Konjaku Gazu Zoku Hyakki
Konjaku Gazu Zoku Hyakki is the second book of Japanese artist Toriyama Sekien's famous Gazu Hyakki Yagyō tetralogy, published ca. 1779. A version of the tetralogy translated and annotated in English was published in 2016; these books are supernatural bestiaries, collections of ghosts, spirits and monsters, many of which Toriyama based on literature, other artwork. These works have had a profound influence on subsequent yōkai imagery in Japan. Konjaku Gazu Zoku Hyakki is preceded in the series by Gazu Hyakki Yagyō, succeeded by Konjaku Hyakki Shūi and Gazu Hyakki Tsurezure Bukuro; the three volumes were titled 雨, 晦, 明. From this book, Toriyama added captions. Gazu Hyakki Yagyō Konjaku Hyakki Shūi Gazu Hyakki Tsurezure Bukuro Toriyama, Sekien. Toriyama Sekien Gazu Hyakki Yagyō Zen Gashū. Kadokawa Shoten. ISBN 978-4-04-405101-3. Natsuhiko Kyogoku and Katsumi Tada. Yōkai Zukan. Kokusho Kankokai. ISBN 978-4-336-04187-6. Kon-jaku ezu zoku hyakki Yōkai Taikan Hyakki Yagyō: Mae Kōjō
Tengu are a type of legendary creature found in Japanese folk religion and are considered a type of Shinto god or yōkai. Although they take their name from a dog-like Chinese demon, the tengu were thought to take the forms of birds of prey, they are traditionally depicted with both human and avian characteristics; the earliest tengu were pictured with beaks, but this feature has been humanized as an unnaturally long nose, which today is considered the tengu's defining characteristic in the popular imagination. Buddhism long held that the tengu were disruptive harbingers of war, their image softened, into one of protective, if still dangerous, spirits of the mountains and forests. Tengu are associated with the ascetic practice of Shugendō, they are depicted in the garb of its followers, the yamabushi; the tengu in art appears in a variety of shapes. It falls somewhere between a large, monstrous bird and a wholly anthropomorphized being with a red face or an unusually large or long nose. Early depictions of tengu show them as kite-like beings who can take a human-like form retaining avian wings, head or beak.
The tengu's long nose seems to have been conceived in the 14th century as a humanization of the original bird's bill. This feature allies them with the Shinto deity Sarutahiko, described in the Japanese historical text the Nihon Shoki with a similar nose measuring seven hand-spans in length. In village festivals, the two figures are portrayed with identical red, phallic-nosed mask designs; some of the earliest representations of tengu appear in Japanese picture scrolls, such as the Tenguzōshi Emaki, painted c. 1296, which parodies high-ranking priests by endowing them the hawk-like beaks of tengu demons. Tengu are pictured as taking the shape of some sort of priest. Beginning in the 13th century, tengu came to be associated in particular with the yamabushi, the mountain ascetics who practice Shugendō; the association soon found its way into Japanese art, where tengu are most depicted in the yamabushi's distinctive costume, which includes a tokin and a pom-pommed sash. Due to their priestly aesthetic, they are shown wielding the Shakujo, a distinct staff used by Buddhist monks.
Tengu are depicted holding a magical ha-uchiwa, fans made of feathers. In folk tales, these fans sometimes have the ability to grow or shrink a person's nose, but they are attributed the power to stir up great winds. Various other strange accessories may be associated with tengu, such as a type of tall, one-toothed geta sandal called tengu-geta; the term tengu and the characters used to write it are borrowed from the name of a fierce demon from Chinese folklore called tiāngoǔ. Chinese literature assigns this creature a variety of descriptions, but most it is a fierce and anthropophagous canine monster that resembles a shooting star or comet, it brings war wherever it falls. One account from the Shù Yì Jì, written in 1791, describes a dog-like tiāngoǔ with a sharp beak and an upright posture, but tiāngoǔ bear little resemblance to their Japanese counterparts; the 23rd chapter of the Nihon Shoki, written in 720, is held to contain the first recorded mention of tengu in Japan. In this account a large shooting star appears and is identified by a Buddhist priest as a "heavenly dog", much like the tiāngoǔ of China, the star precedes a military uprising.
