George Bentham was an English botanist, described by the weed botanist Duane Isely as "the premier systematic botanist of the nineteenth century". Bentham was born in Stoke, Plymouth, on 22 September 1800, his father, Sir Samuel Bentham, a naval architect, was the only brother of Jeremy Bentham to survive into adulthood. His mother, Mary Sophia Bentham, was a author. George Bentham had a remarkable linguistic aptitude. By the age of seven he could speak French and Russian, he learned Swedish during a short residence in Sweden while still a child; the family made a long tour through France, staying two years at Montauban, where Bentham studied Hebrew and mathematics in the Protestant Theological School. They settled near Montpellier where Sir Samuel bought a large estate. While studying at Angoulême, Bentham came across a copy of A. P. de Candolle's Flore française, became interested in the analytical tables for identifying plants. He tested them on the first plant he saw; the result was successful and he applied it to every plant he came across.
In London in 1823, he met English botanists. His uncle pushed him to study law at Lincoln's Inn, he was called in 1832 held his first and only legal brief. However, his interest in botany never flagged and he became secretary of the Horticultural Society of London from 1829 to 1840. In 1832, he inherited the property of Jeremy Bentham. Having inherited his father's estate the previous year, he was now sufficiently well off to do whatever he wanted, botany and logic. Bentham married Sarah Jones, daughter of Sir Harford Jones Brydges, on 11 April 1833. Bentham died at his London home on 10 September 1884, aged 83, he was laid to rest in Brompton Cemetery. Bentham's life spanned the Darwinian revolution, his young colleague Joseph Dalton Hooker was Darwin's closest friend and one of the first to accept Darwin's ideas; until Bentham unquestioningly believed that species were fixed. In 1874 he wrote that "Fifteen years have sufficed to establish a theory ". Bentham's conversion to the new line of thought was complete, included a change from typology in taxonomy to an appreciation that "We cannot form an idea of a species from a single individual, nor of a genus from a single one of its species.
We can no more set up a typical species than a typical individual." Bentham was awarded the Royal Medal of the Royal Society in 1859 and elected a Fellow in 1862. He served as president of the Linnean Society of London from 1861 to 1874, he was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1866. He was appointed CMG in 1878, his foreign awards included the Clarke Medal of the Royal Society of New South Wales in 1879. Bentham's first publication was his Catalogue des plantes indigènes des Pyrénées et du Bas Languedoc, the result of a careful exploration of the Pyrenees in company with G. A. Walker Arnott, afterwards professor of botany in the University of Glasgow. In the catalogue Bentham adopted the principle from which he never deviated, of citing nothing at second-hand; this was followed by articles on various legal subjects: on codification, in which he disagreed with his uncle, on the laws affecting larceny and on the law of real property. But the most remarkable production of this period was the Outline of a new system of logic, with a critical examination of Dr Whately's Elements of Logic.
In this the principle of the quantification of the predicate was first explicitly stated. This Stanley Jevons declared to be undoubtedly the most fruitful discovery made in abstract logical science since the time of Aristotle. Before sixty copies had been sold the publisher became bankrupt and the stock went for wastepaper; the book passed into oblivion, it was not till 1873 that Bentham's claims to priority were vindicated against those of Sir William Hamilton by Herbert Spencer. In 1836 he published his Labiatarum genera et species. In preparing this work he visited, between 1830–1834, every European herbarium, several more than once; the following winter was passed in Vienna, where he produced his Commentationes de Leguminosarum generibus, published in the annals of the Vienna Museum. In 1842 he moved to Pontrilas in Herefordshire, his chief occupation for the next few years was his contributions to the Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis, being carried on by his friend, A. P. de Candolle.
