Amaury VI of Montfort
Amaury VI de Montfort was the son of the elder Simon de Montfort and Alice of Montmorency, the brother of the younger Simon de Montfort. His father departed on the Albigensian Crusade in 1209, it is unknown when Amaury joined him in the south, but he could arrive in spring 1210, when his mother came there bringing reinforcements for his father. He was knighted on 24 June 1213 in Castelnaudary in the course of a solemn ceremony and continued to fight under his father's command until his death at Toulouse on 25 June 1218; as his father's successor, he inherited the County of Toulouse and other titles and lands in Languedoc. In 1224, he ceded his titles and lands in Languedoc to King Louis VIII. In exchange, Montfort-l'Amaury was elevated to a county, several years in 1230, Amaury succeeded his uncle Mathieu II of Montmorency as Constable of France, his father inherited the county of Leicester from his mother, Amicie de Beaumont, daughter of Robert III de Beaumont. After his death, Amaury became count of Leicester, but, as a liegeman of the French king, he could not be a vassal of the King of England at the same time.
By 1230, Amaury and Simon, his only surviving brother, decided to split their father's inheritance: Amaury would retain Montfort-l'Amaury in France, Simon would receive Leicester in England. However, the affair lasted for a decade: only on 11 April 1239 Amaury renounced his rights in England, King Henry III recognised Simon as earl of Leicester. In 1239 he departed for the Holy Land on a Barons' Crusade with Theobald I of Navarre, Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy and many other prominent nobles of the realm; the King Louis IX did not go on crusade, but gave the expedition a royal character by permitting Amaury to carry the Fleur-de-lys. On 13 November 1239, he was taken prisoner during a disastrous battle under Henry of Bar at Gaza, during which Henry was killed, led to Egypt with six hundred other prisoners, he spent the next 18 months in the dungeons of Cairo where he was treated more than the other prisoners because he would not tell the sultan who were the other prisoners. He was freed on 23 April 1241, along with other French prisoners, after the crusaders under Richard of Cornwall and the sultan of Egypt have concluded an alliance against the sultan of Damascus.
He died in Otranto the same year on his way home and was buried, at the Pope's order, in St. Peter's Basilica. Amaury was married to Beatrix, daughter of Guigues VI of Viennois, was the father of: Jean I, married to Jeanne, Lady of Châteaudun Marguerite, married to John III, Count of Soissons Laure, married to Fernando II, Count of Aumale Adela, married to Simon of Nesle Pernelle, abbess of Port-Royal-des-Champs
Mathieu Amalric is a French actor and filmmaker. He is best known internationally for his performance as the lead villain in the James Bond film Quantum of Solace, his performance in Steven Spielberg's Munich, for his role in The Diving Bell and the Butterfly, for which he drew critical acclaim, he has won several César Awards and the Lumières Award. Amalric was born in Neuilly-sur-Seine, a suburb of Paris, the son of journalists Nicole Zand, a literary critic for Le Monde, Jacques Amalric, who has worked as a foreign affairs editor for Le Monde and Libération. Amalric's father is French while his mother was born in Poland, to Jewish parents, moved to France at the outbreak of World War II. Amalric first gained fame in the film Ma Vie Sexuelle, he was selected to play the James Bond villain Dominic Greene alongside Daniel Craig in the 2008 film Quantum of Solace. In 2007, he starred in the critically acclaimed movie Le Scaphandre et le Papillon, to critical praise, his 2010 film, On Tour, premiered at the 2010 Cannes Film Festival and won Amalric the Best Director Award.
