History of ancient Israel and Judah
The Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah were related kingdoms from the Iron Age period of the ancient Levant. The Kingdom of Israel emerged as an important local power by the 10th century BCE before falling to the Neo-Assyrian Empire in 722 BCE. Israel's southern neighbor, the Kingdom of Judah, emerged in the 8th or 9th century BCE and became a client state of first the Neo-Assyrian Empire and the Neo-Babylonian Empire before a revolt against the latter led to its destruction in 586 BCE. Following the fall of Babylon to the Achaemenid Empire under Cyrus the Great in 539 BCE, some Judean exiles returned to Jerusalem, inaugurating the formative period in the development of a distinctive Judahite identity in the province of Yehud Medinata. During the Hellenistic classic period, Yehud was absorbed into the subsequent Hellenistic kingdoms that followed the conquests of Alexander the Great, but in the 2nd century BCE the Judaeans revolted against the Seleucid Empire and created the Hasmonean kingdom.
This, the last nominally independent kingdom of Israel lost its independence from 63 BCE with its conquest by Pompey of Rome, becoming a Roman and Parthian client kingdom. Following the installation of client kingdoms under the Herodian dynasty, the Province of Judea was wracked by civil disturbances, which culminated in the First Jewish–Roman War, the destruction of the Second Temple, the emergence of Rabbinic Judaism and Early Christianity; the name Judea ceased to be used by Greco-Romans after the revolt of Simon Bar Kochba in 135 CE. Iron Age I: 1200–1000 BCE Iron Age II: 1000–586 BCE Neo-Babylonian: 586–539 BCE Persian: 539–332 BCE Hellenistic: 332–53 BCEOther academic terms used are: First Temple period Second Temple period The eastern Mediterranean seaboard – the Levant – stretches 400 miles north to south from the Taurus Mountains to the Sinai Peninsula, 70 to 100 miles east to west between the sea and the Arabian Desert; the coastal plain of the southern Levant, broad in the south and narrowing to the north, is backed in its southernmost portion by a zone of foothills, the Shfela.
East of the plain and the Shfela is a mountainous ridge, the "hill country of Judah" in the south, the "hill country of Ephraim" north of that Galilee and Mount Lebanon. To the east again lie the steep-sided valley occupied by the Jordan River, the Dead Sea, the wadi of the Arabah, which continues down to the eastern arm of the Red Sea. Beyond the plateau is the Syrian desert, separating the Levant from Mesopotamia. To the southwest is Egypt, to the northeast Mesopotamia; the location and geographical characteristics of the narrow Levant made the area a battleground among the powerful entities that surrounded it. Canaan in the Late Bronze Age was a shadow of what it had been centuries earlier: many cities were abandoned, others shrank in size, the total settled population was not much more than a hundred thousand. Settlement was concentrated along major communication routes. Politically and culturally it was dominated by Egypt, each city under its own ruler at odds with its neighbours, appealing to the Egyptians to adjudicate their differences.
The Canaanite city state system broke down during the Late Bronze Age collapse, Canaanite culture was gradually absorbed into that of the Philistines and Israelites. The process was gradual and a strong Egyptian presence continued into the 12th century BCE, while some Canaanite cities were destroyed, others continued to exist in Iron Age I; the name "Israel" first appears in the Merneptah Stele c. 1209 BCE: "Israel is laid waste and his seed is no more." This "Israel" was a cultural and political entity, well enough established for the Egyptians to perceive it as a possible challenge, but an ethnic group rather than an organised state. In the Late Bronze Age there were no more than about 25 villages in the highlands, but this increased to over 300 by the end of Iron Age I, while the settled population doubled from 20,000 to 40,000; the villages were more numerous and larger in the north, shared the highlands with pastoral nomads, who left no remains. Archaeologists and historians attempting to trace the origins of these villagers have found it impossible to identify any distinctive features that could define them as Israelite – collared-rim jars and four-room houses have been identified outside the highlands and thus cannot be used to distinguish Israelite sites, while the pottery of the highland villages is far more limited than that of lowland Canaanite sites, it develops typologically out of Canaanite pottery that came before.
