Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
Tumacacori is an unincorporated community in Santa Cruz County, United States It abuts the community of Carmen, Arizona. Together, the communities constitute the Tumacacori-Carmen census-designated place; the population of the CDP was 393 at the 2010 census. Tumacacori is the site of Mission San José de Tumacácori a Franciscan mission, built in the late 18th century, it takes its name from an earlier mission site founded by Father Eusebio Kino in 1691, on the east side of the Santa Cruz River south of the national park. This Kino-period mission was founded at an extant native O'odham or Sobaipuri settlement and represents the first mission in southern Arizona, but not the first mission in Arizona; the remains of the native settlement are still extant and have been investigated and reported on by archaeologist Deni Seymour. The Franciscan mission, now a ruin preserved as Tumacácori National Historical Park, was never rebuilt after being abandoned after repeated Apache raids in the 19th century that killed farmers and ranchers in the area and put a stop to the growth of the area's economy.
Nearby Tubac was besieged in 1861. Tumacacori is located at 31°33′40″N 111°2′52″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the Tumacacori-Carmen CDP has a total area of 2.0 square miles, all of it land. The locale is in a valley cut by the Santa Cruz River; as of the census of 2000, there were 569 people, 223 households, 152 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 91.6 people per square mile. There were 252 housing units at an average density of 40.6/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 76.98% White, 0.18% Black or African American, 1.05% Native American, 1.58% Asian, 17.57% from other races, 2.64% from two or more races. 58.00% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 223 households out of which 26.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.9% were married couples living together, 9.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.8% were non-families. 27.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.13. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 23.7% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 26.0% from 25 to 44, 28.6% from 45 to 64, 13.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.4 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $35,938, the median income for a family was $36,250. Males had a median income of $26,806 versus $18,594 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $18,607. About 10.1% of families and 10.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including none of those under age 18 and 26.3% of those age 65 or over. Julie Chen, founder of Flying Fish Press Mission San José de Tumacácori Sonoita Creek Di Peso, Charles C; the Upper Pima of San Cayetano del Tumacacori: An Archaeohistorical Reconstruction of the Ootam of Pimeria Alta, Dragoon: Amerind Foundation, 1956 Dobyns, Henry F. Tubac Through Four Centuries: A Historical Resume and Analysis.
Prepared for the Arizona State Parks Board 15 March 1959, reformatted by Tubac Presidio State Historical Park, August 1995 and revised. Available on line at http://parentseyes.arizona.edu/tubac/index.html. Doyel, D. E. Excavations in the Middle Santa Cruz River Valley, Southeastern Arizona. Contribution to Highway Salvage Archaeology in Arizona, Number 44. Tucson: Arizona State Museum, U of Arizona, 1977. Seymour, Deni J.: Piman Settlement Survey in the Middle Santa Cruz River Valley, Santa Cruz County, report submitted to Arizona State Parks in fulfillment of survey and planning grant contract requirements, 1993. Delicate Diplomacy on a Restless Frontier: Seventeenth-Century Sobaípuri Social And Economic Relations in Northwestern New Spain, Part I. New Mexico Historical Review, Volume 82, no. 4, 2007. A Syndetic Approach to Identification of the Historic Mission Site of San Cayetano del Tumacácori. International Journal of Historical Archaeology, Vol. 11:269-296, 2007. Delicate Diplomacy on a Restless Frontier: Seventeenth-Century Sobaípuri Social And Economic Relations in Northwestern New Spain, Part II.
New Mexico Historical Review, Volume 83, no. 2, 2008
Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory
The Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory is an American astronomical observatory owned and operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. It is located near Amado, Arizona at the foot of Mount Hopkins. Research activities include imaging and spectroscopy of extragalactic, solar system and extra-solar bodies, as well as gamma-ray and cosmic-ray astronomy. In 1966, roadwork began on the current site with funding granted for the Smithsonian Mt. Hopkins Observatory; the Whipple 10-meter gamma-ray telescope was constructed in 1968. Known as "The Mount Hopkins Observatory," the observatory was renamed in late 1981 in honor of Fred Lawrence Whipple, noted planetary expert, space science pioneer, director emeritus of SAO, under whose leadership the Arizona facility was established. Whipple observatory hosts the MMT Observatory, jointly run by SAO and the University of Arizona and houses a 6.5-meter telescope. The observatory has 1.5- and 1.2-meter reflectors and a second 1.3-meter reflector named PAIRITEL.
