New Marlborough, Massachusetts
New Marlborough is a town in Berkshire County, United States. It is part of Massachusetts Metropolitan Statistical Area; the population was 1,509 at the 2010 census. New Marlborough consists of five villages: Clayton, Mill River, New Marlborough Village and Southfield. New Marlborough was first settled in 1738 as one of the four townships opened along the road between Sheffield and Westfield; the town was incorporated in 1775, named for Marlborough, Massachusetts. The town grew as a combination of agriculture in the area around the town center, mills along the rivers in town. Today it is rural, with little industry. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 47.9 square miles, of which 46.9 square miles is land and 1.0 square mile, or 2.12%, is water. New Marlborough is bordered on the north by Monterey, on the east by Sandisfield, on the south by Norfolk and North Canaan, Connecticut, on the west by Sheffield, on the northwest by Great Barrington. New Marlborough is located 26 miles south of Pittsfield, 42 miles west of Springfield and 128 miles west-southwest of Boston.
New Marlborough is located in the lower Berkshires, dotted by several peaks. Several rivers, including the Konkapot River, Umpachene River, Whiting River, flow through the town, all of which feed into the Housatonic River. There are several swamps and ponds, including Lake Buel on the Monterey line, the Thousand Acre Swamp in the southeast corner; the swamp lies along the border of Campbells Falls State Park, named for the falls along the Whiting River. Parts of Sandisfield State Forest lie in the town; the town lies along Massachusetts Route 183, which passes from Lenox and Great Barrington towards Sandisfield and the Connecticut border. For the northern half of the route, Route 183 is combined with Route 57, which splits near the geographic center of town to head east towards Sandisfield and its eventual terminus in Agawam; the nearest interstate, Interstate 90 passes several miles north of the town, with the nearest exit, Exit 2 in Lee, being 15 miles away. The nearest bus service is in Great Barrington, the nearest rail service is in Pittsfield.
The nearest small airport is in Great Barrington, with the nearest national air service being at Bradley International Airport in Windsor Locks, Connecticut. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,494 people, 582 households, 403 families residing in the town. By population, the town ranks 17th out of the 32 cities and towns in Berkshire County, 307th out of the 351 cities and towns in Massachusetts; the population density was 31.7 people per square mile, which ranks 23rd in the county and 329th in the Commonwealth. There were 963 housing units at an average density of 20.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.52% White, 1.67% African American, 0.13% Asian, 0.13% from other races, 0.54% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.14% of the population. There were 582 households out of which 28.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.1% were married couples living together, 6.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.6% were non-families.
25.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.88. In the town, the population was spread out with 24.7% under the age of 18, 6.6% from 18 to 24, 25.2% from 25 to 44, 29.0% from 45 to 64, 14.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 106.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 104.5 males. The median income for a household in the town was $46,875, the median income for a family was $56,944. Males had a median income of $34,205 versus $25,972 for females; the per capita income for the town was $25,658. About 3.7% of families and 6.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.7% of those under age 18 and 7.1% of those age 65 or over. New Marlborough employs the open town meeting form of government, is led by a board of selectmen and an executive assistant; the town has its own police and public works departments.
The town library, located in Mill River, is connected to the regional library network, the town has two post offices, in Mill River and Southfield. The nearest hospital, Fairview Hospital, is in neighboring Great Barrington. On the state level, New Marlborough is represented in the Massachusetts House of Representatives by the Fourth Berkshire district, which covers southern Berkshire County, as well as the westernmost towns in Hampden County. In the Massachusetts Senate, the town is represented by the Berkshire and Franklin district, which includes all of Berkshire County and western Hampshire and Franklin counties; the town is patrolled by the First Station of Barracks "B" of the Massachusetts State Police. On the national level, New Marlborough is represented in the United States House of Representatives as part of Massachusetts's 1st congressional district, has been represented by Richard Neal of Springfield since January 2013. Massachusetts is represented in the United States Senate by senators Elizabeth Warren and Ed Markey.
New Marlborough is one of five towns. Students attend the New Marlborough Central School from pre-kindergarten through fourth grades
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Utica, New York
Utica is a city in the Mohawk Valley and the county seat of Oneida County, New York, United States. The tenth-most-populous city in New York, its population was 62,235 in the 2010 U. S. census. Located on the Mohawk River at the foot of the Adirondack Mountains, Utica is 95 miles northwest of Albany, 55 mi east of Syracuse and 240 miles northwest of New York City. Utica and the nearby city of Rome anchor the Utica–Rome Metropolitan Statistical Area, which comprises all of Oneida and Herkimer counties. A river settlement inhabited by the Mohawk tribe of the Iroquois Confederacy, Utica attracted European-American settlers from New England during and after the American Revolution. In the 19th century, immigrants strengthened its position as a layover city between Albany and Syracuse on the Erie and Chenango Canals and the New York Central Railroad. During the 19th and 20th centuries, the city's infrastructure contributed to its success as a manufacturing center and defined its role as a worldwide hub for the textile industry.