Israel Finkelstein proposed that the oval or circular layout that distinguishes some of the earliest highland sites, the notable absence of pig bones from hill sites, could be taken as markers of ethnicity, but others have cautioned that these can be a "common-sense" adaptation to highland life and not revelatory of origins. Other Aramaean sites demonstrate a contemporary absence of pig remains at that time, unlike earlier Canaanite and Philistine excavations. In The Bible Unea
Easton's Bible Dictionary
The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, better known as Easton's Bible Dictionary, is a reference work on topics related to the Christian Bible compiled by Matthew George Easton. The first edition was published in 1893, a revised edition was published the following year; the most popular edition, was the third, published by Thomas Nelson in 1897, three years after Easton's death. The last contains nearly 4,000 entries relating to the Bible. Many of the entries in Easton's are encyclopedic in nature, although there are short dictionary-type entries; because of its age, it is now a public domain resource. Bauer lexicon Smith's Bible Dictionary, another popular 19th century Bible dictionary Easton, Matthew George, ed. Illustrated Bible Dictionary... New York: Harper & Bros. Easton, M. G. ed. Illustrated Bible Dictionary... London: T. Nelson & Sons Easton, M. G. ed. Illustrated Bible Dictionary... London: T. Nelson & Sons Easton, Matthew George. "Table of contents". Easton's Bible Dictionary. T. Nelson and Sons.
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Moses was a prophet according to the teachings of the Abrahamic religions. Scholarly consensus sees Moses as a legendary figure. According to the Hebrew Bible, he was adopted by an Egyptian princess, in life became the leader of the Israelites and lawgiver, to whom the authorship of the Torah, or acquisition of the Torah from Heaven is traditionally attributed. Called Moshe Rabbenu in Hebrew, he is the most important prophet in Judaism, he is an important prophet in Christianity, the Bahá'í Faith, a number of other Abrahamic religions. According to the Book of Exodus, Moses was born in a time when his people, the Israelites, an enslaved minority, were increasing in numbers and the Egyptian Pharaoh was worried that they might ally themselves with Egypt's enemies. Moses' Hebrew mother, secretly hid him when the Pharaoh ordered all newborn Hebrew boys to be killed in order to reduce the population of the Israelites. Through the Pharaoh's daughter, the child was adopted as a foundling from the Nile river and grew up with the Egyptian royal family.
After killing an Egyptian slavemaster, Moses fled across the Red Sea to Midian, where he encountered The Angel of the Lord, speaking to him from within a burning bush on Mount Horeb. God sent Moses back to Egypt to demand the release of the Israelites from slavery. Moses said that he could not speak eloquently, so God allowed Aaron, his brother, to become his spokesperson. After the Ten Plagues, Moses led the Exodus of the Israelites out of Egypt and across the Red Sea, after which they based themselves at Mount Sinai, where Moses received the Ten Commandments. After 40 years of wandering in the desert, Moses died within sight of the Promised Land on Mount Nebo. Jerome gives 1592 BCE, James Ussher 1571 BCE as Moses' birth year. In the Book of Deuteronomy, Moses was called "the man of God". Several etymologies have been proposed. An Egyptian root msy, "child of", has been considered as a possible etymology, arguably an abbreviation of a theophoric name, as for example in Egyptian names like Thutmoses and Ramesses, with the god's name omitted.
Abraham Yahuda, based on the spelling given in the Tanakh, argues that it combines "water" or "seed" and "pond, expanse of water", thus yielding the sense of "child of the Nile". The Biblical account of Moses' birth provides him with a folk etymology to explain the ostensible meaning of his name, he is said to have received it from the Pharaoh's daughter: "he became her son. She named him Moses, saying,'I drew him out of the water.'" This explanation links it to a verb mashah, meaning "to draw out", which makes the Pharaoh's daughter's declaration a play on words. The princess made a grammatical mistake, prophetic of his future role in legend, as someone who will "draw the people of Israel out of Egypt through the waters of the Red Sea."The Hebrew etymology in the Biblical story may reflect an attempt to cancel out traces of Moses' Egyptian origins. The Egyptian character of his name was recognized as such by ancient Jewish writers like Philo of Alexandria and Josephus. Philo linked Mōēsēs to the Egyptian word for water, while Josephus, in his Antiquities of the Jews, claimed that the second element, -esês, meant'those who are saved'.
