Rafael Leónidas Trujillo Molina, nicknamed El Jefe, was a Dominican politician and dictator, who ruled the Dominican Republic from February 1930 until his assassination in May 1961. He served as president from 1930 to 1938 and again from 1942 to 1952, ruling for the rest of the time as an unelected military strongman under figurehead presidents, his 31 years in power, to Dominicans known as the Trujillo Era, are considered one of the bloodiest eras in the Americas, as well as a time of a personality cult, when monuments to Trujillo were in abundance. Trujillo and his regime were responsible for many deaths, including between 20,000 and 30,000 Haitians in the infamous Parsley massacre. During this long period of oppression and death, the Trujillo government extended its policy of state terrorism beyond national borders. Notorious examples of Trujillo’s reach abroad are the unsuccessful assassination attempt in Caracas against Venezuelan President Rómulo Betancourt, the abduction and subsequent disappearance in New York City of the Spaniard Jesús Galíndez, the murder of writer José Almoina in Mexico a Spaniard, crimes committed against Cubans, Costa Ricans, Puerto Ricans, as well as United States citizens.
The Trujillo era unfolded in a Hispanic Caribbean environment, fertile for dictatorial regimes. In the countries of the Caribbean Basin alone, his dictatorship was concurrent, in whole or in part, with those in Cuba, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras and Haiti. In retrospect, the Trujillo dictatorship has been characterized as more prominent and more brutal than those that rose and fell around it. Trujillo's rule brought the country a great deal of stability and prosperity throughout his 31-year reign; the price, was high—civil liberties were non-existent and human rights violations were routine. Due to the longevity of Trujillo's rule, a detached evaluation of his legacy is difficult. Supporters of Trujillo claim that he reorganized both the state and the economy, left vast infrastructure to the country. From a moral point of view, however, a detached evaluation is not difficult at all. Everyone agrees on the brutality of his rule, critics claim that much of the country's wealth wound up in the hands of his family or close associates.
Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Molina was born on October 24, 1891 in San Cristóbal, Dominican Republic into a lower-middle-class family. His father was José Trujillo Valdez, the son of a Spanish sergeant, who arrived in Santo Domingo as a member of the Spanish reinforcement troops during the annexation era. Trujillo's mother was Altagracia Julia Molina Chevalier known as Mama Julia, the daughter of Pedro Molina Peña, of colonial Dominican origin, the teacher Luisa Erciná Chevalier, whose parents, although from Haiti, were predominantly of French origin: her father, Justin Alexis Víctor Turenne Carrié Blaise, was of French descent, while her mother, Eleonore Juliette Chevallier Moreau, was part of Haiti's mulatto class. Trujillo was the third of eleven children. In 1897, at age six, Trujillo was registered in the school of Juan Hilario Meriño. One year he transferred to the school of Broughton, where he became a pupil of Eugenio María de Hostos and remained there for the rest of his primary schooling.
At the age of 16, Trujillo got a job as a telegraph operator. Shortly after Trujillo turned to crime—cattle stealing, check counterfeiting, postal robbery, he spent several months in prison, which did not deter Trujillo, as he formed a violent gang of robbers called the 42. In 1916, the United States occupied the Dominican Republic due to threats of defaulting on foreign debts; the occupying force soon established a Dominican army constabulary to impose order. Trujillo joined the National Guard in 1918 and trained with the U. S. Marines. Seeing opportunity, Trujillo impressed the recruiters and won promotion from cadet to general and commander-in chief of the Army in only nine years. A rebellion against President Horacio Vásquez broke out in February 1930 in Santiago. Trujillo secretly cut a deal with rebel leader Rafael Estrella Ureña; as the rebels marched toward Santo Domingo, Vásquez ordered Trujillo to suppress them. However, feigning "neutrality", Trujillo kept his men in barracks, allowing Estrella's rebels to take the capital unopposed.
