Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders. These include various abnormalities related to mood, cognition, initial psychiatric assessment of a person typically begins with a case history and mental status examination. Physical examinations and psychological tests may be conducted, on occasion, neuroimaging or other neurophysiological techniques are used. The fifth edition of the DSM was published in 2013, assertive community treatment, community reinforcement, and supported employment. Treatment may be delivered on an inpatient or outpatient basis, depending on the severity of functional impairment or on aspects of the disorder in question. The term psychiatry was first coined by the German physician Johann Christian Reil in 1808, a medical doctor specializing in psychiatry is a psychiatrist. Psychiatry refers to a field of medicine focused specifically on the mind, aiming to study, prevent and it has been described as an intermediary between the world from a social context and the world from the perspective of those who are mentally ill.
People who specialize in psychiatry often differ from most other health professionals. The discipline studies the operations of different organs and body systems as classified by the subjective experiences. Psychiatry treats mental disorders, which are divided into three very general categories, mental illnesses, severe learning disabilities, and personality disorders. While the focus of psychiatry has changed little over time, the diagnostic and treatment processes have evolved dramatically, since the late 20th century the field of psychiatry has continued to become more biological and less conceptually isolated from other medical fields. Psychiatrists can therefore counsel patients, prescribe medication, order laboratory tests, order neuroimaging, like other purveyors of professional ethics, the World Psychiatric Association issues an ethical code to govern the conduct of psychiatrists. The psychiatric code of ethics, first set forth through the Declaration of Hawaii in 1977, has expanded through a 1983 Vienna update and, in 1996.
The code was revised during the organizations general assembblies in 1999,2002,2005. Discredited psychiatrists who operated outside the norms of medical ethics include Harry Bailey, Donald Ewen Cameron, Samuel A. Cartwright, Henry Cotton, Psychiatric illnesses can be conceptualised in a number of different ways. The biomedical approach examines signs and symptoms and compares them with diagnostic criteria, Mental illness can be assessed, through a narrative which tries to incorporate symptoms into a meaningful life history and to frame them as responses to external conditions. The notion of a model is often used to underline the multifactorial nature of clinical impairment. In this notion the word model is not used in a scientific way though
A university is an institution of higher education and research which grants academic degrees in various academic disciplines. Universities typically provide undergraduate education and postgraduate education, the word university is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, which roughly means community of teachers and scholars. Universities were created in Italy and evolved from Cathedral schools for the clergy during the High Middle Ages, the original Latin word universitas refers in general to a number of persons associated into one body, a society, community, corporation, etc. Like other guilds, they were self-regulating and determined the qualifications of their members, an important idea in the definition of a university is the notion of academic freedom. The first documentary evidence of this comes from early in the life of the first university, the University of Bologna adopted an academic charter, the Constitutio Habita, in 1158 or 1155, which guaranteed the right of a traveling scholar to unhindered passage in the interests of education.
Today this is claimed as the origin of academic freedom and this is now widely recognised internationally - on 18 September 1988,430 university rectors signed the Magna Charta Universitatum, marking the 900th anniversary of Bolognas foundation. The number of universities signing the Magna Charta Universitatum continues to grow, the university is generally regarded as a formal institution that has its origin in the Medieval Christian setting. The earliest universities were developed under the aegis of the Latin Church by papal bull as studia generalia and it is possible, that the development of cathedral schools into universities was quite rare, with the University of Paris being an exception. Later they were founded by Kings or municipal administrations. In the early period, most new universities were founded from pre-existing schools. Many historians state that universities and cathedral schools were a continuation of the interest in learning promoted by monasteries, the first universities in Europe with a form of corporate/guild structure were the University of Bologna, the University of Paris, and the University of Oxford.
The students had all the power … and dominated the masters and leaders of city governments perceived the potential benefits of having a scholarly expertise develop with the ability to address difficult problems and achieve desired ends. The emergence of humanism was essential to understanding of the possible utility of universities as well as the revival of interest in knowledge gained from ancient Greek texts. The rediscovery of Aristotles works–more than 3000 pages of it would eventually be translated–fuelled a spirit of inquiry into natural processes that had begun to emerge in the 12th century. Some scholars believe that these represented one of the most important document discoveries in Western intellectual history. Richard Dales, for instance, calls the discovery of Aristotles works a turning point in the history of Western thought and this became the primary mission of lecturers, and the expectation of students. The university culture developed differently in northern Europe than it did in the south, Latin was the language of the university, used for all texts, lectures and examinations.