The problem of how an Egyptian princess, known to Josephus as Thermutis and in Jewish tradition as Bithiah, could have known Hebrew puzzled medieval Jewish commentators like Abraham ibn Ezra and Hezekiah ben Manoah. Hezekiah suggested she either took a tip from Jochebed; the Israelites had settled in the Land of Goshen in the time of Joseph and Jacob, but a new pharaoh arose who oppressed the children of Israel. At this time Moses was born to his father Amram, son of Kehath the Levite, who entered Egypt with Jacob's household. Moses had one older sister and one older brother, Aaron; the Pharaoh had commanded that all male Hebrew children born would be drowned in the river Nile, but Moses' mother placed him in an ark and concealed the ark in the bulrushes by the riverbank, where the baby was discovered and adopted by Pharaoh's daughter, raised as an Egyptian. One day after Moses had reached adulthood he killed an Egyptian, beating a Hebrew. Moses, in order to escape the Pharaoh's death penalty, fled to Midian.
There, on Mount Horeb, God appeared to Moses as a burning bush, revealed to Moses his name YHWH and commanded him to return to Egypt and bring his chosen people out of bondage and into the Promised Land. During the journey, God tried to kill Moses because he had not circumcised his son, but Zipporah saved his life. Moses returned to carry out God's command, but God caused the Pharaoh to refuse, only after God had subjected Egypt to ten plagues did the Pharaoh relent. Moses led the Israelites to the border of Egypt, but there God hardened the Pharaoh's heart once more, so that he could destroy the Pharaoh and his army at the Red Sea Crossing as a sign of his power to Israel and the nations. After defeating the Amalekites in Rephidim, Moses led the Israelites to biblical Mount Sinai, where he was given the Ten Commandments from God, written on stone tablets. However, since Moses remained a long time on the mountain, some of the people feared that he might be dead, so they made a statue of a golden calf and worshiped it, thus disobeying and angering God and Moses.
Moses, out of anger, bro
Hezekiah was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the son of Ahaz and the 13th king of Judah. Edwin Thiele concluded that his reign was between c. 715 and 686 BC. He is considered a righteous king by the author of the Books of Kings, he is one of the most prominent kings of Judah mentioned in the Bible and is one of the kings mentioned in the genealogy of Jesus in the Gospel of Matthew. According to the Bible, Hezekiah witnessed the destruction of the northern Kingdom of Israel by Sargon's Assyrians in c. 722 BC and was king of Judah during the siege of Jerusalem by Sennacherib in 701 BC. Hezekiah enacted sweeping religious reforms, including a strict mandate for the sole worship of Yahweh and a prohibition on venerating other deities within the Temple of Jerusalem. Isaiah and Micah prophesied during his reign; the name Hezekiah means "Yahweh Strengthens" in Hebrew. The main account of Hezekiah's reign is found in 2 Kings 18–20, Isaiah 36–39, 2 Chronicles 29–32 of the Hebrew Bible. Proverbs 25:1 mentions that it is a collection of King Solomon's proverbs that were "copied by the officials of King Hezekiah of Judah".
His reign is referred to in the books of the prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah and Micah. The books of Hosea and Micah record. Hezekiah was the son of King Abijah, his mother, was a daughter of the high priest Zechariah. Based on Thiele's dating, Hezekiah was born in c. 741 BC. He was married to Hephzi-bah, he died from natural causes at the age of 54 in c. 687 BC, was succeeded by his son Manasseh. According to the Bible, Hezekiah assumed the throne of Judah at the age of 25 and reigned for 29 years; some writers have proposed. His sole reign is dated by William F. Albright as 715–687 BC, by Edwin R. Thiele as 716–687 BC. Hezekiah purified and repaired the Temple, purged its idols, reformed the priesthood. In an effort to abolish idolatry from his kingdom, he destroyed the high places and the "bronze serpent", recorded as being made by Moses, which became objects of idolatrous worship. In place of this, he centralized the worship of God at the Jerusalem Temple. Hezekiah defeated the Philistines, "as far as Gaza and its territory", resumed the Passover pilgrimage and the tradition of inviting the scattered tribes of Israel to take part in a Passover festival.