On 3 March, Estrella was proclaimed acting president, with Trujillo confirmed as head of the police and of the army. As per their agreement, Trujillo became the presidential nominee of the Patriotic Coalition of Citizens, with Estrella as his running mate; the other candidates became targets of harassment by the army. When it became apparent that the army would not allow anyone other than Trujillo to campaign unhindered, the other candidates pulled out; the Trujillo-Estrella ticket was proclaimed victorious with an implausible 99 percent of the vote. In a note to the State Department, American ambassador Charles Boyd Curtis wrote that Trujillo received far more votes than actual voters. Three and a half weeks after Trujillo ascended to the Presidency the destructive Hurricane San Zenon hit Santo Domingo and left 2,000 dead; as a response to this disaster, Trujillo placed the Dominican Republic under martial law and began to rebuild the city. After the
The Feast of the Goat
The Feast of the Goat is a novel by the Peruvian Nobel Prize in Literature laureate Mario Vargas Llosa. The book is set in the Dominican Republic and portrays the assassination of Dominican dictator Rafael Trujillo, its aftermath, from two distinct standpoints a generation apart: during and after the assassination itself, in May 1961. Throughout, there is extensive reflection on the heyday of the dictatorship, in the 1950s, its significance for the island and its inhabitants; the novel follows three interwoven storylines. The first concerns a woman, Urania Cabral, back in the Dominican Republic, after a long absence, to visit her ailing father; the second story line focuses on the last day in Trujillo's life from the moment he wakes up onwards, shows us the regime's inner circle, to which Urania's father once belonged. The third strand depicts Trujillo's assassins, many of whom had been government loyalists, as they wait for his car late that night; each aspect of the book's plot reveals a different viewpoint on the Dominican Republic's political and social environment and present.
Readers are shown the regime's downward spiral, Trujillo's assassination, its aftermath through the eyes of insiders, a middle-aged woman looking back. The novel is therefore a kaleidoscopic portrait of dictatorial power, including its psychological effects and its long-term impact; the novel's themes include the nature of power and corruption, their relationship to machismo or sexual perversion in a rigidly hierarchical society with gendered roles. Memory, the process of remembering, is an important theme in Urania's narrative as she recalls her youth in the Dominican Republic, her story ends when she recounts the terrible events that led to her leaving the country at the age of 14. The book itself serves as a reminder of the atrocities of dictatorship, to ensure that the dangers of absolute power will be remembered by a new generation. Vargas Llosa interlaces fictional elements and historical events: the book is not a documentary and the Cabral family, for instance, is fictional. On the other hand, the characters of Trujillo and Trujillo's assassins are drawn from the historical record.
In Vargas Llosa's words, "It's a novel, not a history book, so I took many, many liberties. I have respected the basic facts, but I have changed and deformed many things in order to make the story more persuasive—and I have not exaggerated."The Feast of the Goat received positive reviews, with several reviewers commenting on the book's depiction of the relationship between sexuality and power, on the graphic descriptions of violent events. A film version of the novel was released in 2005, starring Isabella Rossellini, Paul Freeman, Tomas Milian. Jorge Alí Triana and his daughter, Veronica Triana, wrote a theatrical adaptation in 2003; the Feast of the Goat is only the second of Vargas Llosa's novels to be set outside Peru. It is unusual because it's the first to have a female protagonist: as critic Lynn Walford writes of the leading character in The Feast of the Goat, Vargas Llosa's subsequent book The Way to Paradise, "both are utterly unlike any of the other female characters in his previous novels".
The novel examines the dictatorial regime of Rafael Leónidas Trujillo Molina in the Dominican Republic. Trujillo was, in historian Eric Roorda's words, "a towering influence in Dominican and Caribbean history" who presided over "one of the most durable regimes of the twentieth century" during the thirty-one years between his seizure of power in 1930 and his assassination in 1961. Trujillo had trained with the United States Marine Corps during the United States occupation of the island, graduated from the Haina Military Academy in 1921. After the U. S. departed in 1924, he became head of the Dominican National Police which, under his command, was transformed into the Dominican National Army and Trujillo's personal "virtually autonomous power base". Trujillo was dictator only from 1930 to 1938, from 1942 to 1952, but remained in effective power throughout the entire period. Though his regime was broadly nationalist, Daniel Chirot comments that he had "no particular ideology" and that his economic and social policies were progressive.
