimate children, who were raised in his household after his marriage; these included: Humbert, who worked for his father, his brother the count. Ogier, who worked for his father Amadeus Benoît Jean la Mitre, lord of Cuine and castellan of Tarentaise and Entremont Jean, canon at Lausanne Marie Donata, a nun Huguette, a nunIn 1330, Aymon married Yolande Palaeologina of Montferrato granddaughter of Byzantine Emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos and had 5 children, only 2 lived to adulthood: Amadeus VI the Green Count Bianca, married in 1350 to Galeazzo II Visconti, Lord of Milan.
John, died of Black Death Catherine, died young Louis, died youngYolande died 24 December 1342, in childbirth. Aymon became ill in the following months, died 22 June 1343, he was buried alongside his wife in a chapel of Hautecombe Abbey. Cox, Eugene L.. The Green Count of Savoy. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. LCCN 67-11030. Hourihane, Colum; the Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture. Vol. 1. Oxford University Press
Papal supremacy is the doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church that the Pope, by reason of his office as Vicar of Christ and as the visible foundation and source of unity, as pastor of the entire Christian Church, has full and universal power over the whole Church, a power which he can always exercise unhindered: that, in brief, "the Pope enjoys, by divine institution, full and universal power in the care of souls."The doctrine had the most significance in the relationship between the church and the temporal state, in matters such as ecclesiastic privileges, the actions of monarchs and successions. The Catholic doctrine of papal supremacy is based on the assertion by the Bishops of Rome that it was instituted by Christ and that papal succession is traced back to Peter the Apostle in the 1st century; the authority for the position is derived from the Confession of Peter documented in Matthew 16:17–19 when, in response to Peter's acknowledgment of Jesus as the Messiah and Son of God, which many relate to Jesus' divinity, Jesus responded: Blessed art thou, Simon Bar-Jona.
For flesh and blood hast not revealed this to thee, but my Father, in heaven. And I say to thee, thou art Peter, upon this rock I will build my church, the powers of death shall not prevail against it. I will give to thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven, whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven; the same historical early church tradition states that Peter was Bishop of Antioch before his travels to Rome. Therefore it could be argued that the Bishop of Antioch could claim the same Apostolic succession from Christ to Peter and to Bishops of Antioch as is asserted by the Bishop of Rome; some scholars as well as critics believe that there was no single “bishop” of Rome until well after the year 150 AD, that there was no papacy for the first three centuries. Catholic theologian Francis A. Sullivan "expressed agreement with the consensus of scholars that available evidence indicates that the church of Rome was led by a college of presbyters, rather than a single bishop, for at least several decades of the second century."
The research of Jesuit historian Klaus Schatz led him to state that, "If one had asked a Christian in the year 100, 200, or 300 whether the bishop of Rome was the head of all Christians, or whether there was a supreme bishop over all the other bishops and having the last word in questions affecting the whole Church, he or she would have said no." But he believes it that'there quickly emerged a presider or ‘first among equals.’" Critics argue that, in contrast to a universal papacy to which all were subject, Roman bishops who tried to exert authority as supreme heads were reprimanded by other bishops, that it was not until the 4th and 5th centuries that papal primacy, helped by myths and legends, began to take shape. This marked the beginning of the rise of the Bishops of Rome to the position of not just religious authority, but of the power to be the ultimate ruler of the kingdoms within the Christian community, which it has since retained. Catholics have countered this argument by the fact that in the first three centuries of Christianity the church in Rome intervened in other communities to help resolve conflicts.
Pope Clement I did so in Corinth in the end of the first century. In the end of the 2nd century, Pope Victor I threatened to excommunicate the Eastern bishops who continued to celebrate Easter on 14 Nisan, not on the following Sunday In the third century, Pope Cornelius convened and presided over a synod of 60 African and Eastern bishops, his rival, the antipope Novatian, claimed to have "assumed the primacy". In the complex development of papal supremacy, two broad phases may be noted. Cited evidence about the supremacy of the pope in the earliest days of the church is a matter of dispute. Most scholars recognize. Roman Catholics maintain that the unique authority of the Petrine seat was given deference, but non-Roman Catholic Christians argue that the bishop of Rome held greater esteem, not greater authority than the other bishops; the Roman Catholic Church claims a Papal succession which runs unbroken back to Peter who it claims was invested with the "keys of the kingdom of heaven". Irenaeus of Lyons believed in the second century that Peter and Paul had been the founders of the Church in Rome and had appointed Linus as succeeding bishop.
