Chlormadinone acetate, and known as 17α-acetoxy-6-chloro-6-dehydroprogesterone, is a steroidal progestin with additional antiandrogen and antigonadotropic effects. CMA has been used in the treatment of bleeding, polymenorrhea, secondary amenorrhea. CMA is the ester of chlormadinone, which, in contrast to CMA, was never marketed. CMA acts predominantly as a potent progestogen, but as an antiandrogen, due to its potent actions as a progestogen, CMA has strong antigonadotropic properties, and thus additional antiandrogen as well as antiestrogen properties. CMA is an inhibitor of 5α-reductase. CMA was marketed in combination with mestranol by Eli Lilly under the brand name C-Quens from 1965 to 1971 in the United States. It was the first sequential contraceptive pill to be introduced in the U. S. CMA has marketed in combination with mestranol under the brand names Ovosiston, Aconcen. In the 1960s, CMA was introduced as a component of oral contraceptives, around 1970, such formulations were withdrawn from many markets due to the finding that CMA induced mammary gland tumors in Beagle dogs.
In any case, according to Hughes et al and it is still doubtful how much relevance these findings have for humans as the dog mammary gland seems to be the only one which can be directly maintained by progestogens. Subsequent research revealed species differences between dogs and humans and established there is no similar risk in humans
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
It is available widely throughout Europe, including the United Kingdom and many other European countries, and is marketed in Australia, Hong Kong, and India. The drug was marketed in the United States as well. Dydrogesterone has selective progestational activity and does not inhibit ovulation, dydrogesterone is used as an effective, orally active progestogen for gynaecological conditions related to a wide variety of progesterone deficiencies in pregnant women. The molecular structure and pharmacological effects are similar to endogenous progesterone. Its freedom from hormonal effects like those related to corticoid, estrogenic, dydrogesterone when used therapeutically is closely related to its physiological action on the neuro-endocrine control of ovarian function, as well as on the endometrium. This is an indication in all cases of endogeneous progesterone deficiency - relative or absolute, dydrogesterone is relatively safe and well tolerated, and does not exhibit the androgenic side effects that are common with some other progestins, like medroxyprogesterone acetate and norethisterone.
Primary or essential dysmenorrhea is a very common phenomenon experienced by women during their reproductive years. Clinical studies have shown symptom relief and a reduction in pain with dydrogesterone treatment for dysmenorrhea, secondary amenorrhoea is not a specific disease, but is instead a symptom. Dydrogesterone has been found to adequately induce bleeding within a sufficiently estrogen-primed endometrium, when estradiol levels are found to be low, dydrogesterone treatment is more effective when supplemented with estrogens. Oral dydrogesterone is effective drug, well tolerated and accepted among patients, advantage of dydrogesterone is oral administration, easy to use and better patient compliance which results in high satisfaction score of oral dydrogesterone in luteal support of IVF/ICSI cycles. According to the Cochrane review 2011, there is evidence in favor of dydrogesterone over micronized progesterone for luteal phase support. Dydrogesterone is used for support in IVF protocols, for treatment of recurrent pregnancy loss.
Threatened miscarriage is defined as bleeding during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy while the cervix is closed and it is the most common complication in pregnancy, occurring in 20% of all pregnancies. Recurrent abortion is defined as the loss of three or more consecutive pregnancies, dydrogesterone is associated with approximately two-fold significant reduction in the miscarriage rate as compared to standard care in threatened and recurrent miscarriages with minimal side effects. Endometriosis is a disease which can cause severe, progressive. Dydrogesterone relieves pain without inhibiting ovulation, so patients are able to become pregnant during treatment. Dydrogesterone is particularly suitable in cases where the woman desires to become pregnant, the amount and duration of menstrual bleeding is significantly reduced, and from the end of the third month onwards, bleeding was considered normal in the majority of patients. Improvement of endometriosis was observed in 71% of patients and cure in 21%, dydrogesterone has shown reasonable efficacy in relieving a number of premenstrual syndrome symptoms like mood swings & physical symptoms
ChEMBL or ChEMBLdb is a manually curated chemical database of bioactive molecules with drug-like properties. It is maintained by the European Bioinformatics Institute, of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory, based at the Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, the database, originally known as StARlite, was developed by a biotechnology company called Inpharmatica Ltd. acquired by Galapagos NV. The data was acquired for EMBL in 2008 with an award from The Wellcome Trust, resulting in the creation of the ChEMBL chemogenomics group at EMBL-EBI, the ChEMBL database contains compound bioactivity data against drug targets. Bioactivity is reported in Ki, Kd, IC50, and EC50, data can be filtered and analyzed to develop compound screening libraries for lead identification during drug discovery. ChEMBL version 2 was launched in January 2010, including 2.4 million bioassay measurements covering 622,824 compounds and this was obtained from curating over 34,000 publications across twelve medicinal chemistry journals.