The novel's title is taken from the popular Dominican merengue Mataron al chivo, which refers to Trujillo's assassination on May 30, 1961. Merengue is a style of music created by Ñico Lora in the 1920s and promoted by Trujillo himself. It's now considered the country's national music. Cultural critics Julie Sellers and Stephen Ropp comment about this particular merengue that, by envisaging the dictator as an animal who could be turned into a stew, the song "gave those performing, listening to, dancing to this merengue a sense of control over him and over themselves that they had not experienced for over three decades." Vargas Llosa quotes the lyrics to Mataron al chivo at the beginning of the novel. The novel's narrative is divided into three distinct strands. One is centred on a fictional Dominican character.
Mario Vargas Llosa
Jorge Mario Pedro Vargas Llosa, 1st Marquess of Vargas Llosa, more known as Mario Vargas Llosa, is a Peruvian writer, journalist and college professor. Vargas Llosa is one of Latin America's most significant novelists and essayists, one of the leading writers of his generation; some critics consider him to have had a larger international impact and worldwide audience than any other writer of the Latin American Boom. In 2010 he won the Nobel Prize in Literature, "for his cartography of structures of power and his trenchant images of the individual's resistance and defeat."Vargas Llosa rose to fame in the 1960s with novels such as The Time of the Hero, The Green House, the monumental Conversation in the Cathedral. He writes prolifically across an array of literary genres, including literary criticism and journalism, his novels include comedies, murder mysteries, historical novels, political thrillers. Several, such as Captain Pantoja and the Special Service and Aunt Julia and the Scriptwriter, have been adapted as feature films.
Many of Vargas Llosa's works are influenced by the writer's perception of Peruvian society and his own experiences as a native Peruvian. However, he has expanded his range, tackled themes that arise from other parts of the world. In his essays, Vargas Llosa has made many criticisms of nationalism in different parts of the world. Another change over the course of his career has been a shift from a style and approach associated with literary modernism, to a sometimes playful postmodernism. Like many Latin American writers, Vargas Llosa has been politically active throughout his career. While he supported the Cuban revolutionary government of Fidel Castro, Vargas Llosa became disenchanted with its policies after the imprisonment of Cuban poet Heberto Padilla in 1971, he ran for the Peruvian presidency in 1990 with the center-right Frente Democrático coalition, advocating classical liberal reforms, but lost the election to Alberto Fujimori. He is the person who, in 1990, "coined the phrase that circled the globe," declaring on Mexican television, "Mexico is the perfect dictatorship," a statement which became an adage during the following decade.
Mario Vargas Llosa was born to a middle-class family on March 28, 1936, in the southern Peruvian provincial city of Arequipa. He was the only child of Ernesto Vargas Maldonado and Dora Llosa Ureta, who separated a few months before his birth. Shortly after Mario's birth, his father revealed. Vargas Llosa lived with his maternal family in Arequipa until a year after his parents' divorce, when his maternal grandfather was named honorary consul for Peru in Bolivia. With his mother and her family, Vargas Llosa moved to Cochabamba, where he spent the early years of his childhood, his maternal family, the Llosas, were sustained by his grandfather. As a child, Vargas Llosa was led to believe that his father had died—his mother and her family did not want to explain that his parents had separated. During the government of Peruvian President José Bustamante y Rivero, Vargas Llosa's maternal grandfather obtained a diplomatic post in the northern Peruvian coastal city of Piura and the entire family returned to Peru.
While in Piura, Vargas Llosa attended elementary school at the religious academy Colegio Salesiano. In 1946, at the age of ten, he met his father for the first time, his parents re-established their relationship and lived in Magdalena del Mar, a middle-class Lima suburb, during his teenage years. While in Lima, he studied at the Colegio La Salle, a Christian middle school, from 1947 to 1949; when Vargas Llosa was fourteen, his father sent him to the Leoncio Prado Military Academy in Lima. At the age of 16, before his graduation, Vargas Llosa began working as an amateur journalist for local newspapers, he withdrew from the military academy and finished his studies in Piura, where he worked for the local newspaper, La Industria, witnessed the theatrical performance of his first dramatic work, La huida del Inca. In 1953, during the government of Manuel A. Odría, Vargas Llosa enrolled in Lima's National University of San Marcos, to study law and literature, he married Julia Urquidi, his maternal uncle's sister-in-law, in 1955 at the age of 19.