He sent messengers to Ephraim and Manasseh inviting them to Jerusalem for the celebration of the Passover. The messengers, were not only not listened to, but were laughed at; the Passover was celebrated with great solemnity and such rejoicing as had not been in Jerusalem since the days of Solomon. Hezekiah is portrayed by the Bible as a good king. After the death of Assyrian king Sargon II in 705 BC, Sargon's son Sennacherib became king of Assyria. In 703 BC, Sennacherib began a series of major campaigns to quash opposition to Assyrian rule, starting with cities in the eastern part of the realm. In 701 BC, Sennacherib turned toward cities in the west. Hezekiah had to face the invasion of Judah. According to the Bible, Hezekiah did not rely on Egypt for support, but relied on God and prayed to Him for deliverance of his capital city Jerusalem; the Assyrians recorded that Sennacherib lifted his siege of Jerusalem after Hezekiah paid Sennacherib tribute. The Bible records that Hezekiah paid him three hundred talents of silver and thirty of gold as tribute sending the doors of the Temple to produce the promised amount, but after the payment was made, Sennacherib renewed his assault on Jerusalem.
Sennacherib sent his Rabshakeh to the walls as a messenger. The Rabshakeh addressed the soldiers manning the city wall in Hebrew, asking them to distrust Yahweh and Hezekiah, claiming that Hezekiah's righteous reforms were a sign that the people should not trust their god to be favorably disposed. 2 Kings 19:15 records that Hezekiah went to the Temple and there he prayed to God. Knowing that Jerusalem would be subject to siege, Hezekiah had been preparing for some time by fortifying the walls of the capital, building towers, constructing a tunnel to bring fresh water to the city from a spring outside its walls, he made at least two major preparations that would help Jerusalem to resist conquest: the construction of the Siloam Tunnel, construction of the Broad Wall. "When Sennacherib had come, intent on making war against Jerusalem, Hezekiah consulted with his officers about stopping the flow of the springs outside the city … for otherwise, they thought, the King of Assyria would come and find water in abundance".
The narratives of the Bible state. According to the biblical record, Sennacherib sent threatening letters warning Hezekiah that he had not desisted from his determination to take the Judean capital. Although they besieged Jerusalem, the biblical accounts state that the Assyrians did not so much as "shoot an arrow there... nor cast up a siege rampart against it", that God sent out an angel who, in one night, struck down "a hundred and eighty-five thousand in the camp of the Assyrians," sending Sennacherib back "with shame of face to his own land". Sennacherib's inscriptions make no mention of t
Aaron is a prophet, high priest, the brother of Moses in the Abrahamic religions. Knowledge of Aaron, along with his brother Moses, comes from religious texts, such as the Bible and Quran; the Hebrew Bible relates that, unlike Moses, who grew up in the Egyptian royal court and his elder sister Miriam remained with their kinsmen in the eastern border-land of Egypt. When Moses first confronted the Egyptian king about the Israelites, Aaron served as his brother's spokesman to the Pharaoh. Part of the Law that Moses received from God at Sinai granted Aaron the priesthood for himself and his male descendants, he became the first High Priest of the Israelites. Aaron died before the Israelites crossed the North Jordan river and he was buried on Mount Hor. Aaron is mentioned in the New Testament of the Bible. According to the Book of Exodus, Aaron first functioned as Moses' assistant; because Moses complained that he could not speak well, God appointed Aaron as Moses' "prophet". At the command of Moses, he let his rod turn into a snake.
He stretched out his rod in order to bring on the first three plagues. After that, Moses tended to speak for himself. During the journey in the wilderness, Aaron was not always active. At the battle with Amalek, he was chosen with Hur to support the hand of Moses that held the "rod of God"; when the revelation was given to Moses at biblical Mount Sinai, he headed the elders of Israel who accompanied Moses on the way to the summit. While Joshua went with Moses to the top, however and Hur remained below to look after the people. From here on in Exodus and Numbers, Joshua appears in the role of Moses' assistant while Aaron functions instead as the first high priest; the books of Exodus and Numbers maintain that Aaron received from God a monopoly over the priesthood for himself and his male descendants. The family of Aaron had the exclusive right and responsibility to make offerings on the altar to Yahweh; the rest of his tribe, the Levites, were given subordinate responsibilities within the sanctuary.
