Department of Apurímac
Apurímac is a region in southern-central Peru. It is bordered on the east by the Cusco Region, on the west by the Ayacucho Region, on the south by the Arequipa and Ayacucho regions; the region's name originates from the Quechua language and means "where the gods speak" in reference to the many mountains of the region that seem to be talking to each other. The region is divided into 7 provinces, which are composed of 80 districts; the provinces, with their capitals in parenthesis, are: Abancay Andahuaylas Antabamba Aymaraes Chincheros Cotabambas Province Grau According to the 2007 Peru Census, the first language learned by most of the residents was Quechua followed by Spanish. The Quechua varieties spoken in Apurímac are Chanka Quechua; the following table shows the results concerning the language learnt first in the Apurímac Region by province: Little is known about the region's origins, however chroniclers note that the first settlers were formed by tribes of several regions originating among the Quechua and Aymaras.
The Chancas from Choclococha and Huancavelica, settled in the region of Andahuaylas. This group of tribes is known as rebellious and fearless warriors of ancient Peru. Chronicles relate that the Chancas prepared themselves for years to conquer the imperial city of Cusco. Only due to the great figure and strategy of Inca Pachacutec, the Inca Empire did not yield. By the time the conquerors established the first political organization of the Colony the whole extension of the current region was under the jurisdiction of the authorities of Huamanga. At the beginning of the Republic, Abancay belonged to Cusco, it was not until April 28, 1873, that a law was given to create the department of Apurímac, based on the provinces of Andahuaylas, Antabamba and Cotabambas, naming Abancay as its capital. Abancay is most important economic and political center. In the region is Andahuaylas, a rather cold city, located at 2980 meters above sea level and the region's agricultural centre, its main church is the Cathedral de San Pedro, built in Colonial style architecture.
A one-piece stone fountain stands out in the Plaza de Armas. Close to Abancay in the way to Cusco is the famed Saywite Stone. Another notable place favored by visitors is Talavera de la Reyna, located 4 km from Andahuaylas; the main square or Plaza de Armas is remarkable, built in stone with an impressive tower with a clock. Nearby, the thermal baths of Hualalache may be visited. Chalhuanca, the capital of the province of Aymaraes, located at 2,800 m, preserves beautiful churches built during Colonial times, containing fine wood carvings and gold leaf. A detailed account of Apurímac's architecture can be found in the works of Peruvian Writer and architect Armando Arteaga. In Antabamba, trepanations so performed that astonishing medicines have been found there, in addition to mud sculptures, domestic utensils, hunting implements. Considered one of the largest and most beautiful lakes of Peru, Paqucha Lake is located at 3,000 m in the route between Andahuaylas and Abancay. Known as an ideal place to rest and enjoy nature and duck hunting are permitted.
A typical Apurímac Region dish is the wathiya. Traceable to ancient times, this is prepared by building a fire surrounded by stones, on the center of which potatoes are placed until done; the ancient settlers used to prepare it during harvesting. A dish, well known in Apurímac is potatoes and eggs with uchullaqwa, a sauce made with chili, cottage cheese and Tagetes minuta, a culinary herb known in Peru as wakatay, a word that derives from the Quechua language. Among the variety of breads, we find rejillas, tarapacos and roscas. January 1 through 6 feature New Year's celebrations in Andahuaylas. During this period the Baja de Negros is celebrated. There is entertainment of esspecially religious folklore. February is celebrated with Carnivals; the whole town fills the streets to participate in La Yunsa. It is the only opportunity in which Apurímac shows all its folklore, with disguised groups dancing through all quarters. In Andahuaylas and men dance in groups day and night. In Grau, bullfights are organized, the day before, the torril velacuy or velada de toros takes place to drive away evil spirits and avoid any harm to the toreros.