On site is the HATNet network, the MEarth Project, four 0.7-meter telescopes of the automated MINiature Exoplanat Radial Velocity Array. The observatory is known for its pioneering work in ground-based gamma-ray astronomy through the development of the Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Technique with the Whipple 10-meter Telescope during the early 1980s; the Whipple 10-meter is preparing to be decommissioned after forty years of service. In April 2007, VERITAS started full operations at the FLWO basecamp. Subsequently, in September 2009, after a 4-month effort, one of the telescopes was moved to a new position, making the array symmetric and increasing its sensitivity. Miniature Exoplanet Radial Velocity Array Whipple Media related to Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory at Wikimedia Commons Arizona.edu: Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory Harvard.edu: Whipple Observatory Visitor's Center
Albert Gordon MacRae was an American actor and singer, who appeared in the film versions of two Rodgers and Hammerstein musicals, Oklahoma! and Carousel, played Bill Sherman in On Moonlight Bay and By The Light of the Silvery Moon. Born in East Orange in Essex County in northeastern New Jersey, MacRae graduated in 1940 from Deerfield Academy in Deerfield, he thereafter served as a navigator in IX Troop Carrier Command in the United States Army Air Forces during World War II. Prior to this, he attended Nottingham High School in New York. Winning a contest enabled MacRae to sing at the 1939 New York World's Fair with the Harry James and Les Brown orchestras, he made his Broadway debut in 1942. Many of his hit recordings were made with Jo Stafford, he was a replacement performer on Junior Miss. On radio in 1945, his talents were showcased on the Gordon MacRae Show on the CBS network in collaboration with the conductor Archie Bleyer; the show featured emerging musical talent, including the accordionist John Serry Sr..
MacRae was the host and lead actor on The Railroad Hour, a half-hour anthology series made up of condensed versions of hit Broadway musicals. The programs were released as popular studio cast albums, most of which have been reissued on CD. In 1946 he was in the revue Three to Make Ready. MacRae signed a contract with Warner Bros in 1947. In 1948, he appeared in The Big Punch, a drama about boxing, he followed this with a film noir with Backfire. MacRae's first on-screen musical was Look for the Silver Lining, a biopic of Marilyn Miller, where MacRae played Frank Carter. David Butler directed. MacRae was reunited with Butler in The Daughter of Rosie O'Grady. Warners put him in Return of the Frontiersman, he starred with Doris Day in Tea for Two, a reworking of No, No, Nanette for Butler. Public response was enthusiastic. MacRae and Day were teamed again in The West Point Story starring James Cagney and Mayo, On Moonlight Bay, the all-star Korean War tribute, Starlift. All were directed by Roy del Ruth.
MacRae was in a military school musical, About Face with Eddie Bracken he and Day did a sequel to On Moonlight Bay, By the Light of the Silvery Moon. That same year, he starred opposite Kathryn Grayson in the third film version of The Desert Song and teamed with Jane Powell in Three Sailors and a Girl. MacRae's best known film role was Curly in the big screen adaptation of Oklahoma! Alongside Shirley Jones; the film was a huge success. He and Jones were used on Carousel, at 20th Century Fox. Back at Warners, MacRae played Buddy De Sylva in The Best Things in Life Are Free, it would be the last film. MacRae appeared on television, on such variety programs as The Martha Raye Show and The Ford Show, Starring Tennessee Ernie Ford, both on NBC, he appeared on drama shows such as Lux Video Theatre. During Christmas 1958, MacRae and Ford performed the Christmas hymn "O Holy Night". Earlier in 1958, MacRae guest-starred on The Polly Bergen Show, he starred in The Gift of the Magi. Thereafter, MacRae appeared on The Ed Sullivan Show, The Dinah Shore Chevy Show, The Pat Boone Chevy Showroom, The Bell Telephone Hour.