Utica's 20th-century political corruption and organized crime gave it the nickname "Sin City."Like other Rust Belt cities, Utica underwent an economic downturn beginning in the mid-20th century. The downturn consisted of industrial decline due to globalization and the closure of textile mills, population loss caused by the relocation of jobs and businesses to suburbs and to Syracuse, poverty associated with socioeconomic stress and a decreased tax base. With its low cost of living, the city has become a melting pot for refugees from war-torn countries around the world, encouraging growth for its colleges and universities, cultural institutions and economy. Several theories exist regarding the history of the name "Utica". Although surveyor Robert Harpur stated that he named the village, the most accepted theory involves a 1798 meeting at Bagg's Tavern where the name was picked from a hat holding 13 suggestions. Utica was included because Utica is a city of antiquity: several other upstate New York cities had adopted classical Mediterranean city names earlier, such as Troy and Rome, or would as with Syracuse.
Utica was established on the site of Old Fort Schuyler, built by English colonists for defense in 1758 during the French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War against France. Prior to construction of the fort, the Mohawk and Oneida tribes had occupied this area south of the Great Lakes region as early as 4000 BC; the Mohawk were the largest and most powerful tribe in the eastern part of the Mohawk Valley. Colonists had a longstanding fur trade with them, in exchange for firearms and rum; the tribe's dominating presence in the region prevented the Province of New York from expanding past the middle of the Mohawk Valley until after the American Revolutionary War, when the Iroquois were forced to cede their lands as allies of the defeated British. The land housing Old Fort Schuyler was part of a 20,000 acres portion of marshland granted by King George II to New York governor William Cosby on January 2, 1734. Since the fort was located near several trails, its position—on a bend at a shallow portion of the Mohawk River—made it an important fording point.
The Mohawk called the bend Unundadages, the Mohawk word appears on the city's seal. During the American Revolution, border raids from British-allied Iroquois tribes harried the settlers on the frontier. George Washington ordered Sullivan's Expedition, Rangers, to enter Central New York and suppress the Iroquois threat. More than 40 Iroquois villages were destroyed and their winter stores, causing starvation. In the aftermath of the war, numerous European-American settlers migrated into the state and this western region from New England Connecticut. In 1794 a state road, Genesee Road, was built from Utica west to the Genesee River; that year a contract was awarded to the Mohawk Turnpike and Bridge Company to extend the road northeast to Albany, in 1798 it was extended. The Seneca Turnpike was key to Utica's development; the village became a rest and supply area along the Mohawk River for goods and the many people moving through Western New York to and from the Great Lakes. The boundaries of the village of Utica were defined in an act passed by the New York State Legislature on April 3, 1798.
Utica expanded its borders in subsequent 1817 charters. On April 5, 1805, the village's eastern and western boundaries were expanded, on April 7, 1817, Utica separated from Whitestown on its west. After completion of the Erie Canal in 1825, the city's growth was stimulated again; the municipal charter was passed by the state legislature on February 13, 1832. The city's growth during the 19th century is indicated by the increase in its population. Utica's location on the Erie and Chenango canals encouraged industrial development, allowing the transport of anthracite from northeastern Pennsylvania for local manufacturing and distribution. Utica's economy centered around the manufacture of furniture, heavy machinery and lumber; the combined effects of the Embargo Act of 1807 and local investment enabled further expansion of the textile industry. Like other upstate New York cities, mills in Utica processed cotton from the Deep South, a slave society. Much of the New York economy was involved with slavery.
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Utica Psychiatric Center
The Utica Psychiatric Center known as Utica State Hospital, opened in Utica on January 16, 1843. It was New York's first state-run facility designed to care for the mentally ill, one of the first such institutions in the United States, it was called the New York State Lunatic Asylum at Utica. The Greek Revival structure was designed by Captain William Clarke and its construction was funded by the state and by contributions from Utica residents; the original plans for the hospital included four identical buildings, set at right angles to one another with a central courtyard. Due to a lack of funds, construction was halted; this building stands over 50 feet high, 550 feet long, nearly 50 feet in depth. The six Greek style columns that decorate the front of Old Main stand at 48 feet tall and each has an eight-foot diameter; the hospital filled and more beds were needed, so the building was enlarged by the addition of wings on either end. These wings opened in 1846, in 1850, the accommodations were listed as: "380 single rooms for patients, 24 for their attendants, 20 dormitories each accommodating from 5 to 12 persons, 16 parlors or day rooms, 12 dining rooms, 24 bathing rooms, 24 closets and 24 water closets."The hospital's first director, Amariah Brigham, believed in "labor as the most essential of our curative means".
