Michael Gordon Oldfield is an English multi-instrumentalist and composer. His work blends progressive rock with world, classical, electronic and new-age music, his biggest commercial success is the 1973 album Tubular Bells – which launched Virgin Records and became a hit in America after its opening was used as the theme for the film The Exorcist. He recorded the 1983 hit single "Moonlight Shadow" and a rendition of the Christmas piece "In Dulci Jubilo". Oldfield has released more than 20 albums with the most recent being a sequel to his 1975 album Ommadawn titled Return to Ommadawn, released on 20 January 2017. Oldfield was born on 15 May 1953 at Battle Hospital in Reading, Berkshire to father Raymond Oldfield, a general practitioner, mother Maureen, a nurse, his elder siblings Sally and Terry Oldfield became musicians who performed on several of their brother's albums. A younger brother David, who had Down syndrome, died in infancy. Oldfield attended St Joseph's Convent School, Highlands Junior School, St Edward's Preparatory School, followed by Presentation College in Reading.
At thirteen, the family moved to Harold Wood and attended Hornchurch Grammar School, having displayed musical talent, took one GCE examination in English. Oldfield began to play the guitar at age ten, learning technique by copying instrumentals by Bert Jansch and John Renbourn that he played on a portable record player, he once attempted to learn musical notation and became a "very slow" learner. But I don't like to". By the time he was twelve, Oldfield was performing in local folk clubs, earning as much as £4 per gig. In his early teens Oldfield joined a beat group. In 1967, Oldfield and his sister Sally formed the folk duo The Sallyangie and, after exposure in the local folk scene, signed to Transatlantic Records, their only album, Children of the Sun, was released in 1969. After they split in the following year, Oldfield formed a rock duo with his brother named Barefoot; this was followed by Oldfield joining The Whole World, the backing band for Soft Machine vocalist Kevin Ayers, playing bass and occasional lead guitar.
He and Ayers shared a flat for a time at the northern end of the Seven Sisters Road in north London. Oldfield went on to play on Ayers's albums Shooting at the Moon and Whatevershebringswesing, both of which were recorded at Abbey Road Studios where Oldfield familiarised himself with various instruments in the studio such as orchestral percussion, piano and harpsichord; the band included keyboardist and composer David Bedford, who befriended Oldfield and offered encouragement to complete Tubular Bells. Oldfield was the reserve guitarist for a production of the rock musical Hair at the Shaftesbury Theatre, playing with Alex Harvey. Oldfield grew bored of the job after ten performances in and was fired after he decided to play his part for "Let the Sunshine In" in a 7/8 time. Having recorded sections of this early version of Tubular Bells as demo pieces, Oldfield attempted to persuade record labels to take on the Tubular Bells project. Nothing came of his efforts until September 1971, when as a session musician and bass guitarist for the Arthur Louis Band, he attended recording sessions at The Manor Studio near Kidlington, owned by a young Richard Branson and run by engineers Tom Newman and Simon Heyworth.
Branson had several business ventures and was about to start his own record label, Virgin Records, together with Simon Draper. Newman and Heyworth heard some of Oldfield's demo music and took it to Branson and Draper, who gave Oldfield one week's worth of recording time at The Manor. During this week, he completed "Part One" of Tubular Bells. At nineteen Oldfield signed a six-album deal with Virgin Records, a new label established by Richard Branson and Simon Draper, with an additional four as optional. Tubular Bells is Oldfield's most famous work; the instrumental composition was recorded in 1972 and released on 25 May 1973 as the inaugural album on Virgin. Oldfield played more than twenty different instruments in the multi-layered recording, its style moved through diverse musical genres, its 2,630,000 UK sales puts it at No. 34 on the list of the best-selling albums in the country. The title track became a top 10 hit single in the US after the opening was used in The Exorcist film in 1973, it is today considered to be a forerunner of the new-age music movement.