In Aymaraes, a sling tournament between several districts takes place, a kind of duel, at times leaving several participants wounded. May 13. Fiesta de la Virgen de Fátima. A great demonstration of folklore, specially music and dance. Numerous musical groups arrive to Grau to show their arts. June 24. Farm Products and Livestock Fair in Pachaconas, where the best products of the region are exhibited. A majordomo, called Carguyoc, is in charge of entertaining the guests. July 28. Yawar Fiesta in Andahuaylas. A special bullfight in which a condor is tied to the back of the bull. In its efforts to release itself from the back of the bull, the condor wounds the bull; the bull is killed by the condor, or by the villagers. The condor is released after the fiesta. There are cockfights and the traditional ride to the lake Paqucha, for good trout fishing. August 15. Fiesta de la Virgen de la Asunción; the people of Grau crowd the streets to take part in prayers. The tinka or branding of the cattle take
Alstroemeria called the Peruvian lily or lily of the Incas, is a genus of flowering plants in the family Alstroemeriaceae. They are all native to South America although some have become naturalized in the United States, Australia, New Zealand and the Canary Islands. All of the species are restricted to one of two distinct centers of diversity, one in central Chile, the other in eastern Brazil. Species of Alstroemeria from Chile are winter-growing plants while those of Brazil are summer-growing. All are long-lived perennials except A. graminea, a diminutive annual from the Atacama Desert of Chile. The genus was named after the Swedish baron Clas Alströmer by his close friend Carl Linnaeus. Plants of this genus grow from a cluster of tubers, they send up fertile and sterile stems, the fertile stems of some species reaching 1.5 meters in height. The leaves are alternately arranged and resupinate, twisted on the petioles so that the undersides face up; the leaves are variable in shape and the blades have smooth edges.
The flowers are borne in umbels. The flower has six tepals each up to 5 centimeters long, they come in many shades of red, purple and white, flecked and striped and streaked with darker colors. There are six curving stamens; the stigma has three lobes. The fruit is a capsule with three valves. Alstroemeria are classified as an inferior monocot, meaning the petals are located above the ovary and the leaves are parallel. Many hybrids and at least 190 cultivars have been developed, featuring many different markings and colors, including white, orange, pink, red and lavender; the most popular and showy hybrids grown today result from crosses between species from Chile with species from Brazil. This strategy has overcome the florists' problem of seasonal dormancy and resulted in plants that are evergreen, or nearly so, flower for most of the year; this breeding work derives from trials that began in the United States in the 1980s, the main breeding is done nowadays by companies in the Netherlands. The flower, which resembles a miniature lily, is popular for bouquets and flower arrangements in the commercial cut flower trade.
Most cultivars available for the home garden will bloom in early summer. The roots are hardy to a temperature of 23 °F; the plant requires at least six hours of morning sunlight, regular water, well-drained soil. The following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit: Some alstroemerias have escaped cultivation and become weeds, such as Alstroemeria pulchella. and A. aurea, which are now weeds in Australia. Species
The Inca Empire known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America. Its political and administrative structure is considered by most scholars to have been the most developed in the Americas before Columbus' arrival; the administrative and military center of the empire was located in the city of Cusco. The Inca civilization arose from the Peruvian highlands sometime in the early 13th century, its last stronghold was conquered by the Spanish in 1572. From 1438 to 1533, the Incas incorporated a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean Mountains, using conquest and peaceful assimilation, among other methods. At its largest, the empire joined Peru, southwest Ecuador and south central Bolivia, northwest Argentina, northern Chile and a small part of southwest Colombia into a state comparable to the historical empires of Eurasia, its official language was Quechua. Many local forms of worship persisted in the empire, most of them concerning local sacred Huacas, but the Inca leadership encouraged the sun worship of Inti – their sun god – and imposed its sovereignty above other cults such as that of Pachamama.
