Colonial Brazil comprises the period from 1500, with the arrival of the Portuguese, until 1815, when Brazil was elevated to a kingdom in union with Portugal as the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. During the early 300 years of Brazilian colonial history, the economic exploitation of the territory was based first on brazilwood extraction, which gave the territory its name. Slaves those brought from Africa, provided most of the work force of the Brazilian export economy after a brief period of Indian slavery to cut brazilwood. In contrast to the neighboring Spanish possessions, which had several viceroyalties with jurisdiction over New Spain and Peru, in the eighteenth century expanded to viceroyalties of Rio de la Plata and New Granada, the Portuguese colony of Brazil was settled in the coastal area by the Portuguese and a large black slave population working sugar plantations and mines; the boom and bust economic cycles were linked to export products. Brazil's sugar age, with the development of plantation slavery, merchants serving as middle men between production sites, Brazilian ports, Europe was undermined by the growth of the sugar industry in the Caribbean on islands that European powers seized from Spain.
Gold and diamonds were mined in southern Brazil through the end of the colonial era. Brazilian cities were port cities and the colonial administrative capital was moved several times in response to the rise and fall of export products' importance. Unlike Spanish America, which fragmented into many republics upon independence, Brazil remained a single administrative unit under a monarch, giving rise to the largest country in Latin America. Just as European Spanish and Roman Catholicism were a core source of cohesion among Spain's vast and multi-ethnic territories, Brazilian society was united by the Portuguese language and Roman Catholic faith; as the only Lusophone polity in the Western Hemisphere, the Portuguese language was important to Brazilian identity. Portugal and Spain pioneered the European charting of sea routes that were the first and only channels of interaction between all of the world's continents, thus beginning the process of globalization. In addition to the imperial and economic undertaking of discovery and colonization of lands distant from Europe, these years were filled with pronounced advancements in cartography and navigational instruments, of which the Portuguese and Spanish explorers took advantage.
In 1494, the two kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula divided the New World between them, in 1500 navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral landed in what is now Brazil and laid claim to it in the name of King Manuel I of Portugal. The Portuguese identified brazilwood as a valuable red dye and an exploitable product, attempted to force indigenous groups in Brazil to cut the trees. Portuguese seafarers in the early fifteenth century began to expand from a small area of the Iberian Peninsula, to seizing the Muslim fortress of Ceuta in North Africa, its maritime exploration proceeded down the coast of West Africa and across the Indian Ocean to the south Asian subcontinent, as well as the Atlantic islands off the coast of Africa on the way. They sought sources of gold and African slaves, high value goods in the African trade; the Portuguese set up fortified trading "factories", whereby permanent small commercial settlements anchored trade in a region. The initial costs of setting up these commercial posts was borne by private investors, who in turn received hereditary titles and commercial advantages.
From the Portuguese Crown's point of view, its realm was expanded with little cost to itself. On the Atlantic islands of the Azores, Sāo Tomé, the Portuguese began plantation production of sugarcane using forced labor, a precedent for Brazil's sugar production in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; the Portuguese "discovery" of Brazil was preceded by a series of treaties between the kings of Portugal and Castile, following Portuguese sailings down the coast of Africa to India and the voyages to the Caribbean of the Genoese mariner sailing for Castile, Christopher Columbus. The most decisive of these treaties was the Treaty of Tordesillas, signed in 1494, which created the Tordesillas Meridian, dividing the world between the two kingdoms. All land discovered or to be discovered east of that meridian was to be the property of Portugal, everything to the west of it went to Spain; the Tordesillas Meridian divided South America into two parts, leaving a large chunk of land to be exploited by the Spaniards.