The 2014 film The Blue Room, which he directed and starred in, was selected to compete in the Un Certain Regard section at the 2014 Cannes Film Festival. Amalric has three sons, two with his ex-wife Jeanne Balibar, one with his girlfriend, a writer, with whom he lives in the Belleville neighbourhood of Paris, he is an emphatic supporter of Girondins de Bordeaux. Mathieu Amalric on IMDb
Aimery of Cyprus
Aimery of Lusignan, erroneously referred to as Amalric or Amaury in earlier scholarship, was the first King of Cyprus, reigning from 1196 to his death. He reigned as King of Jerusalem from his marriage to Isabella I in 1197 to his death, he was the younger son of Hugh VIII of a nobleman in Poitou. After participating in a rebellion against Henry II of England in 1168, he went to the Holy Land and settled in the Kingdom of Jerusalem, his marriage to Eschiva of Ibelin strengthened his position in the kingdom. His younger brother, married Sibylla, the sister of and heir to Baldwin IV of Jerusalem. Baldwin made Aimery Constable of Jerusalem around 1180, he was one of the commanders of the Christian army in the Battle of Hattin, which ended with decisive defeat at the hands of the army of Saladin, the Ayyubid sultan of Egypt and Syria, on 4 July 1187. Aimery supported his brother, Guy after Guy had lost his claim to the Kingdom of Jerusalem according to most barons of the realm, because of the death of Sibylla and their two daughters.
The new king of Jerusalem, Henry of Champagne, arrested him for a short period. After his release, he retired to Jaffa, the fief of his elder brother, Geoffrey of Lusignan, who had left the Holy Land. After Guy died in May 1194, his vassals in Cyprus elected Aimery as their lord, he accepted the suzerainty of the Holy Roman Emperor, Henry VI. With the emperor's authorization, Aimery was crowned King of Cyprus in September 1197, he soon married Henry of Isabella I of Jerusalem. He and his wife were crowned king and queen of Jerusalem in January 1198, he signed a truce with Al-Adil I, the Ayyubid sultan of Egypt, which secured the Christian possession of the coastline from Acre to Antioch. His rule was a period of stability in both of his realms. Aimery was born before 1155, he was the fifth son of his wife, Burgundia of Rancon. His family had been noted for generations of crusaders in their native Poitou, his great-grandfather, Hugh VI of Lusignan, died in the Battle of Ramla in 1102. Aimery's father came to the Holy Land and died in a Muslim prison in the 1160s.
Earlier scholarship erroneously referred to him as Amalric, but documentary evidence shows he was called Aimericus, a distinct name. Runciman and other modern historians erroneously refer to him as Amalric II of Jerusalem, because they confused his name with that of Amalric "I" of Jerusalem. Aimery joined a rebellion against Henry II of England in 1168, according to Robert of Torigni's chronicle, but Henry crushed the rebellion. Aimery left for the Holy Land and settled in the Kingdom of Jerusalem, he was held in captivity in Damascus. A popular tradition held, the king of Jerusalem, ransomed him personally. Ernoul claimed, Agnes of Courtenay. Aimery married Eschiva of Ibelin, a daughter of Baldwin of Ibelin, one of the most powerful noblemen in the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Amalric of Jerusalem, who died on 11 July 1174, was succeeded by his thirteen-year-old son by Agnes of Courtenay, Baldwin IV who suffered from leprosy. Aimery became the member of the royal court with his father-in-law's support.
Aimery's youngest brother, married Baldwin IV's widowed sister, Sibylla, in April 1180. Ernoul wrote, it was Aimery who had spoken of his brother to her and her mother, Agnes of Courtenay, describing him as a handsome and charming young man. Aimery, continued Ernoul, hurried back to Poitou and persuaded Guy to come to the kingdom, although Sibylla had promised herself to Aimery's father-in-law. Another source, William of Tyre, did not mention that Aimery had played any role in the marriage of his brother and the king's sister. Many elements of Ernoul's report were most invented. Aimery was first mentioned as Constable of Jerusalem on 24 February 1182. According to Steven Runciman and Malcolm Barber, he had been granted the office shortly after his predecessor, Humphrey II of Toron, died in April 1179. Historian Bernard Hamilton writes, Aimery's appointment was the consequence of the growing influence of his brother and he was appointed only around 1181. Saladin, the Ayyubid sultan of Egypt and Syria, launched a campaign against the Kingdom of Jerusalem on 29 September 1183.