Professors lectured on the books of Aristotle for logic, natural philosophy, and metaphysics, while Hippocrates, outside of these commonalities, great differences separated north and south, primarily in subject matter
University of Copenhagen
The University of Copenhagen is the oldest university and research institution in Denmark. Founded in 1479 as a studium generale, it is the second oldest institution for education in Scandinavia after Uppsala University. The university has 23,473 undergraduate students,17,398 postgraduate students,2,968 doctoral students, the university has four campuses located in and around Copenhagen, with the headquarters located in central Copenhagen. Most courses are taught in Danish, many courses are offered in English. The university has several thousands of students, about half of whom come from Nordic countries. The university has had 8 alumni become Nobel laureates and has produced one Turing Award recipient, the rector, the prorector and the director of the university is appointed by the university board. The rector in turn appoints directors of the different parts of the central administration, the deans appoint heads of 50 departments. There is no faculty senate and faculty is not involved in the appointment of rector, hence the university has no faculty governance, although there are elected Academic Boards at faculty level who advise the deans.
The governing body manages a budget of about BDKK8.3. The University is organized into six faculties and about 100 departments, the University employs about 5,600 academic staff and 4,400 technical and administrative staff. The total number of enrolled students is about 40,000 annually, UCPH has established an international graduate talent program which provides grants for international Ph. D, students and a tenure track carrier system. UCPH operates about fifty master’s programmes taught in English, and has arranged about 150 exchange agreements with institutions and 800 Erasmus agreements. Each year there are about 1,700 incoming exchange students,2,000 outbound exchange students and 4,000 international degree-seeking students, about 3,000 Ph. D. students study there each year. South Campus – houses the Faculty of Humanities and a proportion of the Faculty of Science. In the winter of 2016–2017, the Faculty of Law and the Faculty of Theology will move to South Campus, frederiksberg Campus – home to sections of the Faculty of Science and the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences.
The Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences and the Faculty of Science use the Taastrup Campus, the Faculty of Science has facilities in Helsingør, Hørsholm and Nødebo. The University of Copenhagen was founded in 1479 and is the oldest university in Denmark, between the closing of the Studium Generale in Lund in 1536 and the establishment of the University of Aarhus in the late 1920s, it was the only university in Denmark. The university became a centre of Roman Catholic theological learning, but had faculties for the study of law, between 1675 and 1788, the university introduced the concept of degree examinations
X-radiation is a form of electromagnetic radiation. Most X-rays have a wavelength ranging from 0.01 to 10 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz, X-ray wavelengths are shorter than those of UV rays and typically longer than those of gamma rays. Spelling of X-ray in the English language includes the variants x-ray, xray, X-rays with high photon energies are called hard X-rays, while those with lower energy are called soft X-rays. Due to their ability, hard X-rays are widely used to image the inside of objects, e. g. in medical radiography. The term X-ray is metonymically used to refer to an image produced using this method. Since the wavelengths of hard X-rays are similar to the size of atoms they are useful for determining crystal structures by X-ray crystallography. By contrast, soft X-rays are easily absorbed in air, the length of 600 eV X-rays in water is less than 1 micrometer. There is no consensus for a definition distinguishing between X-rays and gamma rays, one common practice is to distinguish between the two types of radiation based on their source, X-rays are emitted by electrons, while gamma rays are emitted by the atomic nucleus.
This definition has problems, other processes can generate these high-energy photons. One common alternative is to distinguish X- and gamma radiation on the basis of wavelength, with radiation shorter than some arbitrary wavelength, such as 10−11 m and this criterion assigns a photon to an unambiguous category, but is only possible if wavelength is known. Occasionally, one term or the other is used in specific contexts due to precedent, based on measurement technique. Thus, gamma-rays generated for medical and industrial uses, for radiotherapy, in the ranges of 6–20 MeV. X-ray photons carry enough energy to ionize atoms and disrupt molecular bonds and this makes it a type of ionizing radiation, and therefore harmful to living tissue. A very high radiation dose over a period of time causes radiation sickness. In medical imaging this increased risk is generally greatly outweighed by the benefits of the examination. The ionizing capability of X-rays can be utilized in treatment to kill malignant cells using radiation therapy.