The Treaty of Tordesillas was arguably the most decisive event in all Brazilian history, since it determined that part of South America would be settled by Portugal instead of Spain. The present extent of Brazil's coastline is exactly that defined by the Treaty of Madrid, approved in 1750. On April 22, 1500, during the reign of King Manuel I, a fleet led by navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral landed in Brazil and took possession of the land in the name of the king. Although it is debated whether previous Portuguese explorers had been in Brazil, this date is and politically accepted as the day of the discovery of Brazil by Europeans. Álvares Cabral was leading a large fleet of 13 ships and more than 1000 men following Vasco da Gama's way to India, around Africa. The place where Álvares Cabral arrived is now known in Northeastern Brazil. After the voyage of Álvares Cabral, the Portuguese concentrated their efforts on the lucrative possessions in Africa and India
Captaincy of São Vicente
The Captaincy of São Vicente was a land grant and colonial administration in the far southern part of the colonial Portuguese Empire in Colonial Brazil. In 1534 King John III of Portugal granted the Captaincy to Martim Afonso de Sousa, a Portuguese admiral. Sousa had founded the first two permanent Portuguese settlements in Brazil in 1532: São Vicente and Piratininga. Martim Afonso received two tracts of land: one centered on the settlement of São Vicente, extending along the coastline from Cananeia to Bertioga the other extended from Parati to Cabo Frio. Although divided into two lots - separated by the Captaincy of Santo Amaro - together these territories formed the Captaincy of São Vicente. In 1681 the São Paulo settlement succeeded São Vicente as the capital of the captaincy, the original name of the latter fell into disuse. São Vicente became the only captaincy to flourish in southern Portuguese colony of Brazil, it gave rise to São Paulo state and provided the base for the Bandeiras to expand Portuguese America to the west of the Tordesilhas Line.
The Captaincy of São Vicente in Southern Brazil: Captaincies of Brazil Portuguese Colonial Brazil-related topics Lockhart, J. Early Latin America: A History of Colonial Spanish America and Brazil. Cambridge University Press ISBN 978-0521299299 Baptista, S. Chaptory 4: Historical Context Forest Recovery and Just Sustainability in the Florianopolis City-region UMI 3349866 Colonial History of Sao Paulo Pedro Taques de Almeida Paes Leme História da Capitania de São Paulo "History of the Captaincy of São Paulo"
A convent is either a community of priests, religious brothers, religious sisters, monks or nuns. The term derives via Old French from Latin conventus, perfect participle of the verb convenio, meaning to convene, to come together; the original reference was to the gathering of mendicants. Technically, a “monastery" or "nunnery" is a community of monastics, whereas a "friary" or "convent" is a community of mendicants, a "canonry" a community of canons regular; the terms "abbey" and "priory" can be applied to both canonries. In English usage since about the 19th century the term "convent" invariably refers to a community of women, while "monastery" and "friary" are used for men. In historical usage they are interchangeable, with "convent" likely to be used for a friary; when applied to religious houses in Eastern Orthodoxy and Buddhism, English refers to all houses of male religious as "monasteries" and of female religious "convents". Christian monasticism Enclosed religious orders Herbermann, Charles, ed..
"Convent". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Carmelite Monastery of the Sacred Hearts —- an example of a modern-day convent Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Convent". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
John IV of Portugal
John IV, nicknamed John the Restorer, was the King of Portugal whose reign, lasting from 1640 until his death, led to the Portuguese "restoration" of independence from Spanish rule. His accession established the house of Braganza on the Portuguese throne, marked the end of the 60-year-old Iberian Union, by which Portugal and Spain shared the same monarch. Before becoming king, he was John II, 8th Duke of Braganza, he was the grandson of Catherine, Duchess of Braganza, a claimant to the crown during the Portuguese succession crisis of 1580. On the eve of his death in 1656, the Portuguese Empire reached its territorial zenith, spanning the globe. John IV was born at Vila Viçosa and succeeded his father Teodósio II as Duke of Braganza when the latter died insane in 1630, he married Luisa de Guzmán, eldest daughter of Juan Manuel Pérez de Guzmán, 8th Duke of Medina Sidonia, in 1633. John had blue eyes and an average height; when Philip II of Portugal died, he was succeeded by his son Philip III, who had a different approach to Portuguese issues.