Moses anointed and consecrated Aaron and his sons to the priesthood, arrayed them in the robes of office. He related to them God's detailed instructions for performing their duties while the rest of the Israelites listened. Aaron and his successors as high priest were given control over the Urim and Thummim by which the will of God could be determined. God commissioned the Aaronide priests to distinguish the holy from the common and the clean from the unclean, to teach the divine laws to the Israelites; the priests were commissioned to bless the people. When Aaron completed the altar offerings for the first time and, with Moses, "blessed the people: and the glory of the LORD appeared unto all the people: And there came a fire out from before the LORD, consumed upon the altar the burnt offering and the fat when all the people saw, they shouted, fell on their faces". In this way, the institution of the Aaronide priesthood was established. In books of the Hebrew Bible and his kin are not mentioned often except in literature dating to the Babylonian captivity and later.
The books of Judges and Kings mention priests and Levites, but do not mention the Aaronides in particular. The Book of Ezekiel, which devotes much attention to priestly matters, calls the priestly upper class the Zadokites after one of King David's priests, it does reflect a two-tier priesthood with the Levites in subordinate position. A two-tier hierarchy of Aaronides and Levites appears in Ezra and Chronicles; as a result, many historians think that Aaronide families did not control the priesthood in pre-exilic Israel. What is clear is that high priests claiming Aaronide descent dominated the Second Temple period. Most scholars think the Torah reached its final form early in this period, which may account for Aaron's prominence in Exodus and Numbers. Aaron plays a leading role in several stories of conflicts during Israel's wilderness wanderings. During the prolonged absence of Moses on Mount Sinai, the people provoked Aaron to make a golden calf.. This incident nearly caused God to destroy the Israelites.
Moses intervened, but led the loyal Levites in executing many of the culprits. Aaron, escaped punishment for his role in the affair, because of the intercession of Moses according to Deuteronomy 9:20. Retellings of this story always excuse Aaron for his role. For example, in rabbinic sources and in the Quran, Aaron was not the idol-maker and upon Moses' return begged his pardon because he felt mortally threatened by the Israelites. On the day of Aaron's consecration, his oldest sons and Abihu, were burned up by divine fire because they offered "strange" incense. Most interpreters think this story reflects a conflict between priestly families some time in Israel's past. Others argue that the story shows what can happen if the priests do not follow God's instructions given through Moses; the Torah depicts the siblings, Moses and Miriam, as the leaders of Israel after the Exodus, a view reflected in the biblical Book of Micah. Numbers 12, reports that on one occasion and Miriam complained about Moses' exclusive claim to be the LORD's prophet.
Their presumption was rebuffed by God who affirmed Moses' uniqueness as the
Ezra called Ezra the Scribe and Ezra the Priest in the Book of Ezra, was a Jewish scribe and priest. In Greco-Latin Ezra is called Esdras. According to the Hebrew Bible he was a descendant of Sraya the last High Priest to serve in the First Temple, a close relative of Joshua the first High Priest of the Second Temple, he reintroduced the Torah in Jerusalem. According to 1 Esdras, a Greek translation of the Book of Ezra still in use in Eastern Orthodoxy, he was a High Priest. Rabbinic tradition holds. Several traditions have developed over his place of burial. One tradition says that he is buried in al-Uzayr near Basra, while another tradition alleges that he is buried in Tadif near Aleppo, in northern Syria, his name may be an abbreviation of עזריהו Azaryahu, "Yah helps". In the Greek Septuagint the name is rendered Ésdrās; the Book of Ezra describes how he led a group of Judean exiles living in Babylon to their home city of Jerusalem where he is said to have enforced observance of the Torah. He was described as exhorting the Israelite people to be sure to follow the Torah Law so as not to intermarry with people of particular different religions, a set of commandments described in the Pentateuch.