The Incas considered their king, the Sapa Inca, to be the "son of the sun."The Inca Empire was unique in that it lacked many features associated with civilization in the Old World. In the words of one scholar, The Incas lacked the use of wheeled vehicles, they lacked animals to ride and draft animals that could pull wagons and plows... lacked the knowledge of iron and steel... Above all, they lacked a system of writing... Despite these supposed handicaps, the Incas were still able to construct one of the greatest imperial states in human history. Notable features of the Inca Empire include its monumental architecture stonework, extensive road network reaching all corners of the empire, finely-woven textiles, use of knotted strings for record keeping and communication, agricultural innovations in a difficult environment, the organization and management fostered or imposed on its people and their labor; the Incan economy has been described in contradictory ways by scholars:... feudal, socialist The Inca empire functioned without money and without markets.
Instead, exchange of goods and services was based on reciprocity between individuals and among individuals and Inca rulers. "Taxes" consisted of a labour obligation of a person to the Empire. The Inca rulers reciprocated by granting access to land and goods and providing food and drink in celebratory feasts for their subjects; the Inca referred to their empire as Tawantinsuyu, "the four suyu". In Quechua, tawa is four and -ntin is a suffix naming a group, so that a tawantin is a quartet, a group of four things taken together, in this case representing the four suyu whose corners met at the capital; the four suyu were: Chinchaysuyu, Antisuyu and Kuntisuyu. The name Tawantinsuyu was, therefore, a descriptive term indicating a union of provinces; the Spanish transliterated the name as Tahuatinsuyu. The term Inka means "ruler" or "lord" in Quechua and was used to refer to the ruling class or the ruling family; the Incas were a small percentage of the total population of the empire numbering only 15,000 to 40,000, but ruling a population of around 10 million people.
The Spanish adopted the term as an ethnic term referring to all subjects of the empire rather than the ruling class. As such, the name Imperio inca referred to the nation that they encountered and subsequently conquered; the Inca Empire was the last chapter of thousands of years of Andean civilizations. The Andean civilization was one of five civilizations in the world deemed by scholars to be "pristine", indigenous and not derivative from other civilizations; the Inca Empire was preceded by two large-scale empires in the Andes: the Tiwanaku, based around Lake Titicaca and the Wari or Huari centered near the city of Ayacucho. The Wari occupied the Cuzco area for about 400 years. Thus, many of the characteristics of the Inca Empire derived from earlier multi-ethnic and expansive Andean cultures. Carl Troll has argued that the development of the Inca state in the central Andes was aided by conditions that allows for the elaboration of the staple food chuño. Chuño, which can be stored for long periods, is made of potato dried at the freezing temperatures that are common at nighttime in the southern Peruvian highlands.
Such link between the Inca state and chuño may be questioned as potatoes and other crops such as maize can be dried with only sunlight. Troll did argue that llamas, the Inca's pack animal, can be found in its largest numbers in this same region, it is worth considering the maximum extent of the Inca Empire coincided with the greatest distribution of llamas and alpacas in Pre-Hispanic America. The link between the Andean biomes of puna and páramo and the Inca state is a matter of research; as a third point Troll pointed out irrigation technology as advantageous to the Inca state-building. While Troll theorized environmental influences on the Inca Empire he opposed environmental determinism arguing that culture lay at the core of the Inca civilization; the Inca people were a pastoral tribe in the Cusco area around the 12th century. Incan oral history tells an origin story of three caves; the center cave at Tampu T'uqu was named Qhapaq T'uqu. The other
A vernacular, or vernacular language, is the lect used in everyday life by the common people of a specific population. It is distinguished from national, liturgical or scientific idiom, or a lingua franca, used to facilitate communication across a large area, it is native spoken informally rather than written and seen as of lower status than more codified forms. It can be regional dialect, sociolect or an independent language. In the context of language standardization, the term "vernacular" is used to refer to nonstandard dialects of a certain language, as opposed to its prestige normative forms. Usage of the word "vernacular" is not recent. In 1688, James Howell wrote: Concerning Italy, doubtless there were divers before the Latin did spread all over that Country. Here, mother language and dialect are in use in a modern sense. According to Merriam-Webster, "vernacular" was brought into the English language as early as 1601 from the Latin vernaculus, in figurative use in Classical Latin as "national" and "domestic", having been derived from vernus and verna, a male or female slave born in the house rather than abroad.
