Braga is a city and a municipality in the northwestern Portuguese district of Braga, in the historical and cultural Minho Province. The city has a resident population of 192,494 inhabitants, representing the seventh largest municipality in Portugal, its area is 183.40 km². Its agglomerated urban area extends from the Cávado River to the Este River, it is the third-largest urban centre in Portugal The city was the European Youth Capital in 2012. It is host to the oldest Portuguese archdiocese of the Roman Catholic Church and it is the seat of the Primate Archbishop of Portugal and of the Hispanias. Under the Roman Empire known as Bracara Augusta, the settlement was the capital of the province of Gallaecia. Inside of the city there is a castle tower that can be visited. Nowadays, Braga is a major hub for inland Northern Portugal. Human occupation of the region of Braga dates back thousands of years, documented by vestiges of monumental structures starting in the Megalithic era. During the Iron Age, the Castro culture extended into the northwest, characterized by Bracari peoples who occupied the high ground in strategically located fortified settlements.
The region became the domain of the Callaici Bracarii, or Bracarenses, a Celtic tribe who occupied what is now northern Portugal and Asturias in the northwest of Iberia. The Romans began their conquest of the region around 136 BC, finished it, by pacifying the northern regions, during the reign of Emperor Augustus; the civitas of Bracara Augusta was founded in 20 BC. The city of Bracara Augusta developed during the 1st century and reached its maximum extension around the 2nd century. Towards the end of the 3rd century, the Emperor Diocletian promoted the city to the status of capital of the administrative area Conventus bracarensis, the southwestern area of the newly founded Roman province of Gallaecia. During the Germanic Invasions of the Iberian Peninsula, the area was conquered by the Suebi, a Germanic people from Central Europe. In 410, the Suebi established a Kingdom in northwest Iberia covering what is present-day's Northern half of Portugal and Asturias, which they maintained as Gallaecia, had Bracara as their capital.
This kingdom was lasted for over 150 years. By about 584, the Visigoths took over control of Gallaecia from the Suebi, they renounced the Priscillianist heresies during two synods held here in the 6th century. As a consequence, the archbishops of Braga claimed the title of Primate of Portugal a county, for a long period, claimed supremacy over the entire Hispanic church. Yet, their authority was never accepted throughout Hispania. Braga had an important role in the Christianization of the Iberian Peninsula; the first known bishop of Braga, lived at the end of the 4th century, although Saint Ovidius is sometimes considered one of the first bishops of this city. In the early 5th century, Paulus Orosius wrote several theological works that expounded the Christian faith, while in the 6th century Bishop Martin of Braga converted the pagan Suebi and Visigoths from Arianism to Catholicism. At the time, Martin founded an important monastery in Dumio, it was in Braga that Archbishopric of Braga held their councils.
The transition from Visigothic reigns to the Muslim conquest of Iberia was obscure, representing a period of decline for the city. The Moors captured Braga early in the 8th century, but were repelled by Christian forces under Alfonso III of Asturias in 868 with intermittent attacks until 1040 when they were ousted by Ferdinand I of León and Castile; as a consequence, the bishopric was restored in 1070: the first new bishop, started rebuilding the Cathedral. Between 1093 and 1147, Braga became the residential seat of the Portuguese court. In the early 12th century, Count Henry of Portugal and bishop Geraldo de Moissac reclaimed the archbishopric seat for Braga, with power over a large area in Iberia; the medieval city developed around the cathedral, with the maximum authority in the city retained by the archbishop. Braga as the main center of Christianity in Iberia, during the Reconquista, held a prominent stage in medieval politics, being a major factor/contributor to the Independence of Portugal with the intervenience of the Archbishop D. Paio Mendes in the Vatican and the Pope Alexander III, which lead to the promulgation of the Bula Manifestis Probatum in 1179 recognizing Portugal as an independent Kingdom under D. Afonso I Henriques.
The following centuries marked a slow decline in its prestige and influence marked by the infamous theft of Holy Relics by the Archbishop of Santiago of Compostela Gelmirez. The relics only returned to Braga in the 1960s. In the 16th century, due to its distance from the coast and provincial status, Braga did not profit from the adventures associated with the Age of Portuguese Discoveries. Yet, Archbishop Diogo de Sousa, who sponsored several urban improvements in the city, including the enlargement of streets, the creation of public squares and the foundation of hospitals
Fiscal is a parish in Amares Municipality in the Braga District in Portugal. The population in 2011 was 718, in an area of 3.90 km². Fiscal is the birthplace of Portuguese singer António Ribeiro known as António Variações. Being homaged with a bust located in his birthplace of Fiscal and the name of a street in the city of Amares
Amares is a municipality in Braga District, Portugal. The population in 2011 was 18,889, in an area of 81.95 km². The present Mayor is José Gonçalves Barbosa, elected by the Socialist Party; the municipal holiday is June 13. The municipality is subdivided into the following parishes