Although the Chinese characters for tengu are used in the text, accompanying phonetic furigana characters give the reading as amatsukitsune. M. W. de Visser speculated that the early Japanese tengu may represent a conglomeration of two Chinese spirits: the tiāngoǔ and the fox spirits called huli jing. How the tengu was transformed from a dog-meteor into a bird-man is not clear; some Japanese scholars have supported the theory that the tengu's image derives from that of the Hindu eagle deity Garuda, pluralized in Buddhist scripture as one of the major races of non-human beings. Like the tengu, the garuda are portrayed in a human-like form with wings and a bird's beak; the name tengu seems to be written in place of that of the garuda in a Japanese sutra called the Emmyō Jizō-kyō, but this was written in the Edo period, long after the tengu's image was established. At least one early story in the Konjaku Monogatari describes a tengu carrying off a dragon, reminiscent of the garuda's feud with the nāga serpents.
In other respects, the tengu's original behavior differs markedly from that of the garuda, friendly towards Buddhism. De Visser has speculated that the tengu may be descended from an ancient Shinto bird-demon, syncretized with both the garuda and the tiāngoǔ when Buddhism arrived in Japan. However, he found little evidence to support this idea. A version of the Kujiki, an ancient Japanese historical text, writes the name of Amanozako, a monstrous female deity born from the god Susanoo's spat-out ferocity, with characters meaning tengu deity; the book describes Amanozako as a raging creature capable of flight, with the body of a human, the head of a beast, a long nose, long ears, long teeth that can chew through swords. An 18th-century book called the Tengu Meigikō suggests that this goddess may be the true predecessor of the tengu, but the date and authenticity of the Kujiki, of that edition in particular, remain disputed; the Konjaku Monogatarishū, a collection of stories published in the late Heian period, contains some of the earliest tales of tengu characterized as t
Susanoo known as Takehaya Susanoo no Mikoto and Kumano Ketsumiko no Kami at Kumano shrine, is the Shinto god of the sea and storms. He is considered to be ruler of Neno-Katasu-Kuni, he is married to Kushinadahime. In Japanese mythology, the powerful storm god, is the brother of Amaterasu, the goddess of the Sun, of Tsukuyomi, the god of the Moon. All three were born from Izanagi, when he washed his face clean of the pollutants of Yomi, the underworld. Amaterasu was born when Izanagi washed out his left eye, Tsukuyomi was born from the washing of the right eye, Susanoo from the washing of the nose. Susanoo used Totsuka-no-Tsurugi as his weapon; the oldest sources for Susanoo myths are ca. 720 CE Nihon Shoki. They tell of a long-standing rivalry between his sister; when he was to leave Heaven by orders of Izanagi, he went to bid his sister goodbye. Amaterasu was suspicious, but when Susanoo proposed a challenge to prove his sincerity, she accepted; each of them took an object of the other from it birthed gods and goddesses.
Amaterasu birthed three women from Susanoo's Totsuka-no-Tsurugi while he birthed five men from her necklace. Claiming the gods were hers because they were born of her necklace, the goddesses were his, she decided that she had won the challenge, as his item produced women; the two were content for a time. In a fit of rage, he destroyed his sister's rice fields, hurled a flayed pony at her loom, killed one of her attendants. Amaterasu, in fury and grief, hid inside the Ama-no-Iwato, thus hiding the sun for a long period of time. Though she was persuaded to leave the cave, Susano-o was punished by being banished from Heaven, he descended to the province of Izumo, where he met an elderly couple who told him that seven of their eight daughters had been devoured by the eight-headed dragon Yamata no Orochi and it was nearing time for their eighth, Kushinada-hime. The Nihon Shoki, here translated by William George Aston in Nihongi, gives the most detailed account of Susanoo and Amaterasu slaying Yamata no Orochi.
Compare to that found in the Kojiki, translated by Basil Hall Chamberlain in The Kojiki, where Susanoo is translated as "His-Swift-Impetuous-Male-Augustness": Then Susanoo no Mikoto descended from Heaven and proceeded to the head-waters of the River Hi, in the province of Idzumo. At this time he heard a sound of weeping at the head-waters of the river, he went in search of the sound, he found there an old woman. Between them was set a young girl, whom they were caressing and lamenting over. Susanoo no Mikoto asked them, saying:-"Who are ye, why do ye lament thus?" The answer was:-"I am an Earthly Deity, my name is Ashi-nadzuchi. My wife's name is Te-nadzuchi; this girl is our daughter, her name is Kushi-nada-hime. The reason of our weeping is that we had eight children, daughters, but they have been devoured year after year by an eight-forked serpent and now the time approaches for this girl to be devoured. There is no means of escape for her, therefore do we grieve.” Sosa no wo no Mikoto said: "If, so, wilt thou give me thy daughter?"