In all these dealt with some 4,730 species. In 1844, he provided the botanical descriptions for The Botany of the Voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur; the editor, Richard Brinsley Hinds, had been surgeon on HMS Sulphur 1835-41 while she explored the Pacific coast of the Americas. In 1854 he found the maintenance of a library too expensive, he therefore offered them to the government on the understanding that they should form the foundation of such necessary aids to research in the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. At the same time he contemplated the abandonment of botanical work. However, he yielded to the persuasion of Sir William Jackson Hooker, John Lindley and other scientific friends. In 1855 he took up his residence in London, worked at Kew for five days a week, with a brief summer holiday, from this time onwards till the end of his life. In 1857, the government sanctioned a scheme for the preparation of a series of Floras or descriptions in the English language of the indigenous plants of British colonies and possessions.
Bentham began with the Flora Hongkongensis in 1861, the first comprehensive work on any part of the little-known flora of China and Hong Kong, incl
Sereno Watson was an American botanist. Graduating from Yale in 1847 in Biology, he drifted through various occupations until, in California, he joined the Clarence King Expedition and became its expedition botanist. Appointed by Asa Gray as assistant in the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University in 1873, he became its curator, a position he maintained until his death. Watson was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1874, a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1889. Botany, in Report of the geological exploration of the 40th parallel made... by Clarence King, 1871 Watson, Sereno. "Revision of the North American Liliaceae: Descriptions of Some New Species of North American Plants". Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. XIV: 213–312. Doi:10.2307/25138538. JSTOR 25138538. Retrieved January 6, 2014. Publications by and about S. Watson on WorldCat Biographical sketch at the Gray Herbarium site National Academy of Sciences biographical memoir Obituary, page 441 Portrait and obituary by John Merle Coulter Sereno Watson at Find a Grave
Caryophyllales is an order of flowering plants that includes the cacti, amaranths, ice plants and many carnivorous plants. Many members are succulent, having fleshy leaves; the members of Caryophyllales include about 6% of eudicot species. This order is part of the core eudicots; the Caryophyllales contains 33 families, 692 genera and 11,155 species. The monophyly of the Caryophyllales has been supported by DNA sequences, cytochrome c sequence data and heritable characters such as anther wall development and vessel-elements with simple perforations; as with all taxa, the circumscription of Caryophyllales has changed within various classification systems. All systems recognize a core of families with centrospermous seeds. More recent treatments have expanded the Caryophyllales to include many carnivorous plants. Although the monophyly of the order has been supported, their placement is still uncertain. Systematists are undecided on whether Caryophyllales should be placed within the rosid complex or sister to the asterid clade.
The possible connection between sympetalous angiosperms and Caryophyllales was presaged by Bessey and others. This primitive flower might well be found in centrospermal stock as Wernham and Hutchinson have suggested.' "Caryophyllales is separated into two suborders: Polygonineae. These two suborders were recognized as two orders and Caryophyllales. Kewaceae, Macarthuriaceae and Petiveriaceae were added in APG IV; as circumscribed by the APG III system, this order includes the same families as the APG II system plus the new families, Lophiocarpaceae, Montiaceae and Anacampserotaceae. Family Achatocarpaceae family Aizoaceae family Amaranthaceae family Anacampserotaceae family Ancistrocladaceae family Asteropeiaceae family Barbeuiaceae family Basellaceae family Cactaceae family Caryophyllaceae family Didiereaceae family Dioncophyllaceae family Droseraceae family Drosophyllaceae family Frankeniaceae family Gisekiaceae family Halophytaceae family Kewaceae family Limeaceae family Lophiocarpaceae family Macarthuriaceae family Microteaceae family Molluginaceae family Montiaceae family Nepenthaceae family Nyctaginaceae family Petiveriaceae family Physenaceae family Phytolaccaceae family Plumbaginaceae family Polygonaceae family Portulacaceae family Rhabdodendraceae family Sarcobataceae family Simmondsiaceae family Stegnospermataceae family Talinaceae family Tamaricaceae As circumscribed by the APG II system, this order includes well-known plants like cacti, spinach, rhubarb, venus fly traps, bougainvillea.