The figurative meaning was broadened from vernacula. Varro, the classical Latin grammarian, used the term vocabula vernacula, "termes de la langue nationale" or "vocabulary of the national language" as opposed to foreign words. In general linguistics, a vernacular is contrasted with a lingua franca, a third-party language in which persons speaking different vernaculars not understood by each other may communicate. For instance, in Western Europe until the 17th century, most scholarly works had been written in Latin, serving as a lingua franca. Works written in Romance languages are said to be in the vernacular; the Divina Commedia, the Cantar de Mio Cid, The Song of Roland are examples of early vernacular literature in Italian and French, respectively. In Europe, Latin was used instead of vernacular languages in varying forms until c. 1701, in its latter stage as New Latin. In religion, Protestantism was a driving force in the use of the vernacular in Christian Europe, the Bible being translated from Latin into vernacular languages with such works as the Bible in Dutch: published in 1526 by Jacob van Liesvelt.
In Catholicism, vernacular bibles were provided, but Latin was used at Tridentine Mass until the Second Vatican Council of 1965. Certain groups, notably Traditionalist Catholics, continue to practice Latin Mass. In Eastern Orthodox Church, four Gospels translated to vernacular Ukrainian language in 1561 are known as Peresopnytsia Gospel. In India, the 12th century Bhakti movement led to the translation of Sanskrit texts to the vernacular. In science, an early user of the vernacular was Galileo, writing in Italian c. 1600, though some of his works remained in Latin. A example is Isaac Newton, whose 1687 Principia was in Latin, but whose 1704 Opticks was in English. Latin continues to be used in certain fields of science, notably binomial nomenclature in biology, while other fields such as mathematics use vernacular. In diplomacy, French displaced Latin in Europe in the 1710s, due to the military power of Louis XIV of France. Certain languages have both a classical form and various vernacular forms, with two used examples being Arabic and Chinese: see Varieties of Arabic and Chinese language.
In the 1920s, due to the May Fourth Movement, Classical Chinese was replaced by written vernacular Chinese. The vernacular is often contrasted with a liturgical language, a specialized use of a former lingua franca. For example, until the 1960s, Roman Rite Catholics held Masses in Latin rather than in vernaculars. In Hindu culture, traditionally religious or scholarly works were written in Sanskrit or in Tamil in Tamil country. Sanskrit was a lingua franca among the non-Indo-European languages of the Indian subcontinent and became more of one as the spoken language, or prakrits, began to diverge from it in different regions. With the rise of the bhakti movement from the 12th century onwards, religious works were created in the other languages: Hindi, Kannada and many others. For example, the Ramayana, one of Hinduism's sacred epics in Sanskrit, had vernacular versions such as Ranganadha Ramayanam composed in Telugu by Gona Buddha Reddy in the 15th century; these circumstances are a contrast between a vernacular and language variant used by the same speakers
Peru the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river. Peruvian territory was home to several ancient cultures. Ranging from the Norte Chico civilization in the 32nd century BC, the oldest civilization in the Americas and one of the five cradles of civilization, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in pre-Columbian America, the territory now including Peru has one of the longest histories of civilization of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 4th millennia BCE; the Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a viceroyalty that encompassed most of its South American colonies, with its capital in Lima.