He replied, said: "I will comply with thy behest and give her to thee." Therefore Sosa no wo no Mikoto on the spot changed Kushi-nada-hime into a many-toothed close-comb which he stuck in the august knot of his hair. He made Ashi-nadzuchi and Te-nadzuchi to brew eight-fold sake, to make eight cupboards, in each of them to set a tub filled with sake, so to await its coming; when the time came, the serpent appeared. It had an eight-forked tail; as it crawled it extended over a space of eight valleys. Now when it came and found the sake, each head drank up one tub, it became drunken and fell asleep. Susanoo no Mikoto drew the ten-span sword which he wore, chopped the serpent into small pieces; when he came to the tail, the edge of his sword was notched, he therefore split open the tail and examined it. In the inside there was a sword; this is the sword, called Kusa-nagi no tsurugi. This sword from the dragon's tail, the Ama-no-Murakumo-no-Tsurugi or the Kusanagi-no-Tsurugi, was presented by Susanoo to Amaterasu as a reconciliation gift.
According to legends, she bequeathed it to her descendant Ninigi along with the Yata no Kagami mirror and Yasakani no Magatama jewel or orb. This sacred sword and jewel collectively became the three Imperial Regalia of Japan. While Amaterasu is enshrined at the Honden of the Ise Grand Shrine, Susanoo is enshrined at Kumano Taisha located in Shimane, where he descended when banished from heaven; the iwami kagura - Orochi The jōruri - Nihon Furisode Hajime by Chikamatsu Monzaemon Aston, William George, tr. 1896. Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A. D. 697. 2 vols. Kegan Paul. 1972 Tuttle reprint. Chamberlain, Basil H. tr. 1919. The Kojiki, Records of Ancient Matters. 1981 Tuttle reprint. Susanoo, Encyclopedia of Shinto Susano-O no Mikoto, Kimberley Winkelmann, in the Internet Archive as of 5 December 2008 Shinto Creation Stories: Sosa no wo in Izumo, Richard Hooker, in the Internet Archive as of 28 August 2006 Susanoo vs Yamata no Orochi animated depiction
Toriyama Sekien is the pen-name of Sano Toyofusa, an 18th-century scholar, kyōka poet, ukiyo-e artist of Japanese folklore. Born to a family of high-ranking servants to the Tokugawa shogunate, he was trained by Kanō school artists Kanō Gyokuen and Kanō Chikanobu, although he was never recognized as a Kanō school painter. After retiring from service to the shogunate, he became a teacher to numerous apprentices in poetry and painting, he was among the first to apply Kanō techniques to ukiyo-e printmaking, inventing key new techniques along the way, such as fuki-bokashi, which allowed for replicating color gradations. Most famously, he was the teacher of Utagawa Toyoharu. Sekien is best known for his mass-produced illustrated books of yōkai that had appeared in Hyakki Yagyō monster parade scrolls; the first book proved popular enough to spawn three sequels, the last of which features yōkai out of Sekien's imagination. Although sometimes described as a "demonologist," his work is better described as a literary parody of encyclopedias such as the Japanese Wakan Sansai Zue or the Chinese Classic of Mountains and Seas, which were popular in Japan at the time.