Aimery defeated the sultan's troops in a minor skirmish with the support of his father-in-law and his brother, Balian of Ibelin. After the victory, the crusaders' main army could advance as far as a spring near Saladin's camp, forcing him to retreat nine days later. During the campaign, it turned out that most barons of the realm were unwilling to cooperate with Aimery's brother, the designated heir to Baldwin IV; the ailing king dismissed Guy and made his five-year-old nephew, Baldwin V, his co-ruler on 20 November 1183. In early 1185, Baldwin IV decreed that the pope, the Holy Roman Emperor and the kings of France and England were to be approached to choose between his sister and their half-sister, Isabella, if Baldwin V died before reaching the age of majority; the leper king died in April or May 1185, his nephew in late summer of 1186. Ignoring Baldwin IV's decree, Sybilla was proclaimed queen by her supporters and she crowned her husband, king. Aimery was not l
Amalaric, or in Spanish and Portuguese, was king of the Visigoths from 511 until his death in battle in 531. He was his first wife Theodegotha, daughter of Theoderic the Great; when Alaric II was killed fighting Clovis I, king of the Franks, in the Battle of Vouillé, his kingdom fell into disarray. "More serious than the destruction of the Gothic army," writes Herwig Wolfram, "than the loss of both Aquitanian provinces and the capital of Toulose, was the death of the king." Alaric had made no provision for a successor, although he had two sons, one was of age but illegitimate and the other, the offspring of a legal marriage but still a child. Amalaric was carried for safety into Spain, which country and Provence were thenceforth ruled by his maternal grandfather, Theodoric the Great, acting through his vice-gerent, an Ostrogothic nobleman named Theudis; the older son, was chosen king but his reign was disastrous. King Theoderic of the Ostrogoths sent an army, led by his sword-bearer Theudis, against Gesalec, ostensibly on behalf of Amalaric.
The Ostrogoths drove back the Franks and their Burgundian allies, regaining possession of "the south of Novempopulana, Rodez even Albi, Toulose". Following the 511 death of Clovis, Theoderic negotiated a peace with Clovis' successors, securing Visigothic control of the southernmost portion of Gaul for the rest of the existence of their kingdom. In 522 the young Amalaric was proclaimed king, four years on Theoderic's death, he assumed full royal power, although relinquishing Provence to his cousin Athalaric, his kingdom was faced with a threat from the north from the Franks. However, this was not successful, for according to Gregory of Tours, Amalaric pressured her to forsake her Roman Catholic faith and convert to Arian Christianity, at one point beating her until she bled, it is worth noting Ian Wood's advice that although Gregory provides the fullest information for this period, where it touches Merovingian affairs, he "allowed his religious bias to determine his interpretation of the events."
Peter Heather agrees with Wood's implication in this instance: "I doubt that this is the full story, but the effects of Frankish intervention are clear enough."Childebert defeated the Visigothic army and took Narbonne. Amalaric fled south to Barcelona, where according to Isidore of Seville, he was assassinated by his own men. According to Peter Heather, Theoderic's former governor Theudis was implicated in Amalaric's murder, "and was its prime beneficiary." As for Chrotilda, in Gregory's words she died on the journey home "by some ill chance". Childebert had her body brought to Paris. Media related to Amalarico at Wikimedia Commons Edward Gibbon, History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Chapter 39
Amalric of Bena
Amalric of Bena was a French theologian and sect leader, after whom the Amalricians are named. Amalric was born in the latter part of the 12th century at Bennes, a village between Ollé and Chauffours in the diocese of Chartres. Amalric taught philosophy and theology at the University of Paris and enjoyed a great reputation as a subtle dialectician. In 1204 his doctrines were condemned by the university and, on a personal appeal to Pope Innocent III, the sentence was ratified, Amalric being ordered to return to Paris and recant his errors, his death was caused, by grief at the humiliation to which he had been subjected. In 1209, ten of his followers were burnt before the gates of Paris and Amalric's own body was exhumed and burnt and the ashes given to the winds; the doctrines of his followers, known as the Amalricians, were formally condemned by the fourth Lateran Council in 1215. Amalric appears to have derived his philosophical system from Eriugena, whose principles he developed in a one-sided and pantheistic form.