Recent molecular and biochemical evidence has resolved additional well-supported clades within the Caryophyllales. Order Caryophyllales family Achatocarpaceae family Aizoaceae family Amaranthaceae family Anacampserotaceae family Ancistrocladaceae family Asteropeiaceae family Barbeuiaceae family Basellaceae family Cactaceae family Caryophyllaceae family Didiereaceae family Dioncophyllaceae family Droseraceae family Drosophyllaceae family Frankeniaceae family Gisekiaceae family Halophytaceae family Limeaceae family Lophiocarpaceae family Molluginaceae family Montiaceae family Nepenthaceae family Nyctaginaceae family Physenaceae family Phytolaccaceae family Plumbaginaceae family Polygonaceae family Portulacaceae family Rhabdodendraceae family Sarcobataceae family Simmondsiaceae family Stegnospermataceae family Talinaceae family Tamaricaceae This represents a slight change from the APG system, of 1998 order Caryophyllales family Achatocarpaceae family Aizoaceae family Amaranthaceae family Ancistrocladaceae family Asteropeiaceae family Basellaceae family Cactaceae family Caryophyllaceae family Didiereaceae family Dioncophyllaceae family Droseraceae family Drosophyllaceae family Frankeniaceae family Molluginaceae family Nepenthaceae family Nyctaginaceae family Physenaceae family Phytolaccaceae family Plumbaginaceae family Polygonaceae family Portulacaceae family Rhabdodendraceae family Sarcobataceae family Simmondsiaceae family Stegnospermataceae family Tamaricaceae The Cronquist system recognised the order, with this circumscription: order Caryophyllales family Achatocarpaceae family Aizoaceae family Amaranthaceae family Basellaceae family Cactaceae family Caryophyllaceae family Chenopodiaceae family Didiereaceae family Nyctaginaceae family Phytolaccaceae family Portulacaceae family MolluginaceaeThe difference with the order as recognized by APG lies in the first place in the concept of "order".
The APG favours much larger orders and families, the order Caryophyllales sensu APG should rather be compared to subclass Caryophyllidae sensu Cronquist. A part of the difference lies with; the plants in the Stegnospermataceae and Barbeuiaceae were included in Cronquist's Phytolaccaceae. The Chenopodiaceae are included in Amaranthaceae by APG. New to the order are the Asteropeiaceae and Physenaceae, each containing a single genus, two genera from Cronquist's order Nepenthales. Earlier systems, such as the Wettstein system, last edition in 1935, the Engler system
Amaranthus, collectively known as amaranth, is a cosmopolitan genus of annual or short-lived perennial plants. Some amaranth species are cultivated as leaf vegetables and ornamental plants. Most of the Amaranthus species are summer annual weeds and are referred to as pigweed. Catkin-like cymes of densely packed flowers grow in autumn. 60 species are recognized, with inflorescences and foliage ranging from purple, through red and green to gold. Members of this genus share many characteristics and uses with members of the related genus Celosia. "Amaranth" derives from Greek ἀμάραντος, "unfading", with the Greek word for "flower", ἄνθος, factoring into the word's development as amaranth. Amarant is an archaic variant. Amaranthus shows a wide variety of morphological diversity among and within certain species. Although the family is distinctive, the genus has few distinguishing characters among the 70 species included; this complicates taxonomy and Amaranthus has been considered among systematists as a "difficult" genus.
Sauer classified the genus into two subgenera, differentiating only between monoecious and dioecious species: Acnida Aellen ex K. R. Robertson and Amaranthus. Although this classification was accepted, further infrageneric classification was needed to differentiate this diverse group. Amaranthus includes three recognized subgenera and 70 species, although species numbers are questionable due to hybridization and species concepts. Infrageneric classification focuses on inflorescence, flower characters and whether a species is monoecious/dioecious, as in the Sauer suggested classification. A modified infrageneric classification of Amaranthus was published by Mosyakin & Robertson and includes three subgenera: Acnida and Albersia; the taxonomy is further differentiated by sections within each of the subgenera. Species include: One cup of cooked amaranth grain provides 251 calories and is an excellent source of protein, dietary fiber, some dietary minerals. Amaranth is rich in manganese, magnesium and selenium.