His portrayals of these creatures from folklore established their visual portrayals in the public's mind and inspired other Japanese artists in his own and eras, including ukiyo-e artists Tsukioka Yoshitoshi, Kawanabe Kyōsai, manga artist Mizuki Shigeru. Toriyamabiko Sekien's Picture Album The Illustrated Demon Horde's Night Parade The Illustrated Demon Horde from Past and Present, Continued More of the Demon Horde from Past and Present A Horde of Haunted Housewares Toriyamabiko, a copy of his first book, in the collection of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston Bridge of dreams: the Mary Griggs Burke collection of Japanese art, a catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries, which contains material on Toriyama Sekien
The li known as the Chinese mile, is a traditional Chinese unit of distance. The li has varied over time but was about one third of an English mile and now has a standardized length of a half-kilometer; this is divided into 1,500 chi or "Chinese feet". The character 里 combines the characters for "field" and "earth", since it was considered to be about the length of a single village; as late as the 1940s, a "li" did not represent a fixed measure but could be longer or shorter depending on the effort required to cover the distance. There is another li that indicates a unit of length 1⁄1000 of a chi, but it is used much less commonly; this li is used in the People's Republic of China as the equivalent of the centi- prefix in metric units, thus limi for centimeter. The tonal difference makes it distinguishable to speakers of Chinese, but unless noted otherwise, any reference to li will always refer to the longer traditional unit and not to either the shorter unit or the kilometer; this traditional unit, in terms of historical usage and distance proportion, can be considered the East Asian counterpart to the Western league unit.
Like most traditional Chinese measurements, the li was reputed to have been established by the Yellow Emperor at the founding of Chinese civilization around 2600 BC and standardized by Yu the Great of the Xia Dynasty six hundred years later. Although the value varied from state to state during the Spring and Autumn period and Warring States periods, historians give a general value to the li of 405 meters prior to the Qin Dynasty imposition of its standard in the 3rd century BC; the basic Chinese traditional unit of distance was the chi. As its value changed over time, so did the li's. In addition, the number of chi per li was sometimes altered. To add further complexity, under the Qin Dynasty, the li was set at 360 "paces" but the number of chi per bu was subsequently changed from 6 to 5, shortening the li by 1⁄6. Thus, the Qin li of about 576 meters became the Han li, standardized at 415.8 meters. The basic units of measurement remained stable over the Han periods. A bronze imperial standard measure, dated AD 9, had been preserved at the Imperial Palace in Beijing and came to light in 1924.
This has allowed accurate conversions to modern measurements, which has provided a new and useful additional tool in the identification of place names and routes. These measurements have been confirmed in many ways including the discovery of a number of rulers found at archaeological sites, careful measurements of distances between known points; the Han li was calculated by Dubs to be 415.8 metres and all indications are that this is a precise and reliable determination. Under the Tang Dynasty, the li was 323 meters. In the late Manchu or Qing Dynasty, the number of chi was increased from 1,500 per li to 1,800; this had a value of 644.6 meters. In addition, the Qing added a longer unit called the tu, equal to 150 li; these changes were undone by the Republic of China of Chiang Kai-shek, who adopted the metric system in 1928. The Republic of China continues not to use the li at all but only the kilometer. Under Mao Zedong, the People's Republic of China reinstituted the traditional units as a measure of anti-imperialism and cultural pride before adopting the metric system in 1984.
A place was made within this for the traditional units. A modern li is thus set at half a kilometer. However, unlike the jin, still preferred in daily use over the kilogram, the li is never used. Nonetheless, its appearance in many phrases and sayings means that "kilometer" must always be specified by saying gongli in full; as one might expect for the equivalent of "mile", li appears in many Chinese sayings and proverbs as an indicator of great distances or the exotic: One Chinese name for the Great Wall is the "Ten-Thousand-Li Long Wall". As in Greek, the number "ten thousand" is used figuratively in Chinese to mean any "immeasurable" value and this title has never provided a literal distance. Nonetheless, the actual length of the modern Great Wall is around 13,000 modern li – 3,000 more than the name's proverbially "immeasurable" length; the Chinese proverb appearing in chapter 64 of the Tao Te Ching and rendered as "A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step" in fact refers to a thousand li: 千里之行，始于足下.