In 1974, Oldfield played the guitar on the critically acclaimed album Rock Bottom by Robert Wyatt. In late 1974, his follow-up LP, Hergest Ridge, was No. 1 in the UK for three weeks before being dethroned by Tubular Bells. Although Hergest Ridge was released over a year after Tubular Bells, it reached No. 1 first. Tubular Bells spent 11 weeks at No. 2 before its one week at the top. Like Tubular Bells, Hergest Ridge is a two-movement instrumental piece, this time evoking scenes from Oldfield's Herefordshire country retreat, it was followed in 1975 by the pioneering world music piece Ommadawn released after the death of his mother Maureen. In 1975, Oldfield recorded a version of the Christmas piece "In Dulci Jubilo" which charted at No. 4 in the UK. In 1975, Oldfield received a Grammy award for Best Instrumental Composition in "Tubular Bells – Theme from The Exorcist". In 1976, Oldfield and his sister joined his friend and band member Pekka Pohjola to play on his album Mathematician's Air Display, released in 1977.
The album was recorded and edited at Oldfield's Througham Slad Manor in Gloucestershire by Oldfield and Paul Lindsay. Oldfield's 1976 rendition of "Portsmouth" remains his best-performing single on the UK Singles
KDE is an international free software community developing Free and Open Source software. As a central development hub, it provides tools and resources that allow collaborative work on this kind of software. Well-known products include the Plasma Desktop, KDE Frameworks and a range of cross-platform applications like Krita or digikam designed to run on Unix and Unix-like desktops, Microsoft Windows and Android. Being one of KDE's most recognized projects, the Plasma Desktop is the official / default desktop environment on many Linux distributions, such as openSUSE, Mageia, OpenMandriva, Kubuntu, KaOS and PCLinuxOS; the KDE community and its work can be measured in the following figures: KDE is one of the largest active Free Software communities. More than 2500 contributors participate in developing KDE software. About 20 new developers contribute their first code each month. KDE software consists of over 6 million lines of code. KDE software has been translated into over 108 languages. KDE software is available on more than 114 official FTP mirrors in over 34 countries.
A read-only mirror of all repositories can be found on Github. There are many free software projects maintained by the KDE community; the project known as KDE or KDE SC nowadays consists of three parts: KDE Plasma, a platform UI that provides the base for different workspaces like Plasma Desktop or Plasma Mobile KDE Frameworks, a collection of more than 70 free-to-use libraries built on top of Qt KDE Applications KDE Plasma is a user interface technology that can be adjusted to run on various form factors like desktops, netbooks and smartphones or embedded devices. The brand Plasma for the graphical workspaces has been introduced from KDE SC 4.4 onwards. During the fourth series there have been two additional workspaces besides the Plasma 4 Desktop called Plasma Netbook and Plasma Active; the latest KDE Plasma 5 features the following workspaces: Plasma Desktop for any mouse or keyboard driven computing devices like desktops or laptops Plasma Mobile for smartphones Plasma Minishell for embedded and touch-enabled devices, like IoT or automotive Plasma Media Center for TVs and set-top boxes KDE Frameworks provide more than 70 free and open-source libraries built on top of Qt.
Starting with Qt 5, this platform was transformed into a set of modules, now referred to as KDE Frameworks. These modules include: Solid, Phonon, etc. and are licensed either under the LGPL, BSD license, MIT License or X11 license. KDE Applications is a bundle of software, part of the official KDE Applications release. Like Okular, Dolphin or KDEnlive, they are built on KDE Frameworks and released on a 4 months schedule with the version numbering consisting of YY. MM. Software, not part of the official KDE Applications bundle can be found in the "Extragear" section, they feature their own versioning numbers. There are many standalone applications like KTorrent, Krita or Amarok that are designed to be portable between operating systems and deployable independent of a particular workspace or desktop environment; some brands consist of multiple applications, such as KDE Kontact. KDE neon is a software repository, it aims to provide the users with updated Qt and KDE software, while updating the rest of the OS components from the Ubuntu repositories at the normal pace.