Cooked amaranth leaves are a rich source of vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium and folate. Amaranth does not contain gluten. Amaranth contains phytochemicals that may be antinutrient factors, such as polyphenols, saponins and oxalates which are reduced in content and effect by cooking. Known to the Aztecs as huāuhtli, amaranth is thought to have represented up to 80% of their energy consumption before the Spanish conquest. Another important use of amaranth throughout Mesoamerica was to prepare ritual foods. To this day, amaranth grains are toasted much like popcorn and mixed with honey, molasses, or chocolate to make a treat called alegría, meaning "joy" in Spanish. Diego Durán described the festivities for Huitzilopochtli, the name of which means "left side of the hummingbird" or "hummingbird left-hand"; the Aztec month of Panquetzaliztli was dedicated to Huitzilopochtli. People decorated their trees with paper flags; this was one of the more important Aztec festivals, the people prepared for the whole month.
They fasted or ate little. After the Spanish conquest, cultivation of amaranth was outlawed, while some of the festivities were subsumed into the Christmas celebration; because of its importance as a symbol of indigenous culture, its palatability, ease of cooking, a protein, well-suited to human nutritional needs, interest in grain amaranth revived in the 1970s. It is now commercially cultivated, it is a popular snack sold in Mexico, sometimes mixed with chocolate or puffed rice, its use has spread to Europe and parts of North America. Amaranth and quinoa are not grasses and are called pseudocereals because of their similarities to cereals in flavor and cooking. Several species are raised for amaranth "grain" in Asia and the Americas. Ancient amaranth grains still used include the three species, Amaranthus caudatus, Amaranthus cruentus, Amaranthus hypochondriacus. Although amaranth was cultivated on a large scale in ancient Mexico and Peru, nowadays it is only cultivated on a small scale there, along with India, China and other tropical countries.
S. In a 1977 article in Science, amaranth was described as "the crop of the future", it has been proposed as an inexpensive native crop that could be cultivated by indigenous people in rural areas for several reasons: A small amount of seed plants a large area. It is harvested, its seeds are a good source of protein. In cooked and edible forms, amaranth retains adequate content of several dietary minerals, it is easy to cook. As befits its weedy life history, amaranth grains grow and, in three cultivated species of amaranth, their large seedheads can weigh up to 1 kg and contain a half-million small seeds. Amaranth species are consumed as a leaf vegetable in many parts of the world. Four species of Amaranthus are documented as cultivated vegetables in eastern Asia: Amaranthus cruentus, Amaranthus blitum, Amaranthus dubius, Amaranthus
Plants are multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. Plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes. By one definition, plants form the clade Viridiplantae, a group that includes the flowering plants and other gymnosperms and their allies, liverworts and the green algae, but excludes the red and brown algae. Green plants obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria, their chloroplasts contain b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic or mycotrophic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is common.
There are about 320 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, some 260–290 thousand, are seed plants. Green plants provide a substantial proportion of the world's molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earth's ecosystems on land. Plants that produce grain and vegetables form humankind's basic foods, have been domesticated for millennia. Plants have many cultural and other uses, as ornaments, building materials, writing material and, in great variety, they have been the source of medicines and psychoactive drugs; the scientific study of plants is known as a branch of biology. All living things were traditionally placed into one of two groups and animals; this classification may date from Aristotle, who made the distincton between plants, which do not move, animals, which are mobile to catch their food. Much when Linnaeus created the basis of the modern system of scientific classification, these two groups became the kingdoms Vegetabilia and Animalia. Since it has become clear that the plant kingdom as defined included several unrelated groups, the fungi and several groups of algae were removed to new kingdoms.
However, these organisms are still considered plants in popular contexts. The term "plant" implies the possession of the following traits multicellularity, possession of cell walls containing cellulose and the ability to carry out photosynthesis with primary chloroplasts; when the name Plantae or plant is applied to a specific group of organisms or taxon, it refers to one of four concepts. From least to most inclusive, these four groupings are: Another way of looking at the relationships between the different groups that have been called "plants" is through a cladogram, which shows their evolutionary relationships; these are not yet settled, but one accepted relationship between the three groups described above is shown below. Those which have been called "plants" are in bold; the way in which the groups of green algae are combined and named varies between authors. Algae comprise several different groups of organisms which produce food by photosynthesis and thus have traditionally been included in the plant kingdom.