ChEMBLs coverage of available bioactivity data has grown to become the most comprehensive ever seen in a public database, in October 2010 ChEMBL version 8 was launched, with over 2.97 million bioassay measurements covering 636,269 compounds. ChEMBL_10 saw the addition of the PubChem confirmatory assays, in order to integrate data that is comparable to the type, ChEMBLdb can be accessed via a web interface or downloaded by File Transfer Protocol. It is formatted in a manner amenable to computerized data mining, ChEMBL is integrated into other large-scale chemistry resources, including PubChem and the ChemSpider system of the Royal Society of Chemistry. In addition to the database, the ChEMBL group have developed tools and these include Kinase SARfari, an integrated chemogenomics workbench focussed on kinases. The system incorporates and links sequence, structure and screening data, the primary purpose of ChEMBL-NTD is to provide a freely accessible and permanent archive and distribution centre for deposited data.
July 2012 saw the release of a new data service, sponsored by the Medicines for Malaria Venture. The data in this service includes compounds from the Malaria Box screening set, myChEMBL, the ChEMBL virtual machine, was released in October 2013 to allow users to access a complete and free, easy-to-install cheminformatics infrastructure. In December 2013, the operations of the SureChem patent informatics database were transferred to EMBL-EBI, in a portmanteau, SureChem was renamed SureChEMBL. 2014 saw the introduction of the new resource ADME SARfari - a tool for predicting and comparing cross-species ADME targets
An acetate /ˈæsᵻteɪt/ is a salt formed by the combination of acetic acid with an alkaline, earthy, or metallic base. Acetate describes the base or ion typically found in aqueous solution. The neutral molecules formed by the combination of the acetate ion, the simplest of these is hydrogen acetate with corresponding salts and the polyatomic anion CH3CO2−, or CH3COO−. Most of the approximately 5 billion kilograms of acid produced annually in industry is used in the production of acetates. In nature, acetate is the most common building block for biosynthesis, for example, the fatty acids are produced by connecting the two carbon atoms from acetate to a growing fatty acid. When part of a salt, the formula of the ion is written as CH3CO2−, C2H3O2−. Chemists abbreviate acetate as OAc− or, less commonly, AcO−, thus, HOAc is the abbreviation for acetic acid, NaOAc for sodium acetate, and EtOAc for ethyl acetate. The abbreviation Ac is encountered in chemical formulas to indicate the acetate ion. This abbreviation is not to be confused with the symbol of actinium, for example, the formula for sodium acetate might be abbreviated as NaAc, rather than NaC2H3O2.
Although its systematic name is ethanoate, the common acetate remains the preferred IUPAC name, the acetate anion, −, is one of the carboxylate family. It is the base of acetic acid. Above a pH of 5.5, acetic acid converts to acetate, CH3COOH ⇌ CH3COO− + H+ Many acetate salts are ionic, examples of acetate complexes include chromium acetate and basic zinc acetate. Commercially important acetate salts are aluminium acetate, used in dyeing, ammonium acetate, a precursor to acetamide, all three salts are colourless and highly soluble in water. Acetate esters have the general formula CH3CO2R, where R is an organyl group, the esters are the dominant forms of acetate in the marketplace. Unlike the acetate salts, acetate esters are often liquids and they are popular because they have inoffensive, often sweet odors, they are inexpensive, and they are usually of low toxicity. Almost half of acetic acid production is consumed in the production of acetate, precursor to polyvinyl alcohol. The second largest use of acid is consumed in the production of cellulose acetate.