It is used for material characterization using X-ray spectroscopy, hard X-rays can traverse relatively thick objects without being much absorbed or scattered. For this reason, X-rays are widely used to image the inside of visually opaque objects, the most often seen applications are in medical radiography and airport security scanners, but similar techniques are important in industry and research
A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment. The best-known type of hospital is the hospital, which typically has an emergency department to treat urgent health problems ranging from fire. A district hospital typically is the health care facility in its region, with large numbers of beds for intensive care. Specialised hospitals can help reduce health care costs compared to general hospitals, a teaching hospital combines assistance to people with teaching to medical students and nurses. The medical facility smaller than a hospital is called a clinic. Hospitals have a range of departments and specialist units such as cardiology, some hospitals have outpatient departments and some have chronic treatment units. Common support units include a pharmacy and radiology, Hospitals are usually funded by the public sector, by health organisations, by health insurance companies, or by charities, including direct charitable donations.
Historically, hospitals were founded and funded by religious orders, or by charitable individuals. During the Middle Ages, hospitals served different functions from modern institutions, Middle Ages hospitals were almshouses for the poor, hostels for pilgrims, or hospital schools. The word hospital comes from the Latin hospes, signifying a stranger or foreigner, another noun derived from this, hospitium came to signify hospitality, that is the relation between guest and shelterer, hospitality and hospitable reception. By metonymy the Latin word came to mean a guest-chamber, guests lodging, hospes is thus the root for the English words host hospitality, hospice and hotel. The German word Spital shares similar roots, the grammar of the word differs slightly depending on the dialect. Some patients go to a hospital just for diagnosis, treatment, or therapy and leave without staying overnight, while others are admitted and stay overnight or for several days or weeks or months. Hospitals usually are distinguished from other types of facilities by their ability to admit and care for inpatients whilst the others.
Larger cities may have several hospitals of varying sizes and facilities, some hospitals, especially in the United States and Canada, have their own ambulance service. A district hospital typically is the health care facility in its region, with large numbers of beds for intensive care. In California, district hospital refers specifically to a class of healthcare facility created shortly after World War II to address a shortage of beds in many local communities. Twenty-eight of Californias rural hospitals and 20 of its critical-access hospitals are District hospitals, Californias District hospitals are formed by local municipalities, have Boards that are individually elected by their local communities, and exist to serve local needs
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Region Hovedstadens Psykiatri
Region Hovedstadens Psykiatri is a psychiatric hospital with centers spread all around the capital region of Denmark, mainly consisting of Copenhagen, northern Zealand, and Bornholm. Hospitals in Denmark are run by the regions which came into effect with the municipal reform on January 1,2007. Hans Hospital in Roskilde does not geographically sort under Region Hovedstaden, Region Hovedstadens Psykiatri has about 5,000 employees, and treats about 35,000 patients with mental disorders each year, which is about 40% of the total psychiatric treatment given in Denmark. Region Hovedstadens Psykiatri is divided into mental health centres, each taking patients from their geographical areas and these are Mental Health Centre Amager, Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, Mental Health Centre Frederiksberg, Mental Health Centre Hvidovre, Mental Health Centre Sct. Hans, Mental Health Centre Ballerup, Mental Health Centre Bornholm, Mental Health Centre Gentofte, Mental Health Centre Glostrup, in addition, there are individual mental health centres for children and adolescents in Bispebjerg and Hillerød.
All of these centers have community health centers, and many of them have teams for assertive community treatment as well. Opus teams for early detection and intensive management of young psychotic patients were established in Århus. It started as a controlled trial and has now become part of the Danish standard treatment program. This involves psychopathological, neuropsychological, and psychophysiological tests and MRI, SPECT, CNSR was the first group to show the association between dopamine receptors and psychotic symptoms in patients with recent-onset schizophrenia. The hospital is a hospital for medical students from Copenhagen University. Region Hovedstadens Psykiatri National Opus site Opus in Copenhagen CapOpus Center for Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research
Capital Region of Denmark
At the same time, smaller municipalities were merged into larger units, cutting the number of municipalities from 271 before 1 January 2006, when Ærø Municipality was created, to 98. The reform was implemented on January 1,2007, the main task for the Danish regions are hospitals and healthcare. So its not to be confused with Copenhagen Metropolitan Area nor with the Øresund Region, the Capital Region of Denmark consists of the municipalities of Copenhagen and Frederiksberg, the former counties of Copenhagen and Frederiksborg, and the regional municipality of Bornholm. In Danish the name is Region Hovedstaden, which is one of five regions in Denmark, before 2007, a Danish Capital Region, did exist, but it did not cover exactly the same area and did not have the same legal function. The primary function of Capital Region of Denmark, as all the regions of Denmark, is to own. Note that the region is not a district in the US or Australian meaning of the term. The region does not include the Ertholmene archipelago which are situated to the northeast of Bornholm, the following hospitals sort under Capital Region of Denmark.