The seaweeds range from large multicellular algae to single-celled organisms and are classified into three groups, the green algae, red algae and brown algae. There is good evidence that the brown algae evolved independently from the others, from non-photosynthetic ancestors that formed endosymbiotic relationships with red algae rather than from cyanobacteria, they are no longer classified as plants as defined here; the Viridiplantae, the green plants – green algae and land plants – form a clade, a group consisting of all the descendants of a common ancestor. With a few exceptions, the green plants have the following features in common, they undergo closed mitosis without centrioles, have mitochondria with flat cristae. The chloroplasts of green plants are surrounded by two membranes, suggesting they originated directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. Two additional groups, the Rhodophyta and Glaucophyta have primary chloroplasts that appear to be derived directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria, although they differ from Viridiplantae in the pigments which are used in photosynthesis and so are different in colour.
These groups differ from green plants in that the storage polysaccharide is floridean starch and is stored in the cytoplasm rather than in the plastids. They appear to have had a common origin with Viridiplantae and the three groups form the clade Archaeplastida, whose name implies that their chloroplasts were derived from a single ancient endosymbiotic event; this is the broadest modern definition of the term'plant'. In contrast, most other algae not only have different pigments but have chloroplasts with three or four surrounding membranes, they are not close relatives of the Archaeplastida having acquired chloroplasts separately from ingested or symbiotic green and red algae. They are thus not included in the broadest modern definition of the plant kingdom, although they were in the past; the green plants or Viridiplantae were traditionally divided into the green algae (including
Amaranthaceae is a family of flowering plants known as the amaranth family, in reference to its type genus Amaranthus. It includes the former goosefoot family Chenopodiaceae and contains about 165 genera and 2,040 species, making it the most species-rich lineage within its parent order, Caryophyllales. Most species subshrubs; some species are succulent. Many species have stems with thickened nodes; the wood of the perennial stem has a typical "anomalous" secondary growth. The leaves are simple and alternate, sometimes opposite, they never possess stipules. They are flat or terete, their shape is variable, with entire or toothed margins. In some species, the leaves are reduced to minute scales. In most cases, neither basal nor terminal aggregations of leaves occur; the flowers are solitary or aggregated in cymes, spikes, or panicles and perfect and actinomorphic. Some species have unisexual flowers. Bracts and bracteoles scarious. Flowers are regular with an herbaceous or scarious perianth of five tepals joined.
One to five stamens are opposite to tepals or alternating, inserting from a hypogynous disc, which may have appendages in some species. The anthers have four pollen sacs. In tribe Caroxyloneae, anthers have vesicular appendages; the pollen grains are spherical with many pores, with pore numbers from a few to 250. One to three carpels are fused to a superior ovary with one basal ovule. Idioblasts are found in the tissues; the diaspores are seeds or fruits, more the perianth persists and is modified in fruit for means of dispersal. Sometimes bracts and bracteoles may belong to the diaspore. More the fruit is a circumscissile capsule or a berry; the horizontal or vertical seed has a thickened or woody seed coat. The green or white embryo is either annular; the basic chromosome number is 8–9. Widespread in the Amaranthaceae is the occurrence of betalain pigments; the former Chenopodiaceae contain isoflavonoids. In phytochemical research, several methylenedioxyflavonols, triterpenoids and specific root-located carbohydrates have been found in these plants.