Peru formally proclaimed independence in 1821, following the military campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar, the decisive battle of Ayacucho, Peru secured independence in 1824. In the ensuing years, the country enjoyed relative economic and political stability, which ended shortly before the War of the Pacific with Chile. Throughout the 20th century, Peru endured armed territorial disputes, social unrest, internal conflicts, as well as periods of stability and economic upswing. Alberto Fujimori was elected to the presidency in 1990. Fujimori left the presidency in 2000 and was charged with human rights violations and imprisoned until his pardon by President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski in 2017. After the president's regime, Fujimori's followers, called Fujimoristas, have caused political turmoil for any opposing faction in power causing Pedro Pablo Kuczynski to resign in March 2018; the sovereign state of Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. It is classified as an emerging market with a high level of human development and an upper middle income level with a poverty rate around 19 percent.
It is one of the region's most prosperous economies with an average growth rate of 5.9% and it has one of the world's fastest industrial growth rates at an average of 9.6%. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing and fishing; the country forms part of The Pacific Pumas, a political and economic grouping of countries along Latin America's Pacific coast that share common trends of positive growth, stable macroeconomic foundations, improved governance and an openness to global integration. Peru ranks high in social freedom. Peru has a population of 32 million, which includes Amerindians, Europeans and Asians; the main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine and music; the name of the country may be derived from Birú, the name of a local ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama City, in the early 16th century.
When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans. Thus, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Birú or Perú. An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, son of an Inca princess and a conquistador, he said the name Birú was that of a common Indian happened upon by the crew of a ship on an exploratory mission for governor Pedro Arias de Ávila, went on to relate more instances of misunderstandings due to the lack of a common language. The Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru. Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru, which became Republic of Peru after independence; the earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to 9,000 BC. Andean societies were based on agriculture, terracing.
Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money. The oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BC; these early developments were followed by archaeological cultures that developed around the coastal and Andean regions throughout Peru. The Cupisnique culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 BC along what is now Peru's Pacific Coast was an example of early pre-Incan culture; the Chavín culture that developed from 1500 to 300 BC was more of a religious than a political phenomenon, with their religious centre in Chavín de Huantar. After the decline of the Chavin culture around the beginning of the 1st century AD, a series of localized and specialized cultures rose and fell
Ismene amancaes called amancae or amancay, is a herbaceous plant species in the Amaryllidaceae family and native to the coastal hills of Peru. I. amancaes is a species with spherical bulbs 3.5–5 cm in diameter. The leaves are strap-shaped, 25 -- 50 cm long and 2.5 -- bright green. The 2-6 yellow pedicellate flowers are borne at the end of a scape up to 33 cm long; the floral tube is greenish yellow, 5-7.5 cm long, bearing at the end the tepals, which are linear to narrowly lanceolate, 6-7.5 cm long, with green tips. The floral corona is funnel-shaped, yellow with green stripes, 5–6 cm long, 6-8.5 cm wide, bearing the stamens facing inwards. Endemic to Peru, Ismene amancaes inhabits coastal hills up to 1500 m of elevation near the city of Lima, as part of the lomas ecosystem, it is reported that I. amancaes contains the alkaloid substances narcissidine. Remains of I. amancaes have been found in archaeological sites near the city of Lima. The flowering of this species was the subject of a festival celebrated in June in Lima, until the first half of the 1800s.
In a place among the hills surrounding Lima, people from the city gathered annually to celebrate the flowering of the plant in a festival with music and dance, similar to May Day. The festival attracted people from all clases of the society while a common sight was people sporting the flowers in the garments. I. amancaes is considered an endangered species by the IUCN since 1997
Lagerstroemia known as crape myrtle or crepe myrtle, is a genus of around 50 species of deciduous and evergreen trees and shrubs native to the Indian subcontinent, southeast Asia, northern Australia, parts of Oceania, cultivated in warmer climates around the world. It is a member of the family Lythraceae, which are known as the loosestrife family; the genus is named after the Swedish merchant Magnus von Lagerström, a director of the Swedish East India Company who supplied Carl Linnaeus with plants he collected. These flowering trees are beautifully colored and are planted both and commercially as ornamentals. Crepe myrtles are chiefly known for their long-lasting flowers which occur in summer. Most species of Lagerstroemia have sinewy, fluted stems and branches with a mottled appearance that arises from having bark that sheds throughout the year; the leaves are opposite and simple, with entire margins, vary from 5–20 cm. While all species are woody in nature, they can range in height from over 30 m to under 30 cm.