Taxes on the Portuguese merchants were raised, the Portuguese nobility began to lose its influence and government posts in Portugal were occupied by Spaniards. Philip III tried to make Portugal a Spanish province, meaning Portuguese nobles stood to lose all of their power; this situation culminated in a revolution organized by the nobility and the bourgeoisie, executed on 1 December 1640, fifty-nine years after the accession of Philip II of Spain to the throne of Portugal. A plot was planned by several associates, known as the Forty Conspirators, who killed the Secretary of State, Miguel de Vasconcelos, imprisoned the king's cousin, Margaret of Savoy, the Vicereine of Portugal, governing the country in the King's name. Philip's troops were at the time fighting the Thirty Years' War and dealing with a revolution in Catalonia which hampered Spain's ability to quash the rebellion. Within a matter of hours and with popular support, John the 8th Duke of Braganza, was acclaimed as King John IV of Portugal claiming legitimate succession through his grandmother Catherine, Duchess of Braganza.
The ensuing conflict with Spain brought Portugal into the Thirty Years' War as, at least, a peripheral player. From 1641 to 1668, the period during which the two nations were at war, Spain sought to isolate Portugal militarily and diplomatically, Portugal tried to find the resources to maintain its independence through political alliances and maintenance of its colonial income, his accession led to a protracted war with neighbouring Spain, a conflict known as the Portuguese Restoration War, which ended with the recognition of Portuguese independence in a subsequent reign. Portugal signed lengthy alliances with France and Sweden but by necessity its only contributions in the Thirty Years' War were in the field against Spain and against Dutch encroachments on the Portuguese colonies; the period from 1640 to 1668 was marked by periodic skirmishes between Portugal and Spain, as well as short episodes of more serious warfare, much of it occasioned by Spanish and Portuguese entanglements with non-Iberian powers.
Spain was involved in the Thirty Years' War until 1648 and the Franco–Spanish War until 1659, while Portugal was involved in the Dutch–Portuguese War until 1663. In Spain, a Portuguese invasion force defeated the Spanish at Montijo, near Badajoz, in 1644. Abroad, the Dutch took Portuguese Malacca, the Sultan of Oman captured Muscat; the Portuguese, despite having to divide their forces among Europe and Africa, managed to retake Luanda, in Portuguese Angola, from the Dutch in 1648 and, by 1654, had recovered northern Brazil, which ceased to be a Dutch colony. This was countered by the loss of Portuguese Ceylon to the Dutch, who took Colombo in 1656. King John IV died in 1656 and was succeeded by his son Afonso VI, his daughter, Catherine of Braganza, married King Charles II of England. John was a patron of music and the arts, a sophisticated writer on music. During his reign he collected one of the largest libraries in the world, but it was destroyed in the Lisbon earthquake of 1755. Among his writings is a defense of Palestrina, a Defense of Modern Music.
One famous composition attributed to him is a setting of the Crux fidelis, a work that remains popular during Holy Week amongst church choirs. However, no known manuscript of the work exists, it was first published only in 1869, in France. On stylistic grounds, it is recognized that the work was written in the 19th century. 19 March 1604 – 29 November 1630: His Lordship Dom John of Braganza 29 November 1630 – 1 December 1640: His Excellency The Most Serene Duke of Braganza 1 December 1640 – 6 November 1656: His Majesty The KingJohn's full style as King of Portugal was: By the Grace of God, John IV, King of Portugal and the Algarves before and beyond the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of Conquest and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia and India, etc. John married Luisa de Guzmán, daughter of Juan Manuel Pérez de Guzmán, 8th Duke of Medina-Sidonia. From that marriage several children were born; because some of John's children were born and died before their father became king they are not considered infantes or infantas of Portugal.