Three propositions only can with certainty be attributed to him: that God is all and thus all things are one because whatever is, is God. Because of the first proposition, God himself is thought as invisible and only recognizable in his creation; these three propositions were further developed by his followers, who maintained that God revealed Himself in a threefold revelation, the first in the Biblical patriarch Abraham, marking the epoch of the Father. Amalricians taught: Hell is ignorance, therefore Hell is within all men, "like a bad tooth in a mouth". There is no other life. Due to persecutions, this sect does not appear to have long survived the death of its founder. Not long after the burning of ten of their members, the sect itself lost its importance, while some of the surviving Amalricians became Brethren of the Free Spirit. According to Hosea Ballou Pierre Batiffol and George T. Knight Amalric was a believer that all people would be saved and this was one of the counts upon which he was declared a heretic by Pope Innocent III.
Brethren of the Free Spirit Attribution: This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Amalric, of Bena". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1. Cambridge University Press; this cites: W. Preger, Geschichte der deutschen Mystik im Mittelalter Hauréau, Histoire de la phil. scol. C. Schmidt, Histoire de l'Église d'Occident pendant le moyen âge Hefele, Conciliengeschichte Christoph Ulrich Hahn: Geschichte der Ketzer im Mittelalter, Vol. 3 Arno Borst: Religiöse und geistige Bewegungen im Hochmittelalter, Propyläen Weltgeschichte, Ullstein 1963, Vol. 5, p. 537 Friedrich Heer Medieval World Europe 1100-1350 Capelle, G. C. Amaury de Bène, étude sur son panthéisme formel. Russell, J. B; the Influence of Amalric of Bene in Thirteenth Century Pantheism
Andrei Alekseevich Amalrik, alternatively spelled Andrei or Andrey, was a Russian writer and dissident. Amalrik was best known in the Western world for his essay, Will the Soviet Union Survive Until 1984? Amalrik was born during the time of Joseph Stalin's purges; when the Soviet revolution broke out, Andrei's father a young man, volunteered for the Red Army. After the war he went into the film industry. Andrei's father fought in World War II in the Northern Fleet and the Red Army, he was overheard uttering negative views about Stalin's qualities as a military leader, which led to his arrest and imprisonment. In 1942 he was invalided out of the service. Andrei's father's hardships explain Andrei's decision to become a historian. For his father, after climbing the educational ladder, was after the war refused permission to study at the Academy of Sciences' Institute of History on account of what authorities felt was his own compromised political past, but as historian John Keep wrote: "Andrei has gone one better by not only writing history but by securing a place in it."Andrei's father developed a serious heart condition which required constant nursing.
This care was provided first by his wife, on her death from cancer in 1959 by his son Andrei, until Andrei's arrest prevented him from ministering to his father's needs. He died. In high school, Andrei Amalrik was truant, he was expelled a year before graduation. Despite this, he won admission to the history department at Moscow State University in 1959. In 1963, he angered the university with a dissertation suggesting that Scandinavian warrior-traders and Greeks, rather than Slavs, played the principal role in developing the early Russian state in the ninth century. Amalrik was expelled from Moscow University. Without a degree, Amalrik did odd jobs and wrote five unpublished plays but was soon under the gaze of the security police for an attempt to contact a Danish scholar through the Danish Embassy, he became close to the unofficial youth literary group SMOG. Amalrik's plays and an interest in modern non-representational art led to Amalrik's first arrest in May 1965. A charge of spreading pornography failed because the expert witnesses called by the prosecution refused to give the correct testimony.