Although most of the family use the more common C3 photosynthesis pathway, around 800 species are C4 plants. Within the family, several types of C4 photosynthesis occur, about 17 different types of leaf anatomy are realized. Therefore, this photosynthesis pathway seems to have developed about 15 times independently during the evolution of the family. About two-thirds of the C4 species belong to the former Chenopodiaceae; the first occurrence of C4 photosynthesis dates from the early Miocene, about 24 million years ago, but in some groups, this pathway evolved much about 6 million years ago. The multiple origin of C4 photosynthesis in the Amaranthaceae is regarded as an evolutionary response to inexorably decreasing atmospheric CO2 levels, coupled with a more recent permanent shortage in water supply as well as high temperatures. Species with higher water-use efficiency had a selective advantage and were able to spread out into arid habitats. Amaranthaceae is a cosmopolitan family from the tropics to cool temperate regions.
The Amaranthaceae are predominantly tropical, whereas the former Chenopodiaceae have their centers of diversity in dry temperate and warm temperate areas. Many of the species are halophytes, grow in dry steppes or semi-deserts; some species, such as spinach or forms of beet, are used as vegetables. Forms of Beta vulgaris include sugar beet; the seeds of Amaranthus, lamb's quarters, quinoa and kañiwa are edible and are used as pseudocereals. Dysphania ambrosioides and Dysphania anthelmintica are used as medicinal herbs. Several amaranth species are used indirectly as a source of soda ash, such as members of the genus Salicornia. A number of species are popular garden ornamental plants species from the genera Alternanthera, Amaranthus and Iresine. Other species are considered weeds, e.g. redroot pigweed and alligatorweed, several are problematic invasive species in North America, including Kali tragus and Bassia scoparia. Many species are known to cause pollen allergies. In the APG IV system of 2016, as in the previous Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classifications, the family is placed in the order Caryophyllales and includes the plants treated as the family Chenopodiaceae.
The monophyly of this broadly defined Amaranthaceae has been supported by both morphological and phylogenetic analyses. The family Amaranthaceae was first published in 1789 by Antoine Laurent de Jussieu in Genera Plantarum, p. 87–88. The first publication of family Chenopodiaceae was in 1799 by Étienne Pierre Ventenat in Tableau du Regne Vegetal, 2, p. 253. The older name is now the valid scientific name of the extended Amaranthaceae; some publications still continued to use the family name Chenopodiaceae. Phylogenetic research revealed the important impact of the subfamil
A tepal is one of the outer parts of a flower. The term is used when these parts cannot be classified as either sepals or petals; this may be because the parts of the perianth are undifferentiated, as in Magnolia, or because, although it is possible to distinguish an outer whorl of sepals from an inner whorl of petals, the sepals and petals have similar appearance to one another. The term was first proposed by Augustin Pyramus de Candolle in 1827 and was constructed by analogy with the terms "petal" and "sepal". Undifferentiated tepals are believed to be the ancestral condition in flowering plants. For example, thought to have separated earliest in the evolution of flowering plants, has flowers with undifferentiated tepals. Distinct petals and sepals would therefore have arisen by differentiation in response to animal pollination. In typical modern flowers, the outer or enclosing whorl of organs forms sepals, specialised for protection of the flower bud as it develops, while the inner whorl forms petals, which attract pollinators.
Tepals formed by similar sepals and petals are common in monocotyledons the "lilioid monocots". In tulips, for example, the first and second whorls both contain structures; these are fused at the base to form one large, six-parted structure. In lilies the organs in the first whorl are separate from the second, but all look similar, thus all the showy parts are called tepals. Where sepals and petals can in principle be distinguished, usage of the term "tepal" is not always consistent – some authors will refer to "sepals and petals" where others use "tepals" in the same context. In some plants the flowers have no petals, all the tepals are sepals modified to look like petals; these organs are described for example, the sepals of hellebores. When the undifferentiated tepals resemble petals, they are referred to as "petaloid", as in petaloid monocots, orders of monocots with brightly coloured tepals. Since they include Liliales, an alternative name is lilioid monocots. Terms used in the description of tepals include pubescent and puberulous.
Tepal shape is described in similar terms to those used for leaves. Flowers with tepals Glossary of plant morphology Plant reproductive morphology Botany: A Brief Introduction To Plant Biology - 5th ed. Thomas L. Rost. Plant Systematics - Jones.