Accordingly, patients were encouraged to participate in outdoor tasks, such as gardening, handicrafts, such as needlework and carpentry. Brigham introduced an annual fair at the hospital, to display and sell items created by the patients; the first fair, in 1844, raised $200, which went toward an addition to the library, musical instruments and a greenhouse. Some of the asylum inmates printed a newsletter, called The Opal, which contained articles and drawings produced by the patients. In 1852, Old Main's first floor stairway caught fire. Patients and staff were safely evacuated, but a firefighter and doctor were killed while trying to salvage items from the building; the entire center portion of the building was destroyed. Four days after the fire at Old Main, a barn on the asylum grounds caught fire. William Spiers, a convicted arsonist, former patient, sporadic employee, was arrested after admitting to setting both fires because he was angry with his supervisor. In 1844, Brigham founded the first English language journal devoted to the subject of mental illness, American Journal of Insanity.
Brigham was the editor-in-chief, the journal was printed in the Utica State Hospital printing shop. After Brigham's death, the journal became the property of the hospital and in 1894, the American Medico-Psychological Association bought the journal for $994.50. The book was renamed the American Psychiatric Journal. Brigham disliked the current practice of using chains to restrain patients, invented the'Utica Crib' as an alternative; the Utica Crib was an ordinary bed with a thick mattress on the bottom, slats on the sides, a hinged top that could be locked from the outside. It was eighteen inches deep, six feet long, three feet wide. Doctors used the Utica Crib to calm patients who were out of control. While use of the Utica Crib was criticized, some patients found it to have important therapeutic value. A patient who slept in the Utica crib for several days commented that he had rested better and found it useful for "all crazy fellows as I, whose spirit is willing, but whose flesh is weak."In the Edinburgh Medical Journal, Dr. Lindsay and other physicians at the Murray Royal Institution at Perth recommended the Utica Crib.
Lindsay stated that "the bed was practical and safe to patients." However, Dr. Hammond and Dr. Mycert of the Utica State Hospital attacked the Utica Crib. Mycert stated that "the crib is at most barbarous and unscientific because there is a tendency to determine the blood to the brain in excited forms of insanity, released by the horizontal position in the crib and struggles the patient." Mycert compared the Utica Crib to a coffin. Hammond stated; some of these deaths occurred when attendants thought that the patient was out of control when, in fact, they were having a heart attack, a stroke, or some other type of serious health problem. On January 18, 1887, with the help of George Alder Blumer, all Utica Cribs were removed from the Utica State Hospital. A Secret Institution, a 19th-century autobiographical narrative, describes Clarissa Caldwell Lathrop's institutionalization at the asylum for voicing suspicions that someone was trying to poison her. In 1977, the last patients were transferred to other care facilities and the hospital was closed.
It is now an unoccupied, run-down building, being used as a records archive for the New York State Office of Mental Health. Other, more modern, buildings on the large property are in use for psychiatric and other medical care, it has been a National Historic Landmark since 1989. Clarissa Caldwell Lathrop James Bailey Silkman Utica State Psychiatric Hospital Photos Before Demolition of the Wings Utica State Psychiatric Hospital Photos During Demolition of the Wings Cribs and Baskets
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Ebenezer Kingsbury Hunt
Ebenezer Kingsbury Hunt was a prominent physician in Hartford, Connecticut. Ebenezer Kingsbury Hunt was born in Connecticut. Hunt's parents were Sybil Hunt, he was educated in the schools of Middletown and Amherst, Massachusetts and graduated from Yale College in 1833, where he was a member of the Linonian Society. He studied medicine at the Jefferson Medical College, receiving his M. D. in 1838. Hunt became a prominent physician in Hartford, President of the Connecticut State Medical Society in 1864 and 1865, director and medical visitor of the Connecticut Retreat for the Insane, physician to the Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb. On June 13, 1848, he married a daughter of Daniel P. Crosby of Hartford. Together and Mary were the parents of four children, including: Louise Hunt, who married J. Benjamin Dimmick. Jeannette Hunt, who married George Goodwin Williams. Sarah Crosby Hunt, who died young. Mary Sibyl Hunt, who died young. Hunt died in Hartford on May 2, 1889; the E. K. Hunt Chair of Anatomy at Yale University is named after him.
Hunt, Ebenezer Kingsbury. A Biographical Sketch of Amariah Brigham, M. D. late superintendent of the New York State Lunatic Asylum, Utica, N. Y. Utica, New York: W. O. McClure. ISBN 978-0-7950-0780-4. Retrieved 2011-07-13. Concerning the American psychiatrist Amariah Brigham Hunt, Ebenezer Kingsbury. Biographical sketch of George Sumner, M. D. Esquirol, Étienne. Mental maladies. Translated from the French by Ebenezer Kingsbury Hunt. Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard. Retrieved 2011-07-13. Esquirol, Étienne. Mental maladies. Translated from the French by Ebenezer Kingsbury Hunt. Charleston, South Carolina: Nabu Press. ISBN 978-1-172-76513-3. A reprint of the 1845 book. Psychiatric hospital History of psychiatric institutions Works by or about Ebenezer Kingsbury Hunt at Internet Archive Connecticut State Medical Society Ebenezer Kingsbury Hunt at Find a Grave