KDE maintains that it is not a "KDE distribution," but rather an up-to-date archive of KDE and Qt packages. There is two "Developer" editions of KDE Neon. WikiToLearn, abbreviated WTL, is one of KDE's newer endeavors, it is a wiki that provides a platform to share open source textbooks. The idea is to have a massive library of textbooks for anyone and everyone to create, its roots lay in University of Milan, where a group of physics majors wanted to share notes—then decided that it was for everyone and not just their internal friend group. They have become an official KDE project with several universities backing it. Like many free/open source projects, developing KDE software is a volunteer effort, although various companies, such as Novell, Nokia, or Blue Systems employ or employed developers to work on various parts of the project. Since a large number of individuals contribute to KDE in various ways (e.g. code
Windows Media Audio
Windows Media Audio is a series of audio codecs and their corresponding audio coding formats developed by Microsoft. It is a proprietary technology. WMA consists of four distinct codecs; the original WMA codec, known as WMA, was conceived as a competitor to the popular MP3 and RealAudio codecs. WMA Pro, a newer and more advanced codec, supports high resolution audio. A lossless codec, WMA Lossless, compresses audio data without loss of audio fidelity. WMA Voice, targeted at voice content, applies compression using a range of low bit rates. Microsoft has developed a digital container format called Advanced Systems Format to store audio encoded by WMA; the first WMA codec was based on earlier work by Henrique Malvar and his team, transferred to the Windows Media team at Microsoft. Malvar was a senior researcher and manager of the Signal Processing Group at Microsoft Research, whose team worked on the MSAudio project; the first finalized codec was referred to as MSAudio 4.0. It was officially released as Windows Media Audio, as part of Windows Media Technologies 4.0.
Microsoft claimed that WMA could produce files that were half the size of equivalent-quality MP3 files. The former claim however was rejected by some audiophiles. RealNetworks challenged Microsoft's claims regarding WMA's superior audio quality compared to RealAudio. Newer versions of WMA became available: Windows Media Audio 2 in 1999, Windows Media Audio 7 in 2000, Windows Media Audio 8 in 2001, Windows Media Audio 9 in 2003. Microsoft first announced its plans to license WMA technology to third parties in 1999. Although earlier versions of Windows Media Player played WMA files, support for WMA file creation was not added until the seventh version. In 2003, Microsoft released new audio codecs; these codecs were Windows Media Audio 9 Professional, Windows Media Audio 9 Lossless, Windows Media Audio 9 Voice. All versions of WMA released since version 9.0 - namely 9.1, 9.2 and 10 - have been backwards compatible with the original v9 decoder and are therefore not considered separate codecs. The sole exception to this is the WMA 10 Professional codec whose Low Bit Rate mode is only backwards compatible with the older WMA Professional decoders at half sampling rate.
Full fidelity decoding of WMA 10 Professional LBR bitstreams requires a WMA version 10 or newer decoder. A WMA file is in most circumstances contained in the Advanced Systems Format, a proprietary Microsoft container format for digital audio or digital video; the ASF container format specifies how metadata about the file is to be encoded, similar to the ID3 tags used by MP3 files. Metadata may include song name, track number, artist name, audio normalization values; this container can optionally support digital rights management using a combination of elliptic curve cryptography key exchange, DES block cipher, a custom block cipher, RC4 stream cipher and the SHA-1 hashing function. See Windows Media DRM for further information. Since 2008 Microsoft has been using WMA Professional in its Protected Interoperable File Format based on the ISO Base Media File Format and most used for Smooth Streaming, a form of adaptive bit rate streaming over HTTP. Related industry standards such as DECE UltraViolet and MPEG-DASH have not standardized WMA as a supported audio codec, deciding in favor of the more industry-prevalent MPEG and Dolby audio codecs.
Each WMA file features a single audio track in one of the four sub-formats: WMA, WMA Pro, WMA Lossless, or WMA Voice. These formats use different codes that are mutually incompatible; each codec is further explained below. Windows Media Audio is the most common codec of the four WMA codecs. Colloquial usage of the term WMA in marketing materials and device specifications refers to this codec only; the first version of the codec released in 1999 is regarded as WMA 1. In the same year, the bit stream syntax, or compression algorithm, was altered in minor ways and became WMA 2. Since newer versions of the codec have been released, but the decoding process remained the same, ensuring compatibility between codec versions. WMA is a lossy audio codec based on the study of psychoacoustics. Audio signals that are deemed to be imperceptible to the human ear are encoded with reduced resolution during the compression process. WMA can encode audio signals sampled at up to 48 kHz with up to two discrete channels.