Sousa, António Caetano de. História genealógica da Casa Real portuguesa. VII. Lisbon: Silviana. Free scores by John IV of Portugal in the Choral Public Domain Library (Chor
São Paulo (state)
São Paulo is one of the 26 states of the Federative Republic of Brazil and is named after Saint Paul of Tarsus. As the richest Brazilian state and a major industrial complex dubbed the "locomotive of Brazil", the state is responsible for 33.9% of the Brazilian GDP. São Paulo has the second highest Human Development Index and GDP per capita, the fourth lowest infant mortality rate, the third highest life expectancy, the third lowest rate of illiteracy among the federative units of Brazil, being by far, the safest state in the country; the homicide rate is 3.8 per 100 thousand as of 2018 1/4 of the Brazilian rate. São Paulo alone is richer than Argentina, Uruguay and Bolivia combined. If São Paulo were an independent country, its nominal GDP would be ranked among the top 20 in the world; the economy of São Paulo State is the most developed in Brazil. With more than 45 million inhabitants in 2017, São Paulo is the most populous Brazilian state, the most populous national subdivision in the Americas, the third most populous political unit of South America, surpassed only by the rest of the Brazilian Federation and Colombia.
The local population is one of the most diverse in the country and descended from Italians, who began immigrating to the country in the late 19th century. In addition, Germans, Japanese and Greeks are present in the ethnic composition of the local population; the area that today corresponds to the state territory was inhabited by indigenous peoples from 12,000 BC. In the early 16th century, the coast of the region was visited by Portuguese and Spanish explorers and navigators. In 1532 Martim Afonso de Sousa would establish the first Portuguese permanent settlement in the Americas—the village of São Vicente, in the Baixada Santista. In the 17th century, the paulistas bandeirantes intensified the exploration of the interior of the colony, which expanded the territorial domain of Portugal and the Portuguese Empire in South America. In the 18th century, after the establishment of the Province of São Paulo, the region began to gain political weight. After independence in 1820, São Paulo began to become a major agricultural producer in the newly constituted Empire of Brazil, which created a rich regional rural oligarchy, which would switch on the command of the Brazilian government with Minas Gerais's elites during the early republican period in the 1880s.
Under the Vargas Era, the state was one of the first to initiate a process of industrialization and its population became one of the most urban of the federation. The city of São Paulo, the homonymous state capital, is ranked as the world's 12th largest city and its metropolitan area, with 20 million inhabitants, is the 9th largest in the world and second in the Americas, after Greater Mexico City. Regions near the city of São Paulo are metropolitan areas, such as Campinas, Sorocaba and São José dos Campos; the total population of these areas coupled with the state capital—the so-called "Expanded Metropolitan Complex of São Paulo"—exceeds 30 million inhabitants, i.e. 75 percent of the population of São Paulo statewide, the first macro-metropolis in the southern hemisphere, joining 65 municipalities that together are home to 12 percent of the Brazilian population. In pre-European times, the area, now São Paulo state was occupied by the Tupi people's nation, who subsisted through hunting and cultivation.
The first European to settle in the area was João Ramalho, a Portuguese sailor who may have been shipwrecked around 1510, ten years after the first Portuguese landfall in Brazil. He became a settler. In 1532, the first colonial expedition, led by Martim Afonso de Sousa of Portugal, landed at São Vicente. De Sousa added Ramalho's settlement to his colony. Early European colonisation of Brazil was limited. Portugal was more interested in Asia, but with English and French raiding privateer ships just off the coast, the territory had to be protected. Unwilling to shoulder the burden of naval defence himself, the Portuguese ruler, King Joao III, divided the coast into "captaincies", or swathes of land, 50 leagues apart, he distributed them among well-connected Portuguese. The early port and sugar-cultivating settlement of São Vicente was one rare success connected to this policy. In 1548, João III brought Brazil under direct royal control. Fearing Indian attack, he discouraged development of the territory's vast interior.