He continued his musical stage career performing with his wife, as in a 1964 production of Bells Are Ringing performing as Sky Masterson in the popular musical Guys and Dolls, with his wife playing the role of Miss Adeleide, reprising her Broadway role at the Grady Gammage Auditorium in Phoenix, Arizona. In the late 1960s, he co-hosted for a week on The Mike Douglas Show, he toured in summer stock and appeared in nightclubs. In 1967, he replaced Robert Preston in the original Broadway run of the musical I Do! I Do!, starring opposite Carol Lawrence, who had taken over the role from Mary Martin. MacCrae guest starred on McCloud, he had supporting roles in the films Zero to The Pilot. He was married to Sheila MacRae from 1941 until 1967. Two of the children, Meredith MacRae and Robert Bruce MacRae, predeceased their mother, Sheila. Sheila divorced Gordon. Gordon MacRae was married, secondly, to Elizabeth Lambert Schrafft on September 25, 1967, fathered one daughter, Amanda Mercedes MacRae in 1968.
They remained married until his death. He was buried at the Wyuka Cemetery in Nebraska, he battled alcohol problems for many years although by the late 1970s he overcame them and in the 1980s helped people in a treatment centre who had similar addictions. He was Godfather to Jack Cassidy's son, Shaun Cassidy. MacRae suffered from cancer of the jaw, he died in 1986 of pneumonia, at his home in Lincoln, aged 64. Junior Miss Three to Make Ready Carousel Annie Get Your Gun Bells Are Ringing Guys and Dolls Bells Are Ringing Jerome Kern's Theatre Kismet Oklahoma! I Do! I Do! Golden Rainbow (summer st
Oklahoma! (1955 film)
Oklahoma! is a 1955 American musical film based on the 1943 musical of the same name by Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II, starring Gordon MacRae, Shirley Jones, Rod Steiger, Charlotte Greenwood, Gloria Grahame, Gene Nelson, James Whitmore, Eddie Albert. The production was the only musical directed by Fred Zinnemann. Oklahoma! was the first feature film photographed in the Todd-AO 70 mm widescreen process. Set in Oklahoma Territory, it tells the story of farm girl Laurey Williams and her courtship by two rival suitors, cowboy Curly McLain and the sinister and frightening farmhand Jud Fry. A secondary romance concerns Laurey's friend, Ado Annie, cowboy Will Parker, who has an unwilling rival. A background theme is the territory's aspiration for Statehood, the local conflict between cattlemen and farmers; the film received a rave review from The New York Times, was voted a "New York Times Critics Pick". In 2007, Oklahoma! was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant".
Curly rides his horse through the cornfield. He arrives at Aunt Eller's farm. Laurey Williams is Aunt Eller's niece. Laurey feels the same way, but is loath to admit it. Curly has come to ask her to a party that night, but Laurey is offended that Curly has waited until the morning of the party to ask her. To make him jealous, she agrees to go with Jud, Aunt Eller's surly hired hand, though she is afraid of him. At the station, Aunt Eller meets roving cowboy Will Parker, who has just returned from Kansas City and is hoping to marry Ado Annie. Meanwhile, Laurey meets up with Ado Annie, with a traveling salesman named Ali Hakim. Laurey reminds her that Will is returning from Kansas City. Ado Annie is in a dilemma, unable to decide between Ali, she explains to Laurey that she can never resist a romantic man. Will is reunited with Ado Annie, meets Ali Hakim, unaware that he has been spending time with Annie, he reminds Annie her father agreed to let him marry her in exchange for $50. He has managed to earn $50 – but spent it all on presents for Annie.
She tries to resist, but Will wins her over. Several local families arrive at Aunt Eller's ranch to prepare for the party that night; when Gertie flirts with Curly, he uses the flirtation to make Laurey jealous. Laurey is hurt, but as she and the other girls freshen up for the party, she tries to convince them and herself that she doesn't care. Ado Annie's father learns Will spent all his money, when Ado Annie introduces Ali, her father forces a proposal from Ali at gunpoint - though Ali is a rover and has no desire for marriage. In the orchard, Laurey tells Curly to keep his distance, but Curly is quick to point out that she is as much to blame for the rumors as he is. Curly asks Laurey if she will go to the party with him instead, though she wants to, she is too scared of Jud's reaction to turn him down now. In anger, Curly goes to confront Jud about his feelings for Laurey. At first, things seem harmless enough. Curly teases Jud about his reputation, Jud joins in, but Jud deduces why Curly has come to see him, angrily threatens him and Laurey.