WMA 9 introduced variable bit rate and average bit rate coding techniques into the MS encoder although both were technically supported by the original format. WMA 9.1 added support for low-delay audio, which reduces latency for encoding and decoding. Fundamentally, WMA is a transform coder based on modified discrete cosine transform, somewhat similar to AAC, Cook and Vorbis; the bit stream of WMA is composed of each containing 1 or more frames of 2048 samples. If the bit reservoir is not used, a frame is equal to a superframe; each frame contains a number of blocks, which are 128, 256, 512, 1024, or 2048 samples long after being transformed into the frequency domain via the MDCT. In the frequency domain, masking for the transformed samples is determined, used to requantize the samples; the floating point samples are decomposed into coefficient and exponent parts and independently huffman coded. Stereo information is mid/side coded. At low bit rates, line spectral pairs and a form of noise codin
Last.fm is a music website, founded in the United Kingdom in 2002. Using a music recommender system called "Audioscrobbler", Last.fm builds a detailed profile of each user's musical taste by recording details of the tracks the user listens to, either from Internet radio stations, or the user's computer or many portable music devices. This information is transferred to Last.fm's database either via the music player itself or via a plug-in installed into the user's music player. The data is displayed on the user's profile page and compiled to create reference pages for individual artists. On 30 May 2007, it was acquired by CBS Interactive for UK£140 million; the site offered a radio streaming service, discontinued on 28 April 2014. The ability to access the large catalogue of music stored on the site was removed replaced by links to YouTube and Spotify where available; the current Last.fm website was developed from two separate sources: Last.fm and Audioscrobbler, which were merged in 2005. Audioscrobbler began as a computer science project of Richard Jones when he attended the University of Southampton School of Electronics and Computer Science in the United Kingdom, with the term scrobbling defined as the finding and distribution of information involving people and other data.
Jones developed the first plugins, opened an API to the community, after which many music players on different operating system platforms were supported. Audioscrobbler was limited to keeping track of which songs its users played on a registered computer, which allowed for charting and collaborative filtering. Last.fm was founded in 2002 by Felix Miller, Martin Stiksel, Michael Breidenbruecker and Thomas Willomitzer, all of them from Germany or Austria, as an internet radio station and music community site, using similar music profiles to generate dynamic playlists. The site name takes advantage of a domain hack using.fm, the top level domain of Micronesia, popular with FM radio related sites. The "love" and "ban" buttons allowed users to customise their profiles. Last.fm won the Europrix 2002 and was nominated for the Prix Ars Electronica in 2003. The Audioscrobbler and Last.fm teams began to work together, both teams moving into the same offices in Whitechapel, by 2003 Last.fm was integrated with Audioscrobbler profiles.
Input could come through a Last.fm station. The sites shared many community forums, although a few were unique to each site; the old Audioscrobbler site at the audioscrobbler.com domain name was wholly merged into the new Last.fm site on 9 August 2005. Audioscrobbler.net was launched as a separate development-oriented site on 5 September 2005. However, at the bottom of each of the Last.fm pages there was an Audioscrobbler "slogan", which changes each time the page is refreshed. Based on well-known sayings or advertisements, these appeared at the top of the Audioscrobbler website pages and were all created and contributed by the original site members. An update to the site was made on 14 July 2006, which included a new software application for playing Last.fm radio streams and for logging of tracks played with other media players. Other changes included the improvement of the friends system and updating it to require a two-way friendship, the addition of the Last.fm "Dashboard" where users can see on one page relevant information for their profile, expanded options for purchasing music from online retailers and a new visual design for the web site.
The site began expanding its language base on 15 July 2006, with a Japanese version. The site is available in German, French, Polish, Swedish, Russian and Simplified Chinese. In late 2006, the site won Best Community Music Site at the BT Digital Music Awards in October. Last.fm teamed with EMI on Tuneglue-Audiomap. In January 2007 it was nominated for Best Website at the NME Awards. At the end of April 2007, rumours of negotiations between CBS and Last.fm emerged, suggesting that CBS intended to purchase Last.fm for about £225 million. In May 2007 it was announced that Channel 4 Radio was to broadcast a weekly show called Worldwide Chart reflecting what Last.fm users around the world were listening to. On 30 May 2007, it was announced that Last.fm had been bought by CBS for £140 million with Last.fm's current management team staying in place. In July 2008, the "new generation" Last.fm was launched featuring a new layout, color scheme, several new features, as well as some old ones removed. This was, met with dissatisfaction amongst some users, who complained about the "ugly and non-user-friendly layout", slowness.