Vargas Llosa began his literary career in earnest in 1957 with the publication of his first short stories, "The Leaders" and "The Grandfather", while working for two Peruvian newspapers. Upon his graduation from the National University of San Marcos in 1958, he received a scholarship to study at the Complutense University of Madrid in Spain. In 1960, after his scholarship in Madrid had expired, Vargas Llosa moved to France under the impression that he would receive a scholarship to study there. Despite Mario and Julia's unexpected financial status, the couple decided to remain in Paris where he began to write prolifically, their marriage lasted only a few more years, ending in divorce in 1964. A year Vargas Llosa married his first cousin, Patricia Llosa, with whom he had three children: Álvaro Vargas Llosa, a writer and editor.
Antonio Imbert Barrera
Major General Antonio Cosme Imbert Barrera was a two-star army general advitam of the Dominican Army and was President of the Dominican Republic from May to August 1965. Imbert, who plotted to assassinate dictator Rafael Trujillo in 1961, was one of the two rival rulers in the Dominican Republic from May 7, 1965 until August 30, 1965, amid the Dominican Civil War, he had succeeded General Pedro B. Benoit van der Horst. After the civil war ended, both General Imbert and his rival Colonel Francisco Caamaño resigned and Héctor García-Godoy, a civilian, was sworn as interim president. Imbert was born into a prominent family of military tradition: his father, Brigadier General Segundo Manuel Imbert Mesnier had a leading role in the northern region of the Dominican Republic. Imbert’s first significant position was as governor of Puerto Plata in 1940, he was removed from the post by president Rafael Trujillo for sending him a telegram informing upon the names of the survivors of the failed Luperón invasion.
This caused, in the beginning of the assassination plan against Trujillo. His brother Segundo, an army official too, was imprisoned in 1956 by Trujillo’s regime. Segundo was convicted for murder. On May 30, 1961 Trujillo was shot dead when his car was ambushed on a road outside the Dominican capital. Imbert, the driver of the ambushing vehicle, was accompanied by Antonio de la Maza, Salvador Estrella Sahdalá and Amado García Guerrero - the active participants who carried out the plot. Most of those involved in the assassination plot were subsequently captured and executed, with the exception of Imbert and Luis Amiama Tió. Imbert went into hiding until December 2. After Joaquín Balaguer, Trujillo’s figurehead president, was overthrown in 1962 and the Trujillo family was ousted, Imbert was declared a "National Hero" and was promoted to Major General with the special grant of it being advitam or lifelong. In the Civil War in the Dominican Republic of 1965 he led one of the factions in the struggle which faced the constitutionalist government led by Colonel Francisco Caamaño, who tried to bring back Juan Bosch to the country's presidency.
Imbert's faction, called the Government of National Reconstruction was endorsed by the U. S. troops inspectors, in addition, he was one of the collaborators with the Americans signing a peace act that put an end to the April war. On March 21, 1967, he was shot in Santo Domingo while traveling with Marino García, in an attempted assassination made by the late dictator Trujillo's supporters, he survived by driving himself to a medical clinic. On February 15, 1970 the Dominicana de Aviación flight wherein his sister Aída Imbert Barrera, his wife Guarina Tessón Hurtado, his daughter, sportswoman Leslie Imbert Tessón, were travelling, crashed into the Caribbean Sea, he was Minister of Defense of the Dominican Republic from 1986 to 1988. In 1989 he was assigned chairman of the board of directors of Rosario Dominicana. In September 2013, the Constitutionalist Soldiers of 25 April 1965 Foundation asked the National Congress of the Dominican Republic to explore the possibility of stripping Imbert his status of national hero as it considered that he went against constitutional precepts when he supported the coup against Bosch and the U.