However, the authorities accused Amalrik of "parasitism," and he was sentenced by an administrative tribunal to banishment in western Siberia for a two-and-a-half-year term. He was freed and rearrested and sent to exile in a farm village near Tomsk, in Siberia. Allowed to make a brief trip to Moscow after the death of his father, Amalrik persuaded Tatar expressionist artist, Gyuzel Makudinova, to marry him and share his exile, it was this exile. Thanks to the efforts of his lawyer, his sentence was overturned in 1966 and Amalrik returned to Moscow, moving with Gyuzel into a crowded communal apartment with one bath, one kitchen, one telephone. During the trial of writers Andrei Sinyavsky and Yuli Daniel in February 1966, Amalrik and other dissenters stood outside of the trial to protest. Amalrik met with foreign correspondents to relay protests, took part in vigils outside courthouses and gave an interview to an American television reporter. After the invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968, pressure on Russia's intellectuals was stepped up by the authorities.
Amalrik's apartment was twice searched, in May 1969 and February 1970. Amalrik was best known in the Western world for his essay Will the Soviet Union Survive Until 1984?, published in 1970. The book predicts the country's eventual breakup under the weight of social and ethnic antagonisms and a disastrous war with China. Writing in 1969, Amalrik wanted to make 1980 as the date of the Soviet downfall, because 1980 was a round number, but Amalrik was persuaded by a friend to change it to the Orwellian inspired year of 1984. Amalrik predicted the collapse of the regime would occur between 1980 and 1985. Amalrik said in his book: I must emphasize that my essay is based not on scholarly research but only on observation. From an academic point of view, it may appear to be only empty chatter, but for Western students of the Soviet Union, at any rate, this discussion should have the same interest that a fish would have for an ichthyologist if it began to talk. Amalrik was incorrect in some of his predictions, such as a coming military collision with China, the collapse of the Soviet Union occurred in 1991, not 1984.
He failed to predict that he himself would not survive 1980. Correct was his argument that: If...one views the present "liberalization" as the growing decrepitude of the regime rather than its regeneration the logical result will be its death, which will be followed by anarchy." Amalrik predicted. Either power would pass to extremist elements and the country would "disintegrate into anarchy and intense national hatred," or the end would come peacefully and lead to a federation like the British Commonwealth or the European Common Market; as 1984 drew nearer, Amalrik revised the timetable but still predicted that the Soviet Union would collapse. Predictions of the Soviet Union's impending demise were discounted by many, if not most, Western academic specialists, had little impact on mainstream Sovietology. "Amalrik's essay was welcomed as a piece of brilliant literature in the West" but "irtu
Amalric of Jerusalem
Amalric was King of Jerusalem from 1163, Count of Jaffa and Ascalon before his accession. He was the second son of Melisende and Fulk of Jerusalem, succeeded his older brother Baldwin III. During his reign, Jerusalem became more allied with the Byzantine Empire, the two states launched an unsuccessful invasion of Egypt. Meanwhile, the Muslim territories surrounding Jerusalem began to be united under Nur ad-Din and Saladin, he was the father of three future rulers of Jerusalem, Baldwin IV, Isabella I. Older scholarship mistook the two names Amalric and Aimery as variant spellings of the same name, so these historians erroneously added numbers, making Amalric to be Amalric I and King Aimery to be "Amalric II". Now scholars recognize that the two names were not the same and no longer add the number for either king. Confusion between the two names was common among contemporaries. Amalric was born in 1136 to King Fulk, the former count of Anjou married to the heiress of the kingdom, Queen Melisende.