Still, a month after the redesign a CBS press release credited the redesign with generating a 20% growth in the site's traffic. On 22 February 2009, Techcrunch claimed that " RIAA asked social music service Last.fm for data about its user's listening habits to find people with unreleased tracks on their computers. And Last.fm, owned by CBS handed the data over to the RIAA." This led to several public postings from both Last.fm and Techcrunch, with Last.fm denying passing any personal data to RIAA. The request was purportedly prompted by the leak of U2's then-unreleased album No Line On The Horizon, its subsequent widespread distribution via peer-to-peer file sharing services such as BitTorrent. Three months on 22 May 2009, Techcrunch claimed that it was CBS, the parent company of Last.fm, that handed over the data. Last.fm again denied that this was the case, saying that CBS couldn't have handed over the data withou
A podcast or generically netcast, is an episodic series of digital audio or video files which a user can download in order to listen to. It is available for subscription, so that new episodes are automatically downloaded via web syndication to the user's own local computer, mobile application, or portable media player; the word was suggested by Ben Hammersley as a portmanteau of "iPod" and "broadcast". The files distributed are in audio format, but may sometimes include other file formats such as PDF or EPUB. Videos which are shared following a podcast model are sometimes called video vodcasts; the generator of a podcast maintains a central list of the files on a server as a web feed that can be accessed through the Internet. The listener or viewer uses special client application software on a computer or media player, known as a podcatcher, which accesses this web feed, checks it for updates, downloads any new files in the series; this process can be automated to download new files automatically, which may seem to users as though new episodes are broadcast or "pushed" to them.
Files are stored locally on the user's device, ready for offline use. There are many different mobile applications available for people to use to subscribe and to listen to podcasts. Many of these applications allow users to download podcasts or to stream them on demand as an alternative to downloading. Many podcast players allow listeners to control the playback speed; some have labeled podcasting as a converged medium bringing together audio, the web, portable media players, as well as a disruptive technology that has caused some individuals in the radio business to reconsider established practices and preconceptions about audiences, consumption and distribution. Podcasts are free of charge to listeners and can be created for little to no cost, which sets them apart from the traditional model of "gate-kept" media and production tools. Podcast creators can monetize their podcasts by allowing companies to purchase ad time, as well as via sites such as Patreon, which provides special extras and content to listeners for a fee.
Podcasting is much a horizontal media form – producers are consumers, consumers may become producers, both can engage in conversations with each other. "Podcast" is a portmanteau word, formed by combining "iPod" and "broadcast". The term "podcasting" as a name for the nascent technology was first suggested by The Guardian columnist and BBC journalist Ben Hammersley, who invented it in early February 2004 while "padding out" an article for The Guardian newspaper. Despite the etymology, the content can be accessed using any computer or similar device that can play media files. Use of the term "podcast" predated Apple's addition of formal support for podcasting to the iPod, or its iTunes software. Other names for podcasting include "net cast", intended as a vendor-neutral term without the loose reference to the Apple iPod; this name is used by shows from the TWiT.tv network. Some sources have suggested the backronym "portable on demand" or "POD", for similar reasons. In 2004, former MTV video jockey Adam Curry, in collaboration with Dave Winer – co-author of the RSS specification – is credited with coming up with the idea to automate the delivery and syncing of textual content to portable audio players.
Podcasting, once an obscure method of spreading audio information, has become a recognized medium for distributing audio content, whether for corporate or personal use. Podcasts are similar to radio programs in form, but they exist as audio files that can be played at a listener's convenience, anytime or anywhere; the first application to make this process feasible was iPodderX, developed by August Trometer and Ray Slakinski. By 2007, audio podcasts were doing what was accomplished via radio broadcasts, the source of radio talk shows and news programs since the 1930s; this shift occurred as a result of the evolution of internet capabilities along with increased consumer access to cheaper hardware and software for audio recording and editing. In October 2003, Matt Schichter launched. B. B. King, Third Eye Blind, Gavin DeGraw, The Beach Boys, Jason Mraz were notable guests the first season; the hour long radio show was recorded live, transcoded to 16kbit/s audio for dial-up online streaming. Despite a lack of a accepted identifying name for the medium at the time of its creation, The Backstage Pass which became known as Matt Schichter Interviews is believed to be the first podcast to be published online.