As the party draws near, Laurey is miserable. When she uses a bottle of smelling salts bought from Ali, which she was told was a magic elixir, she slips into a trance. In her dream and Curly are about to marry, but Jud crashes the wedding and kills Curly. Jud wakes Laurey. Laurey knows Curly is the right man for her, but it's too late to change her mind about going to the party with Jud. Curly, unwilling to go with another young lady to the dance, decides to take Aunt Eller. Jud has no intention of taking Laurey to the party, he attempts to sweet-talk her. But when he tries to kiss her, Laurey causes the horses to bolt; when they stop and Jud leaps down, Laurey whips up the horses and leaves Jud stranded. The party is in full swing. Aunt Eller and Mr. Skidmore, the party's host, manage to make peace. Aunt Eller leads. Will discovers Ali is engaged to Ado Annie; when Ali learns Will needs $50 to marry her, he buys the presents Will bought, some for more than twice what they're worth, allowing Will to recover the needed $50.
Ado Annie's father is forced to let Will marry his daughter. Meanwhile and Jud, who has arrived just in time, vie furiously for Laurey's hamper. Curly wins, but not before he has sold his saddle and gun. Jud tries to kill Curly with a "Little Wonder" – a kaleidoscope-like device with a dagger concealed inside it – but is foiled by Ali Hakim and Aunt Eller. Will Parker tells Annie. Jud confronts Laurey, he says. She explains what has happened. Seizing his chance, Curly proposes to her, she accepts. Ali bids leaves. Curly and Laurey are married. Gertie arrives at the wedding party, announcing she is married, her husband turns out to be Ali Hakim - Gertie's father forced Ali to marry her. But the festivities are disrupted by Jud, who sets fire to a haystack and threatens Curly with a knife. Curly jumps him, inadvertently causes Jud to fall on his own knife, killing him. A makeshift trial is held at Aunt Eller's house. Curly is found not guilty, he and Laurey depart for their honeymoon in the surrey with the fringe on top.
Interest in a film version of Okl
2015 Amado checkpoint protest
The 2015 Amado checkpoint protest took place on May 27, 2015, when seventy-five protesters held a demonstration at the United States Border Patrol checkpoint along Arivaca Road in Amado, about 35 miles south of Tucson. Established in 2007, the checkpoint is the smallest of the eleven Border Patrol checkpoints near the U. S.-Mexico border in southern Arizona, with only four or five agents manning the post at a time. It is located in a rural area outside the town of Amado, on the main road to Arivaca, a small community near the international border; the demonstrators cited privacy concerns, the nuisance of having to go through the checkpoint, the potential for racial profiling as reasons for the protest, want it removed. Smaller demonstrations occurred at other checkpoints in the area, the nearest located a few miles south of Amado, in Agua Linda, along Interstate 19, but the Amado protest was the largest. In anticipation of the protest, 50 Border Patrol agents manned the checkpoint to help keep order.
Government authorities say the checkpoints are "vital to catching immigration violations, drug smugglers and human traffickers," but some local residents are unhappy about having to answer the Border Patrol agents' questions every time they pass through. Border Patrol official Manny Padilla, who manages the Tucson Sector of the international border, commented on the Amado protest. Padilla said: "It's difficult to stop all traffic at the immediate border."Arivaca residents, with support from other concerned citizens in the nearby communities of Amado and Sasabe erected a large sign in support of the Border Patrol checkpoint, a few hundred yards away from where the demonstration was held. The sign reads as follows: "CITIZENS OF ARIVACA, MOYZA, AMADO & SASABE SUPPORT OUR BP CHECKPOINT." Mexican Drug War Illegal immigration in the United States