After the death of Fulk in a hunting accident in 1143, the throne passed jointly to Melisende and Amalric's older brother Baldwin III, still only 13 years old. Melisende did not step down when Baldwin came of age two years and by 1150 the two were becoming hostile towards each other. In 1152 Baldwin had himself crowned sole king, civil war broke out, with Melisende retaining Jerusalem while Baldwin held territory further north. Amalric, given the County of Jaffa as an apanage when he reached the age of majority in 1151, remained loyal to Melisende in Jerusalem, when Baldwin invaded the south, Amalric was besieged in the Tower of David with his mother. Melisende was defeated in this struggle and Baldwin ruled alone thereafter. In 1153 Baldwin captured the Egyptian fortress of Ascalon, added to Amalric's fief of Jaffa. Amalric married Agnes of Courtenay in 1157. Agnes, daughter of Joscelin II of Edessa, had lived in Jerusalem since the western regions of the former crusader County of Edessa were lost in 1150.
Patriarch Fulcher objected to the marriage on grounds of consanguinity, as the two shared a great-great-grandfather, Guy I of Montlhéry, it seems that they waited until Fulcher's death to marry. Agnes bore Amalric three children: Sibylla, the future Baldwin IV, Alix, who died in childhood. Baldwin III died on 10 February 1163 and the kingdom passed to Amalric, although there was some opposition among the nobility to Agnes; the hostility to Agnes, it must be admitted, may be exaggerated by the chronicler William of Tyre, whom she prevented from becoming Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem decades as well as from William's continuators like Ernoul, who hints at a slight on her moral character: "car telle n'est que roine doie iestre di si haute cite comme de Jherusalem". Consanguinity was enough for the opposition. Amalric agreed and ascended the throne without a wife, although Agnes continued to hold the title Countess of Jaffa and Ascalon and received a pension from that fief's income. Agnes soon thereafter married Hugh of Ibelin, to whom she had been engaged before her marriage with Amalric.
The church ruled that Amalric and Agnes' children were legitimate and preserved their place in the order of succession. Through her children Agnes would exert much influence in Jerusalem for 20 years. During Baldwin III's reign, the County of Edessa, the first crusader state established during the First Crusade, was conquered by Zengi, the Turkic emir of Aleppo. Zengi united Aleppo and other cities of northern Syria, intended to impose his control on Damascus in the south; the Second Crusade in 1148 had failed to conquer Damascus, which soon fell to Zengi's son Nur ad-Din. Jerusalem lost influence to Byzantium in northern Syria when the Empire imposed its suzerainty over the Principality of Antioch. Jerusalem thus turned its attention to Egypt, where the Fatimid dynasty was suffering from a series of young caliphs and civil wars; the crusaders had wanted to conquer Egypt since the days of Baldwin I, who died during an expedition there. The capture of Ascalon by Baldwin III made the conquest of Egypt more feasible.
Amalric led his first expedition into Egypt in 1163, claiming that the Fatimids had not paid the yearly tribute that had begun during the reign of Baldwin III. The vizier, had overthrown the vizier Shawar, marched out to meet Amalric at Pelusium, but was defeated and forced to retreat to Bilbeis; the Egyptians opened up the Nile dams and let the river flood, hoping to prevent Amalric from invading any further. Amalric returned home but Shawar fled to the court of Nur ad-Din, who sent his general Shirkuh to settle the dispute in 1164. In response Dirgham sought help from Amalric, but Shirkuh and Shawar arrived before Amalric could intervene and Dirgham was killed. Shawar, feared that Shirkuh would seize power for himself, he too looked to Amalric for assistance. Amalric returned to Egypt in 1164 and besieged Shirkuh in Bilbeis until Shirkuh retreated to Damascus. Amalric could not follow up on his success in Egypt because Nur ad-Din was active in Syria, having taken Bohemund III of Antioch and Raymond III of Tripoli prisoner at the Battle of Harim during Amalric's absence.
Amalric rushed to take up the regency of Antioch and Tripoli and secured Bohemund's ransom in 1165 (Raymo