In August 2004, Adam Curry launched his show Daily Source Code. It was a show focused on chronicling his everyday life, delivering news, discussions about the development of podcasting, as well as promoting new and emerging podcasts. Curry published it in an attempt to gain traction in the development of what would come to be known as podcasting and as a means of testing the software outside of a lab setting; the name Daily Source Code was chosen in the hope that it would attract an audience with an interest in technology. Daily Source Code started at a grassroots level of production and was directed at podcast developers; as its audience became interested in the format, these developers were inspired to create and produce their own projects and, as a result, they improved the code used to create podcasts. As more people learned how easy it was to produce podcasts, a community of pioneer podcasters appeared. In June 2005, Apple released iTunes 4.9 which added formal support for podcasts, thus negating the need to use a separate program in order to download and transfer them to a mobile device.
While this made access to podcasts more
Inuit religion is the shared spiritual beliefs and practices of Inuit, an indigenous people from Alaska and Greenland. Their religion shares many similarities with religions of other North Polar peoples. Traditional Inuit religious practices include animism and shamanism, in which spiritual healers mediate with spirits. Today many Inuit follow Christianity, but traditional Inuit spirituality continues as part of a living, oral tradition and part of contemporary Inuit society. Inuit who balance indigenous and Christian theology practice religious syncretism. Inuit cosmology provides the place of people within it. Rachel Attituq Qitsualik writes: The Inuit cosmos is ruled by no one. There are father figures. There are solar creators. There are no eternal punishments in the hereafter, as there are no punishments for children or adults in the here and now. Traditional stories and taboos of the Inuit are precautions against dangers posed by their harsh Arctic environment. Knud Rasmussen asked his guide and friend Aua, an angakkuq, about Inuit religious beliefs among the Iglulingmiut and was told: "We don't believe.
We fear." Authors Inge Kleivan and Birgitte Sonne debate possible conclusions of Aua's words, because the angakkuq was under the influence of Christian missionaries, he converted to Christianity. Their study analyses beliefs of several Inuit groups, concluding that fear was not diffuse. First were unipkaaqs: myths and folktales which took place "back then" in the indefinite past. Among the Canadian Inuit, a spiritual healer is known as an angakkuq or Inuvialuk: ᐊᖓᑦᑯᖅ angatkuq; the duties of an angakkuq includes helping the community when marine animals, kept by Takanaluk-arnaluk or Sea Woman in a pit in her house, become scarce, according to the Aua, an informant and friend of the anthropologist Rasmussen. Aua described the ability of an apprentice angakkuq to see himself as a skeleton, naming each part using the specific shaman language; the Inuit at Amitsoq Lake had other prohibitions for sewing certain items. Boot soles, for example, could only be sewn far away from settlements in designated places.
Children at Amitsoq once had a game called tunangusartut in which they imitated the adults behavior towards the spirits reciting the same verbal formulae as angakkuit. According to Rasmussen, this game was not considered offensive because a "spirit can understand the joke." The homelands of the Netsilik Inuit have long winters and stormy springs. Starvation was a common danger. While other Inuit cultures feature protective guardian powers, the Netsilik have traditional beliefs that life's hardships stemmed from the extensive use of such measures. Unlike the Iglulik Inuit, the Netsilik used a large number of amulets. Dogs could have amulets. In one recorded instance, a young boy had 80 amulets, so many. One particular man had 17 names intended to protect him. Tattooing among Netsilik women provided power and could affect which world they went to after their deaths. Nuliajuk, the Sea Woman, was described as "the lubricous one". If the people breached certain taboos, she held marine animals in the tank of her lamp.
When this happened the angakkuq had to visit her to beg for game. In Netsilik oral history, she was an orphan girl mistreated by her community. Moon Man, another cosmic being, is benevolent towards humans and their souls as they arrived in celestial places; this belief differs from that of the Greenland Inuit, in which the Moon’s wrath could be invoked by breaking taboos. Sila associated with weather, is conceived of as a power contained within people. Among the Netsilik, Sila was imagined as male; the Netsilik believed Sila was a giant baby whose parents died fighting giants. Caribou Inuit is a collective name for several groups of inland Alaskan Natives living in an area bordered by the tree line and the west shore of Hudson Bay, they do not form a political unit and maintain only loose contact, but they share an inland lifestyle and some cultural unity. In the recent past, the Padlermiut took; the Caribou have a dualistic concept of the soul. The soul associated with respiration is called umaffia and the personal soul of a child is called tarneq.