S. occupation of the country, mong other accusations. Imbert died on May 31, 2016, the day following the fifty-fifth anniversary of Trujillo's assassination, at the age of 95. Dominican President Danilo Medina declared three days of mourning, his niece, Carmen Imbert Brugal, said. He married Guarina Tessón Hurtado on September 1939 in Puerto Plata, they had three children: army general. He had 3 children. Leslie Imbert Tessón, sportswoman. Died childless in an aircraft accident. Oscar José Antonio Imbert Tessón, architect, he designed the Punta Cana International Airport. He had 1 child and divorced, he remarried to Solange Juliette Martín-Caro Lithgow, but divorced with no children from this marriage. He had a liaison with María Sánchez, from Sosúa, begat Manuel Antonio Imbert Sánchez, police officer and former diplomat. S. Virgin Islands in the 1980s and the 1990s, his wife died in 1970 in an aircraft accident. After widowing Imbert Barrera remarried to Giralda Busto Sánchez, but had no children from this marriage
Torture is the act of deliberately inflicting severe physical or psychological suffering on someone by another as a punishment or in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or force some action from the victim. Torture, by definition, is a knowing and intentional act. Torture has been carried out or sanctioned by individuals and states throughout history from ancient times to modern day, forms of torture can vary in duration from only a few minutes to several days or longer. Reasons for torture can include punishment, extortion, political re-education, coercion of the victim or a third party, interrogation to extract information or a confession irrespective of whether it is false, or the sadistic gratification of those carrying out or observing the torture. Alternatively, some forms of torture are designed to inflict psychological pain or leave as little physical injury or evidence as possible while achieving the same psychological devastation; the torturer may or may not kill or injure the victim, but torture may result in a deliberate death and serves as a form of capital punishment.
Depending on the aim a form of torture, intentionally fatal may be prolonged to allow the victim to suffer as long as possible. In other cases, the torturer may be indifferent to the condition of the victim. Although torture is sanctioned by some states, it is prohibited under international law and the domestic laws of most countries. Although illegal and reviled, there is an ongoing debate as to what is and is not defined as torture, it is a serious violation of human rights, is declared to be unacceptable by Article 5 of the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Signatories of the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and the Additional Protocols I and II of 8 June 1977 agree not to torture captured persons in armed conflicts, whether international or internal. Torture is prohibited for the signatories of the United Nations Convention Against Torture, which has 163 state parties. National and international legal prohibitions on torture derive from a consensus that torture and similar ill-treatment are immoral, as well as impractical, information obtained by torture is far less reliable than that obtained by other techniques.
Despite these findings and international conventions, organizations that monitor abuses of human rights report widespread use condoned by states in many regions of the world. Amnesty International estimates that at least 81 world governments practice torture, some of them openly; the United Nations Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, in force since 26 June 1987, provides a broad definition of torture. Article 1.1 of the UN Convention Against Torture reads: For the purpose of this Convention, the term "torture" means any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him, or a third person, information or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a third person has committed or is suspected of having committed, or intimidating or coercing him or a third person, or for any reason based on discrimination of any kind, when such pain or suffering is inflicted by or at the instigation of or with the consent or acquiescence of a public official or other person acting in an official capacity.
It does not include pain or suffering arising only from, inherent in, or incidental to, lawful sanctions. This definition was restricted to apply only to nations and to government-sponsored torture and limits the torture to that perpetrated, directly or indirectly, by those acting in an official capacity, such as government personnel, law enforcement personnel, medical personnel, military personnel, or politicians, it appears to exclude: torture perpetrated by gangs, hate groups, rebels, or terrorists who ignore national or international mandates. Some professionals in the torture rehabilitation field believe that this definition is too restrictive and that the definition of politically motivated torture should be broadened to include all acts of organized violence. An broader definition was used in the 1975 Declaration of Tokyo regarding the participation of medical professionals in acts of torture: For the purpose of this Declaration, torture is defined as the deliberate, systematic or wanton infliction of physical or mental suffering by one or more persons acting alone or on the orders of any authority, to force another person to yield information, to make a confession, or for any other reason.
This definition includes torture as part of domestic violence or ritualistic abuse, as well as in criminal activities. The Rome Statute is the treaty; the treaty was adopted at a diplomatic conference in Rome on 17 July 1998 and went into effect on 1 July 2002. The Rome Statute provides a simplest definition of torture regarding the prosecution of war criminals by the International Criminal Court. Paragraph 1 under Article 7 of the Rome Statute provides that: "Torture" means the intentional infliction of severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, upon a person in the custody or
The Dominican Republic is a country located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region. It occupies the eastern five-eighths of the island, which it shares with the nation of Haiti, making Hispaniola one of two Caribbean islands, along with Saint Martin, that are shared by two sovereign states; the Dominican Republic is the second-largest Caribbean nation by area at 48,671 square kilometers, third by population with 10 million people, of which three million live in the metropolitan area of Santo Domingo, the capital city. Christopher Columbus landed on the island on December 5, 1492, which the native Taíno people had inhabited since the 7th century; the colony of Santo Domingo became the site of the first permanent European settlement in the Americas, the oldest continuously inhabited city, the first seat of the Spanish colonial rule in the New World. After more than three hundred years of Spanish rule the Dominican people declared independence in November 1821.