Saint Innocent I, who served in the papacy from 401 to 417, championed papal supremacy in the entire Church. Saint Gelasius I, who served from 492 to 496, in a controversy with Anastasius, the Byzantine emperor fought to maintain the doctrine of papal supremacy; this dispute was an incipient point of conflict between the Empire. From the late 6th to the late 8th centuries there was a turning of the papacy to the West and its escape from subordination to the authority of the Byzantine emperors of Constantinople; this phase has sometimes incorrectly been credited to Pope Gregory I, like his predecessors, represented to the people of the Roman world a church, still identified with the empire. Unlike some of those predecessors, Gregory was compelled to face the collapse of imperial authority in northern Italy; as the leading civil official of the empire in Rome, it fell to him to take over the civil administration of the cities and to negotiate for the protection of Rome itself with the Lombard invaders threatening it.
Another part of this phase occurred in the 8th century, after the rise of the new religion of Islam had weakened the Byzantine Empire and the Lombards had renewed
Naples is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan. In 2017, around 967,069 people lived within the city's administrative limits while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,115,320 residents, its continuously built-up metropolitan area is the second or third largest metropolitan area in Italy and one of the most densely populated cities in Europe. First settled by Greeks in the second millennium BC, Naples is one of the oldest continuously inhabited urban areas in the world. In the ninth century BC, a colony known as Parthenope or Παρθενόπη was established on the Island of Megaride refounded as Neápolis in the sixth century BC; the city was an important part of Magna Graecia, played a major role in the merging of Greek and Roman society and a significant cultural centre under the Romans. It served as the capital of the Duchy of Naples of the Kingdom of Naples and of the Two Sicilies until the unification of Italy in 1861.
Between 1925 and 1936, Naples was expanded and upgraded by Benito Mussolini's government but subsequently sustained severe damage from Allied bombing during World War II, which led to extensive post-1945 reconstruction work. Naples has experienced significant economic growth in recent decades, helped by the construction of the Centro Direzionale business district and an advanced transportation network, which includes the Alta Velocità high-speed rail link to Rome and Salerno and an expanded subway network. Naples is the third-largest urban economy in Italy, after Rome; the Port of Naples is one of the most important in Europe and home of the Allied Joint Force Command Naples, the NATO body that oversees North Africa, the Sahel and Middle East. Naples' historic city centre is the largest in Europe and a UNESCO World Heritage Site, with a wide range of culturally and significant sites nearby, including the Palace of Caserta and the Roman ruins of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Naples is known for its natural beauties such as Posillipo, Phlegraean Fields and Vesuvius.
Neapolitan cuisine is synonymous with pizza – which originated in the city – but it includes many lesser-known dishes. The best-known sports team in Naples is the Serie A club S. S. C. Napoli, two-time Italian champions who play at the San Paolo Stadium in the southwest of the city, in the Fuorigrotta quarter. Naples has been inhabited since the Neolithic period; the earliest Greek settlements were established in the Naples area in the second millennium BC. Sailors from the Greek island of Rhodes established a small commercial port called Parthenope on the island of Megaride in the ninth century BC. By the eighth century BC, the settlement had expanded to include Monte Echia. In the sixth century BC the new urban zone of Neápolis was founded on the plain becoming one of the foremost cities of Magna Graecia; the city grew due to the influence of the powerful Greek city-state of Syracuse, became an ally of the Roman Republic against Carthage. During the Samnite Wars, the city, now a bustling centre of trade, was captured by the Samnites.
During the Punic Wars, the strong walls surrounding Neápolis repelled the invading forces of the Carthaginian general Hannibal. Naples was respected by the Romans as a paragon of Hellenistic culture. During the Roman era, the people of Naples maintained their Greek language and customs, while the city was expanded with elegant Roman villas and public baths. Landmarks such as the Temple of Dioscures were built, many emperors chose to holiday in the city, including Claudius and Tiberius. Virgil, the author of Rome's national epic, the Aeneid, received part of his education in the city, resided in its environs, it was during this period. Januarius, who would become Naples' patron saint, was martyred there in the fourth century AD; the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, Romulus Augustulus, was exiled to Naples by the Germanic king Odoacer in the fifth century AD. Following the decline of the Western Roman Empire, Naples was captured by the Ostrogoths, a Germanic people, incorporated into the Ostrogothic Kingdom.
However, Belisarius of the Byzantine Empire recaptured Naples in 536, after entering the city via an aqueduct. In 543, during the Gothic Wars, Totila took the city for the Ostrogoths, but the Byzantines seized control of the area following the Battle of Mons Lactarius on the slopes of Vesuvius. Naples was expected to keep in contact with the Exarchate of Ravenna, the centre of Byzantine power on the Italian Peninsula. After the exarchate fell, a Duchy of Naples was created. Although Naples' Greco-Roman culture endured, it switched allegiance from Constantinople to Rome under Duke Stephen II, putting it under papal suzerainty by 763; the years between 818 and 832 were tumultuous in regard to Naples' relations with the Byzantine Emperor, with numerous local pretenders feuding for possession of the ducal throne. Theoctistus was appointed without imperial approval. However, the disgruntled general populace chased him from the city, instead elected Stephen III, a man who minted coins with his own initials, r