The tarneq is considered so weak. The presence of the ancestor in the body of the child was felt to contribute to a more gentle behavior among boys; this belief amounted to a form of reincarnation. Because of their inland lifestyle, the Caribou have no belief concerning a Sea Woman. Other cosmic beings, named Sila or Pinga, control the caribou, as opposed to marine animals; some groups have made a distinction between the two figures, while others have considered them the same. Sacrificial offerings to them could promote luck in hunting. Caribou angakkuit performed fortune-telling through qilaneq, a technique of asking questions to a qila; the angakkuq raised his staff and belt over it. The qila entered the glove and drew the staff to itself. Qilaneq was practiced among several other Alaskan Native groups and provided "yes" or "no" answers to questions. Spiritual beliefs and practices among Inuit are diverse, just like the cultures themselves. Similar remarks apply for other beliefs: term silap inua / sila, hillap inua / hilla (among Inuit
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed and sold by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Active Windows families include Windows Embedded. Defunct Windows families include Windows Mobile and Windows Phone. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985, as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces. Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh. On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system. However, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones.
In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold was less than 25 %. This comparison however may not be relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. Still, numbers for server use of Windows show one third market share, similar to that for end user use; as of October 2018, the most recent version of Windows for PCs, tablets and embedded devices is Windows 10. The most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server 2019. A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One video game console. Microsoft, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks, each of which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry; as of 2014, the following Windows families are being developed: Windows NT: Started as a family of operating systems with Windows NT 3.1, an operating system for server computers and workstations. It now consists of three operating system subfamilies that are released at the same time and share the same kernel: Windows: The operating system for mainstream personal computers and smartphones.
The latest version is Windows 10. The main competitor of this family is macOS by Apple for personal computers and Android for mobile devices. Windows Server: The operating system for server computers; the latest version is Windows Server 2019. Unlike its client sibling, it has adopted a strong naming scheme; the main competitor of this family is Linux. Windows PE: A lightweight version of its Windows sibling, meant to operate as a live operating system, used for installing Windows on bare-metal computers, recovery or troubleshooting purposes; the latest version is Windows PE 10. Windows IoT: Initially, Microsoft developed Windows CE as a general-purpose operating system for every device, too resource-limited to be called a full-fledged computer. However, Windows CE was renamed Windows Embedded Compact and was folded under Windows Compact trademark which consists of Windows Embedded Industry, Windows Embedded Professional, Windows Embedded Standard, Windows Embedded Handheld and Windows Embedded Automotive.
The following Windows families are no longer being developed: Windows 9x: An operating system that targeted consumers market. Discontinued because of suboptimal performance. Microsoft now caters to the consumer market with Windows NT. Windows Mobile: The predecessor to Windows Phone, it was a mobile phone operating system; the first version was called Pocket PC 2000. The last version is Windows Mobile 6.5. Windows Phone: An operating system sold only to manufacturers of smartphones; the first version was Windows Phone 7, followed by Windows Phone 8, the last version Windows Phone 8.1. It was succeeded by Windows 10 Mobile; the term Windows collectively describes any or all of several generations of Microsoft operating system products. These products are categorized as follows: The history of Windows dates back to 1981, when Microsoft started work on a program called "Interface Manager", it was announced in November 1983 under the name "Windows", but Windows 1.0 was not released until November 1985.
Windows 1.0 was to achieved little popularity. Windows 1.0 is not a complete operating system. The shell of Windows 1.0 is a program known as the MS-DOS Executive. Components included Calculator, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Control Panel, Paint, Reversi and Write. Windows 1.0 does not allow overlapping windows. Instead all windows are tiled. Only modal dialog boxes may appear over other windows. Microsoft sold as included Windows Development libraries with the C development environment, which included numerous windows samples. Windows 2.0 was released in December 1987, was more popular than its predecessor. It features several improvements to the user memory management. Windows 2.03 changed the OS from tiled windows to overlapping windows. The result of this change led to Apple Computer filing a suit against Microsoft alleging infringement on Apple's copyrights. Windows 2.0