In fact, acetate is jargon for cellulose acetate, which is used in the production of fibres or diverse products, Cellulose acetate can be found in many household products
As its names indicate, 11-deoxycorticosterone can be understood as the 21-hydroxy- variant of progesterone or as the 11-deoxy- variant of corticosterone. DOC is a potent mineralocorticoid but is devoid of glucocorticoid activity. However, 11β-hydroxylation of DOC produces corticosterone and confers glucocorticoid activity, in addition to its mineralocorticoid activity, DOC has been found to possess one-third to one-tenth the potency of progesterone as a progestogen when administered systematically to rabbits. However, it has no such activity when applied directly to the mucosa of mice. The discrepancy may be related to the fact that DOC can be converted into progesterone in vivo, DOC is a precursor molecule for the production of aldosterone. The major pathway for production is in the adrenal glomerulosa zone of the adrenal gland. It is not a major secretory hormone and it is produced from progesterone by 21β-hydroxylase and is converted to corticosterone by 11β-hydroxylase. Corticosterone is converted to aldosterone by aldosterone synthase, most of the DOC is secreted by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex which secretes cortisol, and a small amount by the zona glomerulosa, which secretes aldosterone. DOC stimulates the collecting tubules to continue to excrete potassium in much the way that aldosterone does.
At the same time it is not nearly so rigorous at retaining sodium as aldosterone and this hormone may be the peptide hormone kallikrein, which is augmented by DOC and suppressed by aldosterone. If sodium becomes very high, DOC increases urine flow, DOC has about 1/20 of the sodium retaining power of aldosterone, and is said to be as little as one per cent of aldosterone at high water intakes. Since DOC has about 1/5 the potassium excreting power of aldosterone, dOCs injections do not cause much additional potassium excretion when sodium intake is low. This is probably because aldosterone is already stimulating potassium outflow, when sodium is low DOC probably would not have to be present, but when sodium rises aldosterone declines considerably, and DOC probably tends to take over. DOC has a feedback with respect to potassium as aldosterone. A rise in serum potassium causes a rise in DOC secretion, sodium has little effect, and what effect it does have is direct. Angiotensin has little effect on DOC, but DOC causes a fall in renin, and therefore angiotensin I.
Therefore, DOC must be indirectly inhibiting aldosterone since aldosterone depends on angiotensin II, and therefore blood volume, is difficult to regulate internally. That is, when a large dose of sodium threatens the body with blood pressure
These are limited to a single typographic line of symbols, which may include subscripts and superscripts. A chemical formula is not a name, and it contains no words. Although a chemical formula may imply certain simple chemical structures, it is not the same as a full chemical structural formula. Chemical formulas can fully specify the structure of only the simplest of molecules and chemical substances, the simplest types of chemical formulas are called empirical formulas, which use letters and numbers indicating the numerical proportions of atoms of each type. Molecular formulas indicate the numbers of each type of atom in a molecule. For example, the formula for glucose is CH2O, while its molecular formula is C6H12O6. This is possible if the relevant bonding is easy to show in one dimension, an example is the condensed molecular/chemical formula for ethanol, which is CH3-CH2-OH or CH3CH2OH. For reasons of structural complexity, there is no condensed chemical formula that specifies glucose, chemical formulas may be used in chemical equations to describe chemical reactions and other chemical transformations, such as the dissolving of ionic compounds into solution. A chemical formula identifies each constituent element by its chemical symbol, in empirical formulas, these proportions begin with a key element and assign numbers of atoms of the other elements in the compound, as ratios to the key element.
For molecular compounds, these numbers can all be expressed as whole numbers. For example, the formula of ethanol may be written C2H6O because the molecules of ethanol all contain two carbon atoms, six hydrogen atoms, and one oxygen atom. Some types of compounds, cannot be written with entirely whole-number empirical formulas. An example is boron carbide, whose formula of CBn is a variable non-whole number ratio with n ranging from over 4 to more than 6.5. When the chemical compound of the consists of simple molecules. These types of formulas are known as molecular formulas and condensed formulas. A molecular formula enumerates the number of atoms to reflect those in the molecule, so that the formula for glucose is C6H12O6 rather than the glucose empirical formula. However, except for very simple substances, molecular chemical formulas lack needed structural information, for simple molecules, a condensed formula is a type of chemical formula that may fully imply a correct structural formula.
For example, ethanol may be represented by the chemical formula CH3CH2OH