Hans Hospital in Roskilde There are 29 municipalities in the Capital Region of Denmark, Regions of Denmark North Zealand Media related to Region Hovedstaden at Wikimedia Commons
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Amager is a Danish island in the Øresund. The Danish capital, Copenhagen, is situated on Amager. Amager has a connection across the Øresund to Sweden, the Øresund Bridge and its western part begins with a tunnel from Amager to another Danish island, Peberholm. Copenhagen Airport is located on the island, around 7 km from Copenhagen city centre, Amager is the largest island in the Øresund, and the only one with a large population. As of 2016,192,709 people live on the island, including its northern tip, the northern part is included in the Copenhagen municipality. The middle part comprises Tårnby municipality, and Dragør municipality is located on the southeast part of the island, most of the western part is land that was reclaimed from the sea from the 1930s-1950s. This enlargement, from the sound towards Zealand, is known as Kalveboderne. The enlargement has never been built-up and its soil isnt suitable for agricultural use, however the area between Dragør town and the airport is cultivated land of high quality.
Amager has in the past been referred to as the kitchen of Copenhagen, at the border of the enlargement there is an old beech forest, Kongelunden. Amager has long been populated, and well used, thanks to its rich soil, in 1521, Christian II invited some Dutch farmers to move to Amager and grow vegetables to supply the Danish Court and Copenhagen. It was only in the late 19th century that Copenhagen began to expand onto the island, the area houses such major facilities as the Bella Center, a convention and exposition center, and Fields, the second-largest shopping center in Scandinavia. This project was initiated by the Danish government, the beach area to the east of the island, known as Amager Strandpark, which had fallen into disrepair since its inception in the 1930s, was extensively redeveloped between May 2004 and August 2005. A 2-km-long artificial island, was constructed just off the mainland from which it is separated by a small lagoon, until the 1970s, Amager was used as a place to dump litter, this led to a slang term for the island Lorteøen.
Large parts of Kalvebod Fælled are rich in nature and have many grazing cows and this area allows the citizens of Copenhagen to experience nature, without travelling far from the city. Amager is home to the Amager Bio, a cinema, top bands from the last 40 years have played there, both those of international origin and from Denmark. Various communities are located on Amager, including Islands Brygge, and the towns of Dragør, the Øresund Bridge connects Sweden to Denmark at Amager. The construction of the bridge has had a significant impact on the geography of the island. The Copenhagen Metro connects Amager to central Copenhagen, the metro line from Vanløse to Amager divides into M1 and M2 lines at Christianshavn and continue to Vestamager and Lufthavnen
A helipad is a landing area or platform for helicopters and powered lift aircraft. Larger helipads, intended for use by helicopters and other vertical take-off and landing aircraft, an example is Vertiport Chicago, which opened in 2015. Helipads may be located at a heliport or airport where fuel, air traffic control, some basic helipads are built on highrise buildings for evacuation in case of a major fire outbreak. Major police departments may use a dedicated helipad at heliports as a base for police helicopters, large ships and oil platforms usually have a helipad on board for emergency use. In such a case, the term helideck or helodeck has been used in the meaning of a helipad on board. In urban environments, these heliports are typically located on the roof of the hospital, rooftop helipads sometimes display a large two-digit number, representing the weight limit of the pad. In addition, a number may be present, representing the maximum rotor diameter in feet. Location identifiers are often, but not always, issued for helipads and they may be issued by the appropriate aviation authority.
Some helipads may have location identifiers from multiple sources, and these identifiers may be of different format, helipads are usually constructed out of concrete and are marked with a circle and/or a letter H, so as to be visible from the air. However, they are not always constructed out of concrete, sometimes wildfire fighters will construct a temporary helipad out of timbers to receive supplies in remote areas, rig mats may be used to build helipads. Landing pads may be constructed in extreme conditions such as on ice, the worlds highest helipad, built by India, is located on the Siachen Glacier at a height of 21,000 feet above sea level. The worlds largest heliport is in Morgan City and has a total of 46 helipads, used mostly to support offshore oil platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. A portable helipad is a structure with a rugged frame that can be used to land helicopters in any areas with slopes of up to 30 degrees, such as hillsides, riverbeds. Portable helipads can be transported by helicopter or powered-lift to place them where a VTOL needs to land, helicopter deck Heliport de Voogt, A. J