The leaves of temperate species provide autumn color. Flowers are borne in autumn in panicles of crinkled flowers with a crepe-like texture. Colors vary from deep purple to red to white, with every shade in between. Although no blue-flowered varieties exist, the flowers trend toward the blue end of the spectrum with no orange or yellow except in stamens and pistils; the fruit is a capsule and succulent at first ripening to dark brown or black dryness. It splits along six or seven lines, producing teeth much like those of the calyx, releases numerous, winged seeds. In their respective climates, both subtropical and tropical species are common in domestic and commercial landscapes; the timber of some species has been used to manufacture bridges and railway sleepers, but in Vietnam's Cat Tien National Park, the dominant stands of Lagerstroemia calyculata in secondary forest are thought to have survived due to the low quality of wood. Lagerstroemia species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Endoclita malabaricus.
The leaves of L. parviflora are fed on by the Antheraea paphia moth which produces the tassar silk, a form of wild silk of commercial importance in India. Certain species of crepe myrtle are used in landscaping and gardening as screens, lawn specimens, shrub borders, container plants. Since crepe myrtles are found in many places, there are differing opinions as to how to cultivate them in landscaping; each year, the crepe myrtles must be cut back to allow for new growth over the next season, the disagreement lies in how much should the trees be cut back. Some prefer only a tiny bit, while some prefer to cut them down all the way to the main trunks. In doing this, more growth is allowed. Byers Nursery, a big wholesale grower of crepe myrtles in Huntsville, has coined the term “crepe murder” for those that cut too much off of their crepe myrtles each year, resulting in a unpleasant image that can be likened to a bunch of sticks pointing straight up out of the ground. Cutting crepe myrtles back too far can be detrimental because it prevents the trees from forming beautiful, mottled bark on mature trunks.
It creates a forest of skinny, whip-like shoots sprouts from the end of each ugly stump that remained from the last season. These whips are too weak to hold up the flowers, so the branches bend to the ground. Many Southerners have crepe myrtles in their yards, but this cutting back too far takes place here. Drive through any Southern neighborhood in early spring and, before long, you’ll encounter a spiritually fulfilled suburbanite, pruning saw in hand and a pile of crepe myrtle branches on the ground. Many well-meaning gardeners "murder" their crepe myrtles; the common crepe myrtle from China and Korea was introduced circa 1790 to Charleston, South Carolina, in the United States by the French botanist André Michaux. In the wild, the species is most found as a multistemmed large shrub, but 200 years of cultivation have resulted in a huge number of cultivars of varying characteristics. Today, crepe myrtle varieties can fill every landscape need, from tidy street trees to dense barrier hedges to fast-growing dwarf types of less than 60 cm, which can go from seed to bloom in a season.
In Europe, crepe myrtle is common in the south of France, the Iberian Peninsula, most of Italy. While not as known, the Japanese crepe myrtle, L. fauriei, from central and southern Japan, is becoming important, both as a landscaping plant and as a parent in complex hybrids with L. indica. This species is distinctly tree-like, with colorful deciduous bark and dark green leaves which are more resistant to fungal diseases than are those of its more popular relative; the Japanese name for this tree is saru suberi which refers to the slippery bark. Flowers are as large as those of L. indica, but are white with only the slightest pink flush appearing in some individuals. Japanese crepe myrtle is hardier to cold than many strains of L. indica, a characteristic that makes it valuable as genetic material for hybridization. Cultivars available include'Kiowa','Fantasy', and'Townhouse'. Lagerstroemia speciosa, known as qu