Ezra, known as "Ezra the scribe" in Chazalic literature, is a respected figure in Judaism. The canonical Book of Ezra and Book of Nehemiah are the oldest sources for the activity of Ezra, whereas many of the other books ascribed to Ezra are literary works dependent on the canonical books of Ezra and Nehemiah; the books of Ezra–Nehemiah were one scroll. The Jews divided this scroll and called it First and Second Ezra. Modern Hebrew Bibles call the two books Nehemiah, as do other modern Bible translations. A few parts of the Book of Ezra were written in Aramaic, the majority in Hebrew, Ezra himself being skilled in both languages. Ezra was living in Babylon when in the seventh year of Artaxerxes, king of Persia, the king sent him to Jerusalem to teach the laws of God to any who did not know them. Ezra led a large body of exiles back to Jerusalem, where he discovered that Jewish men had been marrying non-Jewish women, he tore his garments in despair and confessed the sins of Israel before God braved the opposition of some of his own countrymen to purify the community by enforcing the dissolution of the sinful marriages.
Some years Artaxerxes sent Nehemiah to Jerusalem as governor with the task of rebuilding the city walls. Once this task was completed Nehemiah had Ezra read the Law of Moses to the assembled Israelites, the people and priests entered into a covenant to keep the law and separate themselves from all other peoples. 1 Esdras from the late 2nd/early 1st centuries BCE, preserves a Greek text of Ezra and a part of Nehemiah distinctly different from that of Ezra–Nehemiah – in particular it eliminates Nehemiah from the story and gives some of his deeds to Ezra, as well as telling events in a different order. Scholars are divided on whether it is based on Ezra–Nehemiah, or reflects an earlier literary stage before the combination of Ezra and Nehemiah accounts; the first-century Jewish historian Josephus deals with Ezra in his Antiquities of the Jews. He uses the name Xerxes for Artaxerxes I reserving the name Artaxerxes for the Artaxerxes II whom he identifies as the Ahasuerus of Esther, thus placing Ezra before the events of the book of Esther.
The apocalyptic fourth book of Ezra was written c. CE 100 in Hebrew-Aramaic, it was one of the most important sources for Jewish theology at the end of the 1st century. In this book, Ezra has a seven part prophetic revelation, converses with an angel of God three times and has four visions. Ezra, thirty years into the Babylonian Exile, recounts the siege of Jerusalem and the destruction of Solomon's Temple; this would place these revelations in the year 557 BCE, a full century before the date given in the canonical Ezra. The central theological themes are "the question of theodicy, God's justness in the face of the triumph of the heathens over the pious, the course of world history in terms of the teaching of the four kingdoms, the function of the law, the eschatological judgment, the appearance on Earth of the heavenly Jerusalem, the Messianic Period, at the end of which the Messiah will die, the end of this world and the coming of the next, the Last Judgment." Ezra restores the law, destroyed with the burning of the Temple in Jerusalem.
He dictates another 70 for the wise alone. At the end, he is taken up to heaven like Elijah. Ezra is seen as a new Moses in this book. There is another work, thought to be influenced by this one, known as the Greek Apocalypse of Ezra. Traditionally Judaism credits Ezra with establishing the Great Assembly of scholars and prophets, the forerunner of the Sanhedrin, as the authority on matters of religious law; the Great Assembly is credited with establishing numerous features of contemporary traditional Judaism in something like their present form, including Torah reading, the Amidah, celebration of the feast of Purim. In Rabbinic traditions, Ezra is metaphorically referred to as the "flowers that appear on the earth" signifying the springtime in the national
Jehoshaphat, according to 1 Kings 15:24, was the son of Asa, the king of the Kingdom of Judah, in succession to his father. His children included Jehoram, his mother was Azubah. His name has sometimes been connected with the Valley of Josaphat. Jehoshaphat reigned for twenty-five years, he spent the first years of his reign fortifying his kingdom against the Kingdom of Israel. His zeal in suppressing the idolatrous worship of the "high places" is commended in 2 Chronicles 17:6. In the third year of his reign Jehoshaphat sent out priests and Levites over the land to instruct the people in the Law, an activity, commanded for a Sabbatical year in Deuteronomy 31:10–13; the author of the Books of Chronicles praises his reign, stating that the kingdom enjoyed a great measure of peace and prosperity, the blessing of God resting on the people "in their basket and their store." Jehoshaphat pursued alliances with the northern kingdom. Jehoshaphat's son Jehoram married Ahab's daughter Athaliah. In the eighteenth year of his reign Jehosaphat visited Ahab in Samaria, nearly lost his life accompanying his ally to the siege of Ramoth-Gilead.