The greatest horses of Chinese history – including Red Hare and Hua Liu – are all referred to as "thousand-li horses", since they could travel a thousand li in a single day. Li is sometimes used for example: Wulipu, Hubei; the present day Korean ri and Japanese ri are units of measurements that can be traced back to the Chinese li. Although the Chinese unit was unofficially used in Japan since the Zhou Dynasty, the countries adopted the measurement used by the Tang Dynasty; the ri of an earlier era in Japan was thus true to Chinese length, corresponding to six chō, but evolved to denote the distance that a person carrying a load would aim to cover on mountain roads in one hour. Thus, there had been various ri of 36, 40, 48 chō. Tokugawa shogunate of Edo period defined 36 chō be 1 ri, allowing other variants, the Japanese government in 18
Shinto or kami-no-michi is the traditional religion of Japan that focuses on ritual practices to be carried out diligently to establish a connection between present-day Japan and its ancient past. Shinto practices were first recorded and codified in the written historical records of the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki in the 8th century. Still, these earliest Japanese writings do not refer to a unified religion, but rather to a collection of native beliefs and mythology. Shinto today is the religion of public shrines devoted to the worship of a multitude of "spirits", "essences" or "gods", suited to various purposes such as war memorials and harvest festivals, applies as well to various sectarian organizations. Practitioners express their diverse beliefs through a standard language and practice, adopting a similar style in dress and ritual, dating from around the time of the Nara and Heian periods; the word Shinto was adopted as Jindō or Shindō, from the written Chinese Shendao, combining two kanji: shin, meaning "spirit" or kami.
The oldest recorded usage of the word Shindo is from the second half of the 6th century. Kami is rendered in English as "spirits", "essences", or "gods", refers to the energy generating the phenomena. Since the Japanese language does not distinguish between singular and plural, kami refers to the singular divinity, or sacred essence, that manifests in multiple forms: rocks, rivers, objects and people can be said to possess the nature of kami. Kami and people are not separate; as much as nearly 80% of the population in Japan participates in Shinto practices or rituals, but only a small percentage of these identify themselves as "Shintoists" in surveys. This is. Most of the Japanese attend Shinto shrines and beseech kami without belonging to an institutional Shinto religion. There are no formal rituals to become a practitioner of "folk Shinto". Thus, "Shinto membership" is estimated counting only those who do join organised Shinto sects. Shinto has about 85,000 priests in the country. According to surveys carried out in 2006 and 2008, less than 40% of the population of Japan identifies with an organised religion: around 35% are Buddhists, 3% to 4% are members of Shinto sects and derived religions.
In 2008, 26% of the participants reported visiting Shinto shrines, while only 16.2% expressed belief in the existence of a god or gods in general. According to Inoue: "In modern scholarship, the term is used with reference to kami worship and related theologies and practices. In these contexts,'Shinto' takes on the meaning of'Japan's traditional religion', as opposed to foreign religions such as Christianity, Islam and so forth." Shinto religious expressions have been distinguished by scholars into a series of categories: Shrine Shinto, the main tradition of Shinto, has always been a part of Japan's history. It consists of taking part in worship events at local shrines. Before the Meiji Restoration, shrines were disorganized institutions attached to Buddhist temples; the current successor to the imperial organization system, the Association of Shinto Shrines, oversees about 80,000 shrines nationwide. Imperial Household Shinto are the religious rites performed by the imperial family at the three shrines on the imperial grounds, including the Ancestral Spirits Sanctuary and the Sanctuary of the Kami.
Folk Shinto includes the numerous folk beliefs in spirits. Practices include divination, spirit possession, shamanic healing; some of their practices come from Buddhism, Taoism or Confucianism, but most come from ancient local traditions. Sect Shinto is a legal designation created in the 1890s to separate government-owned shrines from local organised religious communities; these communities originated in the Edo period. The basic difference between Shrine Shinto and Sect Shinto is that sects are a development and grew self-consciously, they can identify a founder, a formal set of teachings and sacred scriptures. Sect Shinto groups are thirteen, classified under five headings: pure Shinto sects, Confucian sects,mountain worship sects, purification sects, faith-healing sects (Kurozumikyo／黒住教, Konkokyo/金光教 and its branching Omotokyo/大本教 and Tenrikyo／天理教. Koshintō, literally'Old Shinto', is a reconstructed "Shinto from before the time of Buddhism", today based on Ainu religion and Ryukyuan practices.
It continues the restoration movement begun by Hirata Atsutane. Many other sects and schools can be distinguished. Faction Shinto is a grouping of Japanese new religions developed since the second half of the 20th century that have departed from traditional Shinto and are not always regarded as part of it. Kami, shin, or, jin is defined in English as "god", "spirit", or "spiritual essence", all these terms meaning "the energy generating a thing". Since the Japanese language does not distinguish between singular and plural, kami refers to the divinity, or sacred essence, that manifests in multiple forms. Rocks, rivers, objects, places