The leader of the independence movement José Núñez de Cáceres, intended the Dominican nation to unite with the country of Gran Colombia, but no longer under Spain's custody the newly independent Dominicans were forcefully annexed by Haiti in February 1822. Independence came 22 years after victory in the Dominican War of Independence in 1844. Over the next 72 years the Dominican Republic experienced internal conflicts and a brief return to colonial status before permanently ousting Spanish rule during the Dominican War of Restoration of 1863–1865. A United States occupation lasted eight years between 1916 and 1924, a subsequent calm and prosperous six-year period under Horacio Vásquez was followed by the dictatorship of Rafael Leónidas Trujillo until 1961. A civil war in 1965, the country's last, was ended by U. S. military occupation and was followed by the authoritarian rule of Joaquín Balaguer, the rules of Antonio Guzmán & Salvador Jorge Blanco. Since 1996, the Dominican Republic has moved toward representative democracy and has been led by Leonel Fernández for most of the time since 1996.
Danilo Medina, the Dominican Republic's current president, succeeded Fernandez in 2012, winning 51% of the electoral vote over his opponent ex-president Hipólito Mejía. The Dominican Republic has the ninth-largest economy in Latin America and is the largest economy in the Caribbean and Central American region. Over the last two decades, the Dominican Republic has had one of the fastest-growing economies in the Americas – with an average real GDP growth rate of 5.4% between 1992 and 2014. GDP growth in 2014 and 2015 reached 7.3 and 7.0% the highest in the Western Hemisphere. In the first half of 2016 the Dominican economy grew 7.4% continuing its trend of rapid economic growth. Recent growth has been driven by construction, manufacturing and mining; the country is the site of the second largest gold mine in the Pueblo Viejo mine. Private consumption has been strong, as a result of low inflation, job creation, as well as a high level of remittances; the Dominican Republic is the most visited destination in the Caribbean.
The year-round golf courses are major attractions. A geographically diverse nation, the Dominican Republic is home to both the Caribbean's tallest mountain peak, Pico Duarte, the Caribbean's largest lake and point of lowest elevation, Lake Enriquillo; the island has an average temperature of biological diversity. The country is the site of the first cathedral, castle and fortress built in the Americas, located in Santo Domingo's Colonial Zone, a World Heritage Site. Music and sport are of great importance in the Dominican culture, with Merengue and Bachata as the national dance and music, baseball as the favorite sport; the "Dominican" word comes from the Latin Dominicus. However, the island has this name by Santo Domingo de Guzmán, founder of the Order of the Dominicans; the Dominicans established a house of high studies in the island of Santo Domingo that today is known as the Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo and dedicated themselves to the protection of the native taínos of the island, who were subjected to slavery, to the education of the inhabitants of the island.
For most of its history, up until independence, the country was known as Santo Domingo—the name of its present capital and patron saint, Saint Dominic—and continued to be known as such in English until the early 20th century. The residents were called "Dominicans", the adjective form of "Domingo", the revolutionaries named their newly independent country "Dominican Republic". In the national anthem of the Dominican Republic, the term "Dominicans" does not appear; the author of its lyrics, Emilio Prud'Homme uses the poetic term "Quisqueyans". The word "Quisqueya" derives from a native tongue of the Taino Indians and means "Mother of the lands", it is used in songs as another name for the country. The name of the country is shortened to "the D. R." The Arawakan-speaking Taíno moved into Hispaniola from the north east region of what is now known as South America, displacing earlier inhabitants, c. AD 650, they engaged in hunting and gathering. The fierce Caribs drove the Taíno to the northeastern Caribbean during much of the 15th century.