While Jehoshaphat safely returned from this battle, he was reproached by the prophet Jehu, son of Hanani, about this alliance. We are told that Jehoshaphat repented, returned to his former course of opposition to all idolatry, promoting the worship of God and in the government of his people; the alliance between Israel and Judah for trade of gold with Ophir differs in the Deuteronomistic Historian's account and the subsequent Chronicler's account. While the Chronicler claims Jehoshaphat entered into an alliance with Ahaziah of Israel, for the purpose of carrying on maritime commerce with Ophir, the Deuteronomist says Jehoshaphat built the ships on his own, they crashed, Ahaziah attempted to join the alliance to obtain gold. According to the Deuteronomist, Jehoshapat refused the offer, most in order to retain profits for his kingdom, he subsequently joined Jehoram of Israel, in a war against the Moabites, who were under tribute to Israel. The Moabites were subdued, but seeing Mesha's act of offering his own son as a human sacrifice on the walls of Kir of Moab filled Jehoshaphat with horror, he withdrew and returned to his own land.
According to Chronicles, the Moabites formed a great and powerful confederacy with the surrounding nations, marched against Jehoshaphat. The allied forces were encamped at Ein Gedi; the king and his people were filled with alarm. The king prayed in the court of the Temple, "O our God, will you not judge them? For we have no power to face this vast army, attacking us. We do not know; the voice of Jahaziel the Levite was heard announcing that the next day all this great host would be overthrown. So it was, for they quarreled among themselves, slew one another, leaving to the people of Judah only to gather the rich spoils of the slain. Soon after this victory Jehoshaphat died after a reign of twenty-five years at the age of sixty. According to some sources, he died two years but gave up his throne earlier for unknown reasons. William F. Albright has dated the reign of Jehoshaphat to 873–849 BC. E. R. Thiele held that he became coregent with his father Asa in Asa's 39th year, 872/871 BC, the year Asa was infected with a severe disease in his feet, became sole regent when Asa died of the disease in 870/869 BC, his own death occurring in 848/847 BC.
So Jehoshaphat's dates are taken as one year earlier: co-regency beginning in 873/871, sole reign commencing in 871/870, death in 849/848 BC. The calendars for reckoning the years of kings in Judah and Israel were offset by six months, that of Judah starting in Tishri and that of Israel in Nisan. Cross-synchronizations between the two kingdoms therefore allow narrowing of the beginning and/or ending dates of a king to within a six-month range. For Jehoshaphat, the Scriptural data allow the narrowing of the beginning of his sole reign to some time between Tishri 1 of 871 BC and the day before Nisan 1 of the 870 BC. For calculation purposes, this should be taken as the Judean year beginning in Tishri of 871/870 BC, or more 871 BC, his death occurred at some time between Nisan 1 of 848 BC and Tishri 1 of that same BC year, i.e. in the Judean regnal year 849/848 BC, which for calculation purposes can be taken as 849 BC. The king's name in the oath jumping Jehosaphat was popularized by the name's utility as a euphemism for Jesus and Jehovah.
The phrase, spelled "Jumpin' Geehosofat", is first recorded in the 1865-1866 novel The Headless Horseman by Thomas Mayne Reid. The novel uses "Geehosofat", standing alone, as an exclamation; the longer version "By the shaking, jumping ghost of Jehosaphat" is seen in the 1865 novel Paul Peabody by Percy Bolingbroke St John. Another theory is that the reference is to Joel 3, where the prophet Joel says, speaking of the judgment of the dead, "Assemble yourselves, come, all ye heathen, gather yourselves together round about: thither cause thy mighty ones to come down, O LORD. Let the heathen be wakened, come up to the valley of Jehoshaphat: for there will I sit to judge all the heathen round about." In the 1956 Warner Brothers Merrie Melodies theatrical cartoon short, Yankee Dood It, based on the fairy tale of The Elves and the Shoemaker, Jehosephat figures prominently as an invocation to turn elves into mice. On the TV series Car 54, Where Are You?, the character Francis Muldoon cite