Some whites headed nonetheless for Piratininga, a plateau near São Vicente, drawn by its navigable rivers and agricultural potential. Borda do Campo, the plateau settlement, became an official town in 1553; the history of São Paulo city proper begins with the founding of a Jesuit mission of the Roman Catholic order of clergy on January 25, 1554—the anniversary of Saint Paul's conversion. The station, at the heart of the current city, was named São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga. In 1560, the threat of Indian attack led many to flee from the exposed Santo André da Borda do Campo to the walled fortified Colegio. Two years the Colégio was besieged. Though the town survived, fighting took place sporadically for another three decades. By 1600, the town had about 1,500 citizens and 150 household
Kingdom of Portugal
The Kingdom of Portugal was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of modern Portugal. It was in existence from 1139 until 1910. After 1415, it was known as the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, between 1815 and 1822, it was known as the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves; the name is often applied to the Portuguese Empire, the realm's extensive overseas colonies. The nucleus of the Portuguese state was the County of Portugal, established in the 9th century as part of the Reconquista, by Vímara Peres, a vassal of the King of Asturias; the county became part of the Kingdom of León in 1097, the Counts of Portugal established themselves as rulers of an independent kingdom in the 12th century, following the battle of São Mamede. The kingdom was ruled by the Alfonsine Dynasty until the 1383–85 Crisis, after which the monarchy passed to the House of Aviz. During the 15th and 16th century, Portuguese exploration established a vast colonial empire. From 1580 to 1640, the Kingdom of Portugal was in personal union with Habsburg Spain.
After the Portuguese Restoration War of 1640–1668, the kingdom passed to the House of Braganza and thereafter to the House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. From this time, the influence of Portugal declined, but it remained a major power due to its most valuable colony, Brazil. After the independence of Brazil, Portugal sought to establish itself in Africa, but was forced to yield to the British interests, leading to the collapse of the monarchy in the 5 October 1910 revolution and the establishment of the First Portuguese Republic. Portugal was a decisive absolute monarchy before 1822, it rotated between absolute and constitutional monarchy from 1822 until 1834, was a decisive constitutional monarchy after 1834. The Kingdom of Portugal finds its origins in the County of Portugal; the Portuguese County was a semi-autonomous county of the Kingdom of León. Independence from León took place in three stages: The first on 26 July 1139 when Afonso Henriques was acclaimed King of the Portuguese internally.
The second was on 5 October 1143, when Alfonso VII of León and Castile recognized Afonso Henriques as king through the Treaty of Zamora. The third, in 1179, was the Papal Bull Manifestis Probatum, in which Portugal's independence was recognized by Pope Alexander III. Once Portugal was independent, D. Afonso I's descendants, members of the Portuguese House of Burgundy, would rule Portugal until 1383. After the change in royal houses, all the monarchs of Portugal were descended from Afonso I, one way or another, through both legitimate and illegitimate links. With the start of the 20th century, Republicanism grew in numbers and support in Lisbon among progressive politicians and the influential press; however a minority with regard to the rest of the country, this height of republicanism would benefit politically from the Lisbon Regicide on 1 February 1908. While returning from the Ducal Palace at Vila Viçosa, King Carlos I and the Prince Royal Luís Filipe were assassinated in the Terreiro do Paço, in Lisbon.
With the death of the King and his heir, Carlos I's second son would become monarch as King Manuel II. Manuel's reign, would be short-lived, ending by force with the 5 October 1910 revolution, sending Manuel into exile in Great Britain and giving way to the Portuguese First Republic. On 19 January 1919, the Monarchy of the North was proclaimed in Porto; the monarchy would be deposed a month and no other monarchist counterrevolution in Portugal has happened since. After the republican revolution in October 1910, the remaining colonies of the empire became overseas provinces of the Portuguese Republic until the late 20th century, when the last overseas territories of Portugal were handed over. Kingdom of Algarve United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves List of titles and honours of the Portuguese Crown Portuguese nobility