The estimates of Hispaniola's population in 1492 vary including one hundred thousand, three hundred thousand, an
An aide-de-camp is a personal assistant or secretary to a person of high rank a senior military, police or government officer, or to a member of a royal family or a head of state. An aide-de-camp may participate at ceremonial functions, the first aide-de-camp is the foremost personal aide; this is not to be confused with an adjutant, the senior administrator of a military unit. The badge of office for an aide-de-camp is the aiguillette, a braided cord in gold or other colours, worn on the shoulder of a uniform. Whether it is worn on the left or the right shoulder is dictated by protocol. In some countries, aide-de-camp is considered to be a title of honour, which confers the post-nominal letters ADC or A de C. In Argentina, three officers, are appointed as aide-de-camp to the president of the republic and three others to the minister of defense, these six being the only ones to be called "edecán", one Spanish translation for aide-de-camp. A controversy was raised in 2006, when president Néstor Kirchner decided to promote his army aide-de-camp, Lieutenant Colonel Graham to colonel, one year ahead of his class.
Upon taking office, former president Cristina Kirchner decided to have, for the first time, female officers as her aides-de-camp. In each of the armed forces, the chief of staff and other senior officers have their own adjutants of the rank of major or lieutenant colonel, or its equivalent. At unit level, the unit S-1 doubles as the unit commander's adjutant, although in recent times in many units this practice has been left only for ceremonial purposes, while for everyday duties a senior NCO performs the adjutant's activities. An aiguillette is worn on the right shoulder by aides-de-camp and adjutants as a symbol of their position, the colour of the aiguillette depending of the rank of the person they are serving. In Belgium the title of honorary aide-de-camp to the King can be granted by the royal court for services rendered. Notable people include Major General Baron Édouard Empain, Count Charles John d'Oultremont, Lieutenant General Baron Albert du Roy de Blicquy. An aide-de-camp, according to an 1816 military dictionary, was defined as an officer appointed to attend a general officer, was traditionally under the grade of captain: "The King may appoint for himself as many as he pleases, which appointment gives the rank of colonel in the army.
Generals being field marshals, have four, lieutenant generals two, major generals one". In British colonies and modern-day British overseas territories, an aide-de-camp is appointed to serve the governor and the governor general; these aides were from military branches or native auxiliaries. They were entitled to use letters A de C after their names; the emblem of the office is the aiguillette worn on their uniform. Australian Defence Force officers serve as aides-de-camp to specific senior appointments, such as the Queen, Governor-General, state governors, Chief of the Defence Force, other specified Army and Air Force command appointments. Honorary aides-de-camp to the Governor-General or state governors are entitled to the post-nominal ADC during their appointment. Officers of and above the ranks of rear admiral, major general, air vice marshal in designated command appointments are entitled to an aide de camp with the army rank of captain. Within the navy, an aide-de-camp is called a "flag lieutenant".
In 1973, the Governor of Bermuda, Sir Richard Sharples, his aide-de-camp, Captain Hugh Sayers, were murdered on the grounds of Government House. Aides-de-camp in Canada are appointed to the Queen and some members of the royal family, the governor general, lieutenant governors, to certain other appointments. In addition to the military officers appointed as full-time aides-de-camp to the governor general, several other flag/general and senior officers are appointed ex officio as honorary aides-de-camp to the governor general or Members of the Royal Family including: The Chief of the Defence Staff The commandant of the Royal Military College of Canada A senior officer of the Quebec-based Royal 22e Régiment Commanding officer, The Governor General's Horse Guards Commanding officer, Governor General's Foot Guards Commanding officer, The Canadian Grenadier Guards Commanding officer, The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada The commanding officers of Naval Reserve divisionsMost aides-de-camp wear a gold pattern aiguillette when acting in their official capacity.
All aides-de-camp wear the cypher or badge of the principal to whom they are appointed. Honorary appointees to the Queen, to the Duke of Edinburgh, or the Prince of Wales, wear the appropriate cypher on their uniform epaulette and are entitled to use the post-nominal letters ADC for the duration of their appointment. Aides-de-camp to the governor general wear the governor general's badge and aides-de-camp to a lieutenant governor